Publications by authors named "Soottawat Benjakul"

202 Publications

Pulsed electric field assisted process for extraction of bioactive compounds from custard apple (Annona squamosa) leaves.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 28;359:129976. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand. Electronic address:

Impact of pulsed electric field (PEF) assisted process on preparation of custard apple leaf extract (CALE) using ethanol (70%, v/v) was studied. Different electric field strengths (2-6 kV/cm), pulse numbers (100-300 pulses) with specific energies (45-142 kJ/kg) for 2.5 to 5 min were implemented. Cell disintegration index was higher in CALE when PEF 6 kV/cm, 300 pulses, 142 kJ/kg for 5 min was applied. Extraction yield was higher (+5.2%) than the untreated counterpart (13.28%). Chlorophyll A and B contents were negligible in PEF pre-treated CALE. PEF improved radical scavenging activities assessed by DPPH, ABTS radical scavening activities and FRAP. The antibacterial properties of CALE against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were highest. Purpureacin 2 and rutin were abundant in PEF pre-treated CALE. Therefore PEF was the potential aid in augmenting extraction yield and bioactivities of the extract from custard apple leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129976DOI Listing
April 2021

Textural, Sensory, and Chemical Characteristic of Threadfin Bream ( sp.) Surimi Gel Fortified with Bio-Calcium from Bone of Asian Sea Bass ().

Foods 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Center of Excellence in Bio-Based Materials and Packaging Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90110, Thailand.

The effects of Asian sea bass () bio-calcium (ASBB) at different levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) (/) on properties of threadfin bream ( sp.) surimi gel were investigated. ASBB addition increased breaking force and deformation, while reduced expressible moisture content ( < 0.05) of surimi gel. * (lightness), * (redness), and * (yellowness) values were increased with augmenting ASBB levels; however, whiteness slightly decreased in surimi gel incorporated with ASBB ( < 0.05). Higher likeness scores were noticed in surimi gel containing ASBB, compared to that of the control. However, a slight decrease in the likeness score was noticed in surimi gel with 10% (/) ASBB ( < 0.05). Surimi gel added with 8% (/) ASBB possessed the increase in breaking force by 80% from the control and had the highest likeness score. Texture profile analysis of surimi gel added with ASBB showed the improved texture characteristics with coincidentally higher storage modulus of surimi paste. Surimi gel with 8% (/) ASBB had a denser and finer microstructure with higher ash, calcium, and phosphorous contents, compared to the control. Thus, incorporation of bio-calcium up to 8% (/) not only increased mineral content, but also improved textural, sensory, and microstructural properties of surimi gel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050976DOI Listing
April 2021

Optimization of wall material for phage encapsulation via freeze-drying and antimicrobial efficacy of microencapsulated phage against .

J Food Sci Technol 2021 May 19;58(5):1937-1946. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, 90112 Thailand.

Microencapsulated phage as dry powder provides a protection to the phage particles from the harsh conditions while improving efficacy for controlling . In this study, wall materials for phage encapsulation were optimized by altering the ratios of whey protein isolate (WPI) and trehalose prior to freeze-drying. Combination of WPI/trehalose at ratio of 3:1 (w/w) represented the optimal formulation with the highest encapsulation efficiency (91.9%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed H-bonding in the mixture system and glass transition temperature presented at 63.43 °C. Encapsulated form showed the phage survivability of > 90% after 5 h of exposure to pH 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5. Phages in the non-encapsulated form could not survive at pH 1.5. In addition, microencapsulated phage showed high effectiveness in decreasing the numbers of Enteritidis and Typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/ml at 10 °C and 30 °C for both serovars. Phage powder newly developed in this study provides a convenient form for control application and this form exhibits high stability over a wide range of temperatures and pH. This encapsulated phage thus can be used in various food applications without being interfered by physiological acidic or alkaline pH of foods or environments where phages are applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04705-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021682PMC
May 2021

Label-free proteomic analysis revealed the mechanisms of protein oxidation induced by hydroxyl radicals in whiteleg shrimp () muscle.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Health Risk Factors for Seafood of Zhejiang Province, College of Food Science and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University, China.

The oxidative effects of hydroxyl radicals derived from a FeCl3/ascorbic acid/H2O2 system on the stability of muscle proteins in peeled shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. Physicochemical analysis indicated negative effects on the color (a* value), springiness, and pH of shrimp muscle, which appeared to be significantly exacerbated by higher concentrations of generated hydroxyl radicals when compared with the control. The microstructural results confirmed that a radical attack induced the incompact structure and disintegrated myofibers, thereby leading to weakened connective tissues and decreased stability of muscle proteins. Furthermore, label-free proteomic analysis revealed several differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) (i.e., ribosomal protein subunits, putative cytoskeleton proteins, and ion-binding proteins), which were detected and identified in oxidation-treated shrimp when compared with the control. The gene ontology (GO) and eukaryotic clusters of orthologous group (KOG) analyses further confirmed that the active hydroxyl radicals attacked vulnerable amino acids, modified peptide chains, and/or protein structures and/or conformations, which were responsible for a significant decrease in the muscle texture and stability of proteins in oxidation-treated shrimp. This study provides novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of muscle protein changes during oxidation development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00380aDOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles/polyaniline boronic acid/sodium alginate aqueous nanocomposite based on chemical oxidative polymerization for biological applications.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 3;179:196-205. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Analytical Chemistry and Environment Research Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani 94000, Thailand. Electronic address:

Gold nanoparticles/polyaniline boronic acid/sodium alginate aqueous nanocomposite ((PABA-SAL)@AuNPs) was fabricated. Aniline boronic acid (ABA) served as reductant of gold salt, all within the SAL solution. While ABA reduced gold salt to its nanoparticles, the ABA monomer was also oxidized to its conducting polymeric form (PABA). The presence of PABA in the reaction mixture exerted solubility and stability challenge, thus SAL was used as stabilizer and solubilizer for PABA. The numerous cis-diol groups of SAL could bind to boronic acid groups of PABA to furnish PABA-SAL repeating polymer structure for AuNPs anchoring. Sparkling ruby red (PABA-SAL)@AuNPs have absorption peaks at 529 and 718 nm. Average particle sizes of nanocomposite were within 15-20 nm, with hydrodynamic diameter of 48.6 ± 0.9 nm, zeta potential of -32.5 ± 1.6 mV and conductivity value of 2015.3 ± 3.2 μS/cm. (PABA-SAL)@AuNPs possessed antibacterial activities against seafood associated bacterial isolates, with MIC and MBC ranging from 4 to 8 μg/mL. The moderate antioxidant capacity of (PABA-SAL)@AuNPs was observed, without any deleterious damages on human red blood cells. It also has good biocompatibility on Caco-2 and RAW 264.7, with cell viability not less than 70%. These results confirm the high prospect of (PABA-SAL)@AuNPs for possible biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.199DOI Listing
May 2021

Advancements in liposome technology: Preparation techniques and applications in food, functional foods, and bioactive delivery: A review.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Mar;20(2):1280-1306

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation (ICE-SSI), Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

Liposomes play a significant role in encapsulation of various bioactive compounds (BACs), including functional food ingredients to improve the stability of core. This technology can be used for promoting an effective application in functional food and nutraceuticals. Incorporation of traditional and emerging methods for the developments of liposome for loading BACs resulted in viable and stable liposome formulations for industrial applications. Thus, the advance technologies such as supercritical fluidic methods, microfluidization, ultrasonication with traditional methods are revisited. Liposomes loaded with plant and animal BACs have been introduced for functional food and nutraceutical applications. In general, application of liposome systems improves stability, delivery, and bioavailability of BACs in functional food systems and nutraceuticals. This review covers the current techniques and methodologies developed and practiced in liposomal preparation and application in functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12725DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of squid pen chitooligosaccharide and epigallocatechin gallate on discoloration and shelf-life of yellowfin tuna slices during refrigerated storage.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 18;351:129296. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

College of Food and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang, China.

This study evaluated the effects of treatments of squid pen chitooligosaccharide (COS) or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or COS/EGCG mixture (1:1, w/w) at different concentrations (0, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the discoloration and quality changes in yellowfin tuna slices stored at 4 °C for 12 days. Tuna slices added with 200 and 400 mg/kg of COS (C2 and C4, respectively) showed the lowest reduction in oxymyoglobin and a* value (redness) ascertained by the lower metmyoglobin formation than other samples. Additionally, C2 and C4 samples showed a lower total viable count and TBARS value than the remaining samples. EGCG alone and its mixture with COS exhibited lower efficacy in retaining the quality loss than COS alone. COS at both levels effectively reduced the metMb formation. It maintained the redness with sensory acceptability of slices up to 9 days, and C4 sample prolonged shelf-life for 12 days based on the microbiological limit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129296DOI Listing
July 2021

Physical and chemical characteristics of Asian sea bass bio-calcium powders as affected by ultrasonication treatment and drying method.

J Food Biochem 2021 Apr 17;45(4):e13652. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.

The effects of ultrasonication and drying method on particle size and other product characteristics of bio-calcium powder from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) backbone were investigated. Ultrasonication was performed at different amplitudes (60%, 70%, and 80%) for varying periods (15 and 30 min). Ultrasonication at higher amplitudes for a longer time reduced the powder particle size more effectively (p < .05), but had no impact on zeta potential (p > .05). The bio-calcium powder ultrasonicated at 70% amplitude for 15 min had the smallest particle size (3.38 µm) when compared to the control (28.85 µm). When the ultrasonicated bio-calcium was subjected to drying, freeze-drying produced powders with higher calcium solubility but lower whiteness than hot air (tray) drying. The results suggest that the ultrasonication is a potential suitable method to reduce the size of bio-calcium powders, while the drying method slightly affected the product characteristics. The bio-calcium powder could serve as a suitable functional ingredient for food fortification aimed at improving the calcium bioavailability. Particle size of bio-calcium powder from fishbone could affect the mouth feel and calcium solubility when used for food product fortification. This work showed that ultrasonication could be used to obtain up to 10-fold reduction in the particle size of fishbone bio-calcium powders, which promotes increased calcium solubility when subjected to simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion. Few differences in characteristics of the bio-calcium powder were observed for freeze-dried and hot air-dried samples. Thus, an economical, safe, and fast process can be implemented for the production of small particle size bio-calcium powder from fishbone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13652DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of hydrolyzed collagen from defatted Asian sea bass () skin on fibroblast proliferation, migration and antioxidant activities.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Feb 5;58(2):541-551. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110 Thailand.

Hydrolyzed collagen from the defatted Asian sea bass () (Asbs-HC) had high hydrophobic amino acids and imino acids. When fibroblast cell was treated with Asbs-HC, there was no cytotoxicity at any concentrations (25-1000 µg/mL). Asbs-HC at 1000 µg/mL exhibited the highest cell proliferation and cell migration ( < 0.05), indicating wound healing ability. Antioxidative activities of Asbs-HC at different concentrations were determined. ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) increased when Asbs-HC levels augmented up to 1 mg/mL ( < 0.05). Decreased activities in scavenging DPPH radical and chelating metal were found at higher levels of Asbs-HC (0.5 and 1 mg/mL) ( < 0.05). Molecular weight (MW) of peptides in Asbs-HC ranged from 406 to 16,120 Da. Peptide containing MW of 406 Da rendered the highest scavenging activity towards ABTS radical. Thus, Asbs-HC could be applied as antioxidant, skin nourishment and wound healing agents for food/drink fortification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04566-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847840PMC
February 2021

Effect of High Voltage Cold Plasma on Oxidation, Physiochemical, and Gelling Properties of Myofibrillar Protein Isolate from Asian Sea Bass ().

Foods 2021 Feb 4;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand.

The effects of in-bag dielectric barrier discharge high voltage cold plasma (IB-DBD-HVCP) on myofibrillar protein isolate (MPI) from Asian sea bass (ASB) and its impact on the physiochemical and gelling properties of MPI gels were elucidated. A mixture of argon (90%) and oxygen (10%) was used for generating IB-DBD-HVCP. MPI was subjected to IB-DBD-HVCP for varying times (5-15 min). Total carbonyl content was increased, while total sulfhydryl content was decreased in MPI, especially with augmenting treatment time (TT) ( < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity initially increased when IB-DBD-HVCP TT of 5 min (DBD-HVCP5) was implemented, followed by subsequent decrease with increasing TT. Based on gel electrophoresis, lower actin and myosin heavy chain (MHC) band intensities were found for MPI subjected to IB-DBD-HVCP, particularly when a TT longer than 10 min was used, compared to those of the control. Gel made from DBD-HVCP5 had higher breaking force, deformation, and highest G' value compared to others. A more ordered and fibrous network was found in DBD-HVCP5 treated gel. Therefore, IB-DBD-HVCP treatment, particularly for 5 min, enhanced cross-linking of proteins in ASB myofibrillar proteins, which resulted in the improved gel elasticity and strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913640PMC
February 2021

Insights into the similarities and differences of whiteleg shrimp pre-soaked with sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium trimetaphosphate during frozen storage.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 19;348:129134. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.

In this study, similarities and differences of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) pre-soaking on the stability of muscle proteins in shrimp were investigated during 12 weeks of frozen storage (-30 °C). The physicochemical analysis indicated significant improvements in the WHC, springiness, chewiness, and thermal stability of STPP and STMP pre-soaked samples when compared to the control. Interestingly, STMP pre-soaking showed better cryoprotective effects than the STPP treatment when the storage period reached the end of the 12 weeks. Furthermore, the label-free based proteomics results indicated that 62 upregulated differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were detected in STMP when compared to STPP. These identified DAPs specifically included 40S ribosomal proteins, actin-related proteins, heat shock proteins, myosin heavy chain, and tubulin beta chain. Additionally, the gene ontology (GO) and eukaryotic clusters of orthologous group (KOG) analyses verified that the incorporation of STMP molecules enhanced the resistance of cytoskeleton proteins to cold-temperature stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129134DOI Listing
June 2021

Influence of non-phosphate and low-sodium salt marination in combination with tumbling process on properties of chicken breast meat affected by white striping abnormality.

J Food Sci 2021 Feb 12;86(2):319-326. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 113 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand.

This study investigated the effects of non-phosphate and low-sodium (NPLS) marination on properties of white striping chicken breasts (WSCB). Chicken breasts were collected from slaughterhouse and classified as normal (NCB, n = 24) and severe WS (WSCB, n = 120). Sixty WSCB samples were vacuum-tumbled (30 min, 2 °C) with NPLS solution, containing 2.8% (w/v) potassium bicarbonate, 2.9% (w/v) potassium chloride, and 1.5% (w/v) sorbitol at the ratio of meat-to-marinade of 4 to 1 (w/w). The other 60 WSCB received no marination were assigned as nonmarinated WSCB. Properties of marinated (n = 12) and nonmarinated (n = 12) WSCB samples were determined at 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days of the storage at 4 °C. Properties of the NCB were also determined on day 0. Concerning day 0, the marinated WSCB exhibited higher (p < 0.05) pH, moisture content, total cooked yield, protein solubility, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness along with lower (p < 0.05) cooked loss, expressible water, and shear force than those of nonmarinated WSCB and NCB. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, bound, intra-myofibrillar, and extra-myofibrillar water of cooked marinated WSCB were greater (p < 0.05) than those of cooked nonmarinated WSCB. The greater (p < 0.05) weight loss, moisture content, and total cooking yield were observed in marinated samples compared to those of nonmarinated WSCB throughout the storage period. Although microbial stability was reduced (p < 0.05), no difference (p ≥ 0.05) in lipid oxidation was detected between the treatments. The findings suggest the NPLS marination as a promising process for improving water holding capacity of the WSCB. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study presents the promising application of non-phosphate, low-sodium (NPLS) marination combined with vacuum-tumbling in improving water holding capacity of chicken breast meat affected with white striping condition. Although microbial stability of the marinated breast was negatively affected, no adverse impacts on lipid oxidation was observed during storage up to 14 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15565DOI Listing
February 2021

Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) shell chitosan and the conjugate with epigallocatechin gallate: Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jan 29;45(1):e13569. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand.

Chitin was isolated from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) shell by demineralization and deproteinization using 1 M HCl (1:20, w/v) for 2 hr and 1 M NaOH (1:30 w/v) for 80 min at 70ºC, respectively, with 29.96% optimum yield. Thereafter, the chitin was deacetylated at various temperatures for different times, in which the chitosan prepared at 130ºC for 4 hr (CS-130-4) showed higher yield (73.11%), crystallinity index (19.75%), and 85.28% degree of deacetylation (DDA) as measured by H-NMR. CS-130-4 was then conjugated to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) at various concentrations (2-8%, w/w of chitosan). CS-130-4 was grafted with 8% EGCG (CE-8) had the higher conjugation efficiency (92.63%) and antimicrobial/antioxidant activities as compared to other conjugates (p < .05). H-NMR analysis also confirmed the successful conjugation of CE-8. All the conjugates were completely water soluble. Therefore, CE-8 may be used as the natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in various food products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Shrimp shells are generally considered as processing by-products of the shellfish industries and can cause environmental pollution when improperly disposed. Chitosan from shrimp shells has been widely produced but it is soluble mainly in acidic solutions, which limits its applications. However, grafting of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) onto chitosan yielded water-soluble conjugates with enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Although several preservatives have been applied in foods, their health hazards have been a major concern. To mitigate this limitation, chitosan-EGCG conjugates could be employed as alternative natural preservatives or additives for shelf-life extension of various foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13569DOI Listing
January 2021

Ethanolic guava leaf extracts with different chlorophyll removal processes: Anti-melanosis, antibacterial properties and the impact on qualities of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 1;341(Pt 2):128251. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, 999 Phutthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Ethanolic guava leaf extract (EGLE) without chlorophyll removal (GLE-C) and those with chlorophyll removal using sedimentation process (GLE-S) or dechlorophyllization using chloroform (GLE-Ch) were prepared. Antibacterial and anti-melanosis properties of all extracts were examined. All extracts showed promising antibacterial properties, polyphenoloxidase inhibitory activity and copper chelating activity. These activities were highest in GLE-S (P < 0.05). Piceatannol 4'-galloylglucoside, epicatechin, 8-hydroxyluteolin 8-sulfate, quercetin 3-(2''-galloyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside), and aclurin 3-C-(6''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-glucoside) were dominant in GLE-S. When Pacific white shrimp were treated with GLE-S at different concentrations (0.5 and 1%), the quality changes were monitored compared to those treated with 1.25% sodium metabisulphite (SMS-1.25) and the control (without any treatment) during 12 days of storage at 4 °C. Changes in microbial and chemical qualities were lower in shrimps treated with GLE-S solution as compared to others. Therefore, melanosis and quality deterioration were effectively reduced by pretreating shrimps in GLE-S before refrigerated storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128251DOI Listing
March 2021

Ethanolic extract of Betel (Piper betle L.) and Chaphlu (Piper sarmentosum Roxb.) dechlorophyllized using sedimentation process: Production, characteristics, and antioxidant activities.

J Food Biochem 2020 12 5;44(12):e13508. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

Sedimentation process was used to remove chlorophyll from betel leaf ethanolic extracts (BLEE) and chaphlu leaf ethanolic extracts (CLEE). The influence of water quantity on chlorophyll content, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity of the extracts was studied. The sedimentation process showed a remarkable reduction in chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, and total chlorophyll contents of both extracts. Nevertheless, no differences in chlorophyll content, TPC, and antioxidant activities were observed between dechlorophyllized fractions in both extracts (p > .05). Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling showed that the BLEE dechlorophyllized using the extract/water ratio of 1:1 (BLEE-DC1) had higher phenolic compounds than CLEE-DC1. Isovitexin was the most abundant compound identified in the BLEE-DC1 while vitexin 4'-O-galactoside was the most prevalent in CLEE-DC1. When thermal and pH stabilities of the dechlorophyllized extracts were tested, BLEE-DC1 exhibited more heat stability (at 60-100°C for 0-60 min) than CLEE-DC1. Both dechlorophyllized extracts showed optimum antioxidant activities at pH 5.0. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Oxidation process is associated with the numerous human diseases as well as it induces the deteriorative changes in foods, especially those rich in fat or lipid containing high polyunsaturated fatty acids. Numerous synthetic antioxidants have been employed but they may not be safe. Natural antioxidants have gained attention, particularly those from several leaves rich in polyphenols. However, due to the green color caused by chlorophylls, the extract is limited for further applications. Betel leaf ethanolic extract possessing high antioxidant activity could be dechlorophyllized using sedimentation process with the appropriate proportion of water. This green process not only showed the effective removal of chlorophyll, but also increased the proportion of polyphenol in the extract. Greenless betel leaf extract with augmented antioxidant activity can be used as natural additive to replace synthetic counterpart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13508DOI Listing
December 2020

Stability of tuna trypsin-loaded alginate-chitosan beads in acidic stomach fluid and the release of active enzyme in a simulated intestinal tract environment.

J Food Biochem 2020 11 1;44(11):e13455. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand.

Encapsulation properties of trypsin from tonggol tuna (Thunnus tonggol) spleen using different materials including alginate (AG), low and high molecular weight chitosan (LC and HC, respectively), and soy lecithin (SL) were studied. The highest encapsulation efficiency and greatest relative activity were found in AG/LC beads after simulated gastric phase (p < .05). AG/LC encapsulated trypsin was used in simulated in vitro gastrointestinal tract for hydrolysis of sodium caseinate, soy protein isolate and fish mince, in which all protein samples were hydrolyzed as indicated by the increased α-amino group content (p < .05). Higher degradation was attained when beads containing trypsin were added. When AG/LC beads packed in blister pack were stored for 8 weeks at refrigerated temperature, a 26% decrease in activity occurred. Therefore, encapsulated tonggol tuna spleen trypsin can be prepared using AG/LC to withstand structural breakdown in stomach, but be released as an active protease within intestinal tract. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Spleen from tonggol tuna is a by-product, which can be used as a source of trypsin, a proteolytic enzyme. The trypsin that was encapsulated within alginate and low molecular weight chitosan beads was released in the intestinal phase and was retained proteolytic activity. Therefore, this encapsulated trypsin can be packaged in capsules and taken as a supplement to aid protein digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, especially for people that need such digestive aids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13455DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of lysine and arginine on the properties of low-salt mince gel from striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

J Food Sci 2020 Sep 14;85(9):2681-2687. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand.

Effects of basic amino acids, lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), at different levels (0%, 0.5%, and 1%, based on mince weight) on properties of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) mince gel containing low salt (LS) and high salt (HS) were investigated. Without Lys or Arg addition, HS gel had the higher textural properties including hardness, chewiness, as well as cohesiveness than LS gel (P < 0.05) and the highest values were achieved when 1% Arg was incorporated in both LS and HS gels (P < 0.05). Arg had no effect on acceptability of mince gel. However, whiteness was decreased in HS gel when Arg was applied. Autolysis of gel was lower in HS gel containing Arg. No differences in protein patterns among all gel samples were found. Addition of Arg could increase the gelling ability of both LS and HS mince during heating as evidenced by higher storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″). Mince gel added with Arg had orderly interconnected structure and their microstructure was finer than that without Arg. Therefore, Arg could be used in LS gel from striped catfish mince, in which quality of gel was equivalent to HS counterpart. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Basic amino acid, especially arginine (Arg) with guanidinium group, could increase repulsive force between protein molecules at low-salt concentration (0.5%). This resulted in high solubilization of muscle proteins, whereas gel formation or gel strength was higher than that containing high salt (2.5% to 3.5%). Thus, Arg could be used for production of fish mince gel containing low salt with lowered health risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15368DOI Listing
September 2020

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of collagen from clown featherback (Chitala ornata) skin: yield and molecular characteristics.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jan 2;101(2):648-658. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Faculty of Food Industry, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Ladkrabang, 10520, Thailand.

Background: Clown featherback (Chitala ornata) skin, a by-product from the filleting process line, could serve as a good aquatic collagenous source. Nevertheless, the typical collagen extraction method is a time-consuming process providing a relatively low yield. Ultrasound had been reported to be an alternative technique for enhancing the extraction efficiency of several compounds, although the harsh conditions of ultrasound could affect their physicochemical and molecular characteristics. Thus, the application of ultrasonication under appropriate conditions could comprise a promising means for improving the extraction efficiency of collagen from clown featherback skin.

Results: Ultrasonication using different amplitudes (20-80%) and times (10-30 min) was implemented during extraction. An ultrasound-assisted process (UAP) was able to increase the yield of collagen (P ˂ 0.05) and could also result in a collagen purity decrease as evaluated by hydroxyproline content. There was no dramatic change in the solubility of resulting collagens. UAP induced protein degradation, particularly with an increasing amplitude and time, where slight changes in the isoelectric point value of collagen were observed. UAP had no adverse effect on molecular structure, where a triple-helical structure was still retained when an 80% amplitude was employed for 10 min (UAP-80/10-C). The amino acid composition of UAP-80/10-C reconfirmed the unique characteristic of collagen containing imino acid.

Conclusion: An UAP under appropriate conditions could be used to improve the extraction yield with minimal effects on the molecular integrity of the resulting collagen. In addition, fish skin waste from the cutting process line, particularly clown featherback skin, could be exploited as a value-added product, comprising fish skin collagen. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10677DOI Listing
January 2021

Nutraceutical profiling of surimi gel containing β-glucan stabilized virgin coconut oil with and without antioxidants after simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

J Food Sci Technol 2020 Aug 19;57(8):3132-3141. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190006 India.

Surimi gels containing β-glucan stabilized virgin coconut oil (VCO) were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion and the resulting digest was analyzed for nutraceutical properties. β-glucan stabilized VCO nanoemulsion (βG-V-N) remarkably improved antioxidant activities of the surimi digest. When epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was added in nanoemulsion, the surimi digest showed the highest antioxidant activities. Antidiabetic activity of the digest was also improved by the addition of βG-V-N comprising EGCG. Nevertheless, the addition of βG-V-N lowered ACE inhibitory activity of surimi digest. The surimi digest from the gel added with βG-V-N possessed an inhibitory effect on five cancer cell lines including HEK (Human embryonic kidney 293 cells), MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line), U87 (human glioma), HeLa (human cervical cancer), and IMR-32 (human neuroblastoma), regardless of EGCG or α-tocopherol incorporated. This study demonstrated that surimi gel supplemented with βG-V-N in the presence of EGCG exhibited nutraceutical potential and could be used as a functional food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04347-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316897PMC
August 2020

Effect of stabilizing agents on characteristics, antioxidant activities and stability of liposome loaded with hydrolyzed collagen from defatted Asian sea bass skin.

Food Chem 2020 Oct 25;328:127127. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand. Electronic address:

Poor stability of fish hydrolyzed collagen (HC) hampers its applications, especially as food ingredients. The use of liposome as a vesicle can be a potential means to enhance bioactivities and stability of HC. HC from defatted Asian sea bass skin at different levels (0.25%-2%, w/v) were loaded into liposomes prepared from soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) with various stabilizers (cholesterol (CHO) or glycerol (GLY)). The highest encapsulation efficiency (EE) was found in SPC-CHO-0.5%HC (P < 0.05) (85.42%), while liposome stabilized with GLY had the highest EE (74.54%) for SPC-GLY-0.25%HC (P < 0.05). After lyophilization, SPC-CHO-0.5%HC had higher EE than SPC-GLY-0.25%HC (P < 0.05). Increasing particle size and decreasing negative surface charge were found for both lyophilized samples. Lyophilized SPC-CHO-0.5%HC exhibited higher stability than lyophilized SPC-GLY-0.25%HC during storage at 25 °C for 28 days. Also, higher antioxidant activities in gastrointestinal track model system was found for SPC-CHO-0.5%HC. Thus, SPC-CHO liposome could be used as a promising carrier of HC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127127DOI Listing
October 2020

Synthesis and characterization of novel poly(3-aminophenyl boronic acid-co-vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite polymer stabilized silver nanoparticles with antibacterial and antioxidant applications.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2020 Sep 11;193:111112. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Analytical Chemistry and Environment Research Unit, Division of Chemistry, Department of Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani 94000, Thailand. Electronic address:

In this work, the synthesis method and applications of nanocomposite polymer stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are reported. 3-Aminophenyl boronic acid (3APBA) was used as a reductant of silver nitrate which acted as an oxidant for the polymerization of 3APBA through in situ chemical oxidative polymerization to poly(3-aminophenyl boronic acid) or PABA. The formation of PABA in the reaction mixture led to particle agglomeration owing to PABA poor solubility. However, in the presence of hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PABA binds to the free hydroxyl group of PVA to form a composite polymer (PABA-PVA), which perfectly stabilized the formed AgNPs. Succinctly, PVA acted as a solubilizer and stabilizer for (PABA-PVA)AgNPs synthesis. Synthesis was optimized and sharp absorption peaks at 290 nm and 426 nm were observed, attributing to the π-π* transition of the benzenoid ring of PABA and the characteristic absorption spectrum of AgNPs, respectively. (PABA-PVA)AgNPs was characterized using UV-vis, TEM, FESEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, TGA/DTG, DLS and zeta potential analysis. In addition, the antibacterial, antioxidant and metal chelating capacities of (PABA-PVA)AgNPs were evaluated. The (PABA-PVA)AgNPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and good antioxidant and metal chelating properties of (PABA-PVA)AgNPs, thus validating its attractive biological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.111112DOI Listing
September 2020

Debittering of salmon (Salmo salar) frame protein hydrolysate using 2-butanol in combination with β-cyclodextrin: Impact on some physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities.

Food Chem 2020 Aug 23;321:126686. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Laboratory of Marine Chemical Resource Science Development, Faculty of Fisheries, Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611, Japan.

Impacts of 2-butanol and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at various ratios and treatment times on bitterness, physicochemical and functional properties of Alcalase salmon frame protein hydrolysate (ASF) were investigated. ASF treated with 2-butanol at a ratio of 1:4 (w/v) for 20 min (ASFB) or with β-CD at a ratio of 1:1 (w/w) for 30 min (ASF-C-1) had lower bitterness score than ASF (p < 0.05). Bitterness score of ASF (8.45) was reduced to the lowest score (1.32) when ASFB was subsequently treated with β-CD at a 1:1 ratio (w/w) for 30 min (ASFB-C-1). Surface hydrophobicity of all debittered samples was lower than that of ASF sample (p < 0.05). The level of aromatic amino acids-containing peptides was reduced in ASFB-C-1 as shown by gel permeation chromatography. ASFB-C-1 sample had higher overall-likeness score but lower antioxidant properties than ASF (p < 0.05). The desired antioxidant activity could be achieved via increasing the amount of protein hydrolysate without imparting undesirable taste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126686DOI Listing
August 2020

Shelf-life of refrigerated Asian sea bass slices treated with cold plasma as affected by gas composition in packaging.

Int J Food Microbiol 2020 Jul 23;324:108612. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand.

Effect of in-bag dielectric barrier discharge cold plasma (IB-DBD-CP) on the keeping quality of Asian sea bass slices (ASBS) packaged under different gases during refrigerated storage at 4 °C was studied. ASBS without and with IB-DBD-CP treatment packaged under the gas combination of argon and oxygen (10:90) (gas A) or the mixtures of carbon dioxide, argon and oxygen (60:30:10) (gas B) and the control (kept in air) were monitored for quality changes up to 18 days. ASBS treated with IB-DBD-CP, regardless of gas composition, had lower microbial loads than those without treatment and the control (p < 0.05). The shelf-life of ASBS was prolonged to 9 and 12 days after being packaged under gas A and B, respectively without IB-DBD-CP treatment, while 6 days were recorded for the control. However, ASBS treated with IB-DBD-CP, packaged under gas A and B had the shelf-life of 12 and 15 days, respectively. Throughout the storage, trimethylamine content and total volatile nitrogen base content were lower in ASBS treated with IB-DBD-CP, particularly those packaged under gas B than that without treatment and the control (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, lipid oxidation as well as protein oxidation were higher in samples treated with IB-DBD-CP, regardless of gas composition used, in comparison with untreated counterpart. Therefore, IB-DBD-CP of ASBS packaged under high ratio of CO (60%) along with argon and oxygen was the potential method for augmenting the shelf-life of ASBS for >15 days at 4 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108612DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of proteases and alcohols used for debittering on characteristics and antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate from salmon frames.

J Food Sci Technol 2020 Feb 4;57(2):473-483. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

4Laboratory of Marine Chemical Resource Science Development, Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611 Japan.

Protein hydrolysates were obtained from salmon frame using Alcalase or Flavourzyme at 3% (w/w protein) for 180 min. Protein hydrolysates prepared using Alcalase (HA) and Flavourzyme (HF) had DH and yield of 25.1-26.9% and 28.5-32.3 g/100 g sample, respectively. HF showed lower bitterness score (5.78) than that of HA (8.68) ( < 0.05). When HA and HF were further subjected to debittering with 2-butanol or isopropanol, the recovery of 77.88-81.60% was obtained ( < 0.05). HF and HA debittered with 2-butanol possessed less bitterness score, 3.60 and 3.77, respectively ( < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of 81.4 and 124.8 was attained when HF and HA were debittered with 2-butanol ( < 0.05). Selected debittered hydrolysates, produced using Flavourzyme, followed by fractionation using 2-butanol (HF-B) contained glutamic acid/glutamine (15.14 g/100 g), aspartic acid/asparagine (10.07 g/100 g) and glycine (9.30 g/100 g) as the predominant amino acids. HF-B had the decreased ABTS radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. A of peptides separated by gel filtration was lowered to some extent and coincided with the lower bitterness score and surface hydrophobicity. Thus, debittered protein hydrolysate from salmon frame could serve as a nutritive ingredient at high levels in health promoting foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04075-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016064PMC
February 2020

Asian bullfrog (Rana tigerina) skin gelatin extracted by ultrasound-assisted process: Characteristics and in-vitro cytotoxicity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Apr 16;148:391-400. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.

Impact of ultrasound-assisted process (UAP) on yield and characteristics of Asian bullfrog (Rana tigerina) skin gelatin was studied and the in-vitro cytotoxicity of the resulting frog skin gelatin was evaluated using CaCo-2, Raw264.7 and L929 cell lines. Different ultrasonication modes (5 min on-time with 25 min off-time (5/25) and 10 min on-time with 50 min off-times (10/50)) were implemented for different total ultrasonication times (10-60 min) during gelatin extraction at 55 °C. UAP could effectively augment yield and recovery of frog skin gelatin, compared with the typical process (without UAP). Different UAPs used affected characteristics and properties of gelatin differently. Increased total ultrasonication time increased color changes and turbidity of resulting gelatin and induced protein fragmentation, regardless of modes used. At the same total ultrasonication time, mode of 10/50 provided gelatin with higher hydroxyproline content and higher gel strength than 5/25 mode. Gelatin extracted by UAP with 10/50 mode for 60 min (FU) possessed high yield and good gel property. Gelling and melting temperatures and FTIR-spectra of FU were similar to those of gel from typical process. Based on in-vitro cytotoxicity toward different cell lines, frog skin gelatin could be used as biocompatible material, which could be safe for human consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.01.150DOI Listing
April 2020

Characteristics and storage stability of nanoliposomes loaded with shrimp oil as affected by ultrasonication and microfluidization.

Food Chem 2020 Apr 4;310:125916. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand. Electronic address:

Shrimp oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids and astaxanthin, was encapsulated in nanoliposomes, prepared using ultrasonication (US) and microfluidization (MF) methods, to prevent oxidation during storage. Nanoliposomes prepared by US and MF were characterized based on particle size, structure and stability. The particle size of US nanoliposomes ranged between 40 and 284 nm, while MF nanoliposomes ranged from 214 to 928 nm. US nanoliposomes exhibited better centrifugal stability than MF counterparts (p < 0.05). Nanoencapsulation efficiency (NEE) of US nanoliposomes was higher (93.64%) than that of MF (75.18%) and remained constant over the storage of 8 weeks at 30 °C. Nanoliposomes showed higher oxidative stability during the storage than unencapsulated oil (p < 0.05) with better retention of EPA and DHA, particularly in US nanoliposomes. Overall, encapsulation of shrimp oil in nanoliposomes was proven to be an effective method to prevent oxidation of oil during storage and mask the undesirable fishy odor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125916DOI Listing
April 2020

Liposomal Encapsulated Ethanolic Coconut Husk Extract: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties.

J Food Sci 2019 Dec 14;84(12):3664-3673. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand.

Characteristics of liposomal encapsulated ethanolic coconut husk extract (LE-ECHE) prepared using two levels of lipid phase (LP) containing soybean phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol mixture of 4:1 mol ratio (60 and 80 µmol/mL) and two ECHE concentrations (1% and 2%) were investigated. Poly-dispersity index, zeta-potential, and particle size of LE-ECHE samples were 0.22% to 0.28%, -70.4 to -53.63 mV, and 232 to 697.65 nm, respectively. Encapsulation efficiency of all samples was 75.25% to 90.11%. LE-ECHE prepared with LP content of 60 µmol/mL and 1% ECHE (LP60-EC1) was milky, whereas UN-EC1 (un-encapsulated ECHE) was brownish in color. ECHE retained its antioxidant activity even after entrapment in liposome, although higher activity was recorded for UN-EC1. Encapsulation of ECHE in liposome enhanced antibacterial properties of ECHE. Hence, LP60-EC1 showed promising potential as a delivery based system for lowering dark color, a drawback associated with ECHE as well as improving the antibacterial properties of ECHE. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Ethanolic coconut husk extract (ECHE) contains polyphenols with diverse biological activities such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. However, there are limited applications of ECHE in food industries, mainly because of its distinctive dark brown color. A homogeneous and stable liposomal system was demonstrated to be an efficient delivery based system for ECHE. Remarkably, antimicrobial property of ECHE was enhanced with liposomal encapsulation, whereas antioxidant activities of ECHE were retained. Also, liposomal encapsulation was shown as the potential technique to mask the undesirable dark brown, a drawback associated with ECHE for wider application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14853DOI Listing
December 2019

Melanosis and quality changes during refrigerated storage of Pacific white shrimp treated with Chamuang (Garcinia cowa Roxb.) leaf extract with the aid of pulsed electric field.

Food Chem 2020 Mar 12;309:125516. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand. Electronic address:

Pacific white shrimp with prior pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment before soaking in Chamuang leaf extract (CLE) at different concentrations (0.5 and 1%) for 30 min were prepared. Sample pre-treated with PEF and soaked with 1% CLE (PEF-1 CLE) showed lower melanosis score than that with 1.25% sodium metabisulfite treatment, PEF treated sample or those soaked in CLE without prior PEF and the control during storage of 10 days (P < 0.05). PEF-1 CLE sample showed lower total volatile base content, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances but high sensory scores than others (P < 0.05). Lower increases in mesophile, psychrophile, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and HS producing bacterial counts were obtained in PEF-1 CLE, compared to the control and other treated samples. The most abundant compounds from Chamuang leaf extract, including Chrysoeriol 6-C-glucoside-8-C-arabinopyranoside and veranisatin-C were found in PEF-1 CLE sample and were plausibly involved in keeping quality of shrimp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125516DOI Listing
March 2020

Impact of pretreatment and atmosphere on quality of lipids extracted from cephalothorax of Pacific white shrimp by ultrasonic assisted process.

Food Chem 2020 Mar 21;309:125732. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand. Electronic address:

Impacts of different pretreatment conditions and atmosphere on yield and oxidative stability of lipids from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) cephalothorax using ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process were studied. Cephalothorax was subjected to vacuum-microwave (VM) heating prior to UAE using a mixture of isopropanol/n-hexane (1:1) as solvent. Nitrogen gas was flushed at two flow rates; low (2.15 l/min) and high (4.35 l/min) into the system during ultrasonication. Vacuum-microwave heating resulted in the increase of lipid yield and highest yield was observed in the samples extracted by a combination of VM and UAE. Tannic acid (TA) was incorporated into cephalothorax at three different levels (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) in combination with VM, followed by nitrogen flushing. Nitrogen flushing during ultrasonication process resulted in the increased oxidative stability of lipids as confirmed by low PV, TBARS and FFA. Furthermore, astaxanthin content in the lipid was found to be increased by aforementioned treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125732DOI Listing
March 2020

Bitterness of fish protein hydrolysate and its debittering prospects.

J Food Biochem 2019 09 15;43(9):e12978. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Faculty of Agro-Industry, Department of Food Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.

Fish processing by-products often generated as discard can enzymatically be processed into a product known as fish protein hydrolysates (FPH). FPH is a good source of amino acid and peptides with bioactivities. FPH can be added to foods to improve nutritive values and bioactivities. However, bitterness in FPH, associated with hydrophobicity, degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, proline residues, type of enzymes, and amino acid sequences has limited its uses in foods. Thus, FPH is used in foods at low levels. Numerous procedures such as extraction with alcohol, activated carbon treatment, Maillard reaction, cyclodextrin, chromatographic separation, and enzymatic hydrolysis with exopeptidase and plastein reaction have been explored to remove the bitterness of FPH. These methods can lower bitterness and improve its taste. However, changes in structure and loss of some peptides may occur. FPH with less or no bitterness can therefore be used at higher levels to alleviate nutrition deficiencies in foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) is a nutritive ingredient, which can be produced from fish processing by-products. However, bitterness in FPH has limited its potential use as a nutritive ingredient. As a result, it is incorporated into foods at low levels. Nevertheless, application of several reported debittering processes could assist to solve the problem of bitterness in FPH. The debittering can improve sensory property of FPH, thus widening its utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12978DOI Listing
September 2019