Publications by authors named "Soon Chul Myung"

92 Publications

Peanut Sprout Extracts Cultivated with Fermented Sawdust Medium Inhibits Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and .

World J Mens Health 2020 Jul 19;38(3):385-396. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Biotechnology and Natural Resources, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Korea.

Purpose: In this study, we tested whether the resveratrol-enriched peanut sprout extracts cultivated with fermented sawdust medium (PSEFS) could suppress benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and .

Materials And Methods: The mode of action of PSEFS was estimated by employing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, MTT assay, cell counting, cell cycle analysis, immunoblots, and immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. efficacy of PSEFS was analyzed in BPH animal model immunostaining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: We selected the peanut sprout variety, which contains the highest level of resveratrol. The resveratrol levels in PSEFS were higher than those obtained with hydroponic technology. PSEFS treatment induced cell cycle arrest at the G1-phase by downregulating CDK4 and cyclin D1 p21WAF1 induction in the RWPE-1 and WPMY prostate cells, thereby decreasing their proliferation. Treatment with PSEFS decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased JNK phosphorylation. The levels of DNA-bound transcription factors associated with proliferation (nuclear factor-κB, Sp-1, and AP-1) decreased upon PSEFS treatment in both prostate cells. Additionally, the levels of the molecular markers of BPH development (5α-reductase, androgen receptor, fibroblast growth factor, Bcl-2, and Bax) also changed by the addition of PSEFS. Finally, in a testosterone propionate-induced BPH model in rats, PSEFS administration attenuated the size, weight, and thickness of prostate tissues with no signs of death.

Conclusions: These results showed that PSEFS inhibited BPH both and and might be useful in the development of a potential BPH therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5534/wjmh.190173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308230PMC
July 2020

Generation of human androgenetic induced pluripotent stem cells.

Sci Rep 2020 02 27;10(1):3614. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Stem Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea.

In humans, parthenogenesis and androgenesis occur naturally in mature cystic ovarian teratomas and androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles (CHM), respectively. Our previous study has reported human parthenogenetic induced pluripotent stem cells from ovarian teratoma-derived fibroblasts and screening of imprinted genes using genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. However, due to the lack of the counterparts of uniparental cells, identification of new imprinted differentially methylated regions has been limited. CHM are inherited from only the paternal genome. In this study, we generated human androgenetic induced pluripotent stem cells (AgHiPSCs) from primary androgenetic fibroblasts derived from CHM. To investigate the pluripotency state of AgHiPSCs, we analyzed their cellular and molecular characteristics. We tested the DNA methylation status of imprinted genes using bisulfite sequencing and demonstrated the androgenetic identity of AgHiPSCs. AgHiPSCs might be an attractive alternative source of human androgenetic embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, AgHiPSCs can be used in regenerative medicine, for analysis of genomic imprinting, to study imprinting-related development, and for disease modeling in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60363-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046633PMC
February 2020

Steroidogenic effects of extract on the levels of steroidogenic enzymes in mouse Leydig cells.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2018 8;22(6):407-414. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we investigated the steroidogenic effect of extract on mouse TM3 Leydig cells, which produce male hormones by increasing the levels of steroidogenic enzymes. Steroidogenic enzymes are involved in the production of testosterone in the testis. To date, the steroidogenic effect of has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the steroidogenic effects of extract (TOE) on mouse Leydig cells in vitro. Traditionally, plants have been used for the treatment of various kinds of ailments. For many years, some medicinal plants have been used to regulate steroidogenesis or late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). In particular, plants belonging to the genus Taraxacum have anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we determined whether the TOE exerts steroidogenic effects by increasing the levels of enzymes associated with steroidogenesis, such as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), CYP11A1, and translocator protein (TSPO) in the mitochondria and CYP17A1 in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, in mouse Leydig cells. Our results showed that the TOE significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic enzymes, thereby increasing the testosterone levels in mouse Leydig cells. Thus, our results indicate that the TOE increases the levels of steroidogenic enzymes, and further studies are required to establish the potential of this plant in regulating steroidogenesis and improving LOH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19768354.2018.1494628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282421PMC
November 2018

Promoter DNA methylation contributes to human -defensin-1 deficiency in atopic dermatitis.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2018 24;22(3):172-177. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity. Epigenetic regulation of human -defensin-1 (HBD-1) might be associated with a variety of defects in the innate immune system during AD pathogenesis. We investigated the possible mechanism of decreased gene expression in AD and demonstrated the restoration of HBD-1 transcription in undifferentiated normal human epidermal keratinocyte cells after treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. We also conducted an methylated reporter assay using a reporter containing 14 CpG sites. Methylation of the 14 CpG sites within the HBD-1 5' region resulted in an approximately 86% reduction in promoter activity and affected HBD-1 transcriptional regulation. We then compared methylation frequencies at CpG 3 and CpG 4 between non-lesional and lesional epidermis samples of patients with severe AD and between these paired tissues and healthy control epidermis from normal volunteers without AD history. Bisulfite pyrosequencing data showed significantly higher methylation frequencies at the CpG 3 and 4 sites in AD lesional samples than in non-lesional AD skin and normal skin samples ( < 0.05). These results suggest that the DNA methylation signature of HBD-1 is a novel diagnostic/prognostic marker and a promising therapeutic target for the compromised stratum corneum barrier attributed to HBD-1 deficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19768354.2018.1458652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138329PMC
May 2018

Endoplasmic reticulum retention motif fused to recombinant anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO17-1A affects mAb expression and plant stress response.

PLoS One 2018 24;13(9):e0198978. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main site of protein synthesis, folding, and secretion to other organelles. The capacity of the ER to process proteins is limited, and excessive accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins can induce ER stress, which is associated with plant diseases. Here, a transgenic Arabidopsis system was established to express anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the tumor-associated antigen GA733-2. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO17-1A recognize a tumor-associated epitope expressed on the colorectal cancer cell surface. The ER retention Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) motif sequence was added to the C-terminus of the heavy chain to retain anti-colorectal cancer mAbs in the ER, consequently boosting mAb production. Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip transformation was used to generate T1 transformants, and homozygous T4 seeds obtained from transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing anti-colorectal cancer mAbs were used to confirm the physiological effects of KDEL tagging. Germination rates were not significantly different between both plants expressing mAb CO without KDEL mAb CO (CO plant) and mAb CO with KDEL mAb COK (COK plant). However, COK plants primary root lengths were shorter than those of CO plants and non-transgenic Arabidopsis plants in in vitro media. Most ER stress-related genes, with the exception of bZIP28 and IRE1a, were upregulated in COK plants compared to CO plants. Western blot and SDS-PAGE analyses showed that COK plants exhibited up to five times higher expression and mAb amounts than plants. Enhanced expression in mAb COK plants was confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses. mAb COK was distributed across most of the area of leaf tissues, whereas mAb CO was mainly distributed in extracellular areas. Surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that mAb CO and mAb COK possessed equivalent or slightly better binding activities to antigen EpCAM compared to a commercially available parental antibody. N-glycosylation analysis showed that mAb CO had plant specific residues whereas mAb COK mainly showed an oligo-mannose N-glycan structure without the plant specific glycan residues. In this study, the reduction of plant growth and biomass induced by ER retention signal peptide might be only in in vitro conditions, and thus should be carefully considered for the initial screening for transgenic lines on culture media. Taken together, nevertheless the fusion of ER retention signal peptide is an effective approach for enhancing the yields of recombinant proteins in vivo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198978PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6152870PMC
February 2019

A role of human beta defensin-1 in predicting prostatic adenocarcinoma in cases of false-negative biopsy.

APMIS 2017 Dec 8;125(12):1063-1069. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of human beta defensin-1 (hBD-1) in predicting PAC in morphologically normal prostate glands. In total, 25 patients with a negative initial biopsy for PAC and diagnosed as PAC positive in subsequent biopsies performed within 1 year of the initial biopsy were included. As a control group, 22 patients negative for PAC in at least three consecutive histologic examinations were selected. Expression of hBD-1 was analyzed separately via immunohistochemistry in paired cores of non-neoplastic gland and PAC in the false-negative group and control group. Loss of hBD-1 expression was observed in 95.6% and 90.0% PAC cases with Gleason Patterns 3 and 4 in repeat biopsies, respectively. hBD-1 loss of basal cells in 40 (85.1%) previous non-neoplastic biopsy cores in the false-negative group was observed, in contrast to preserved basal cell expression of hBD-1 in 64 (72.7%) biopsy cores in the control group (p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hBD-1 basal cell loss (≥20% of prostatic glands in total cores) is an independent factor for predicting PAC (odds ratio: 4.739, confidence interval: 1.093-20.554, p = 0.038). hBD-1 loss of basal cells is a useful indicator to identify extremely high-risk patients with initially negative biopsy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12749DOI Listing
December 2017

Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Urolithiasis Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Quercus gilva Blume.

Molecules 2017 Jul 5;22(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Natural Product Derived Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea.

Bume (QGB, family Fagaceae) is a tall evergreen oak species tree that grows in warm temperate regions in Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan. plants have long been the basis of traditional medicines. Their clinical benefits according to traditional medicine include relief of urolithiasis, tremors and inflammation. In the present study, the anti-urolithiasis activity including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities, of some phenolic compounds isolated from QGB were described. Seven compounds were isolated and identified as picraquassioside D (), quercussioside (), (+)-lyoniresinol-9'α--β-d-xylopyranoside (), (+)-catechin (), (-)-epicatechin (), procyanidin B-3 (), and procyanidin B-4 (). Compounds - showed potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. These compounds were further tested for their inhibition of the gene expression of the inflammatory cytokines. The three compounds - showed dose-dependent inhibitory activities on gene expression of COX-2 and IL-1β. In vivo, urolithiasis was induced more effectively in an animal model of acute urolithiasis by the administration of QGB extract. These results indicate the potential of compounds from QGB in the treatment of urolithiasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6152187PMC
July 2017

Epigenetic suppression of the anti-aging gene in human prostate cancer cell lines.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2017 22;21(4):223-232. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

was originally identified as an aging-suppressor gene that causes a human aging-like phenotype when tested in -deficient-mice. Recent evidence suggests that functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting signaling. gene silencing, including DNA methylation, has been observed in some human cancers. Aberrant activation of signaling plays a significant role in aging, and its silencing may be related to prostate cancer and other types of cancers. Thus, we investigated whether the expression of the anti-aging gene was associated with epigenetic changes in prostate cancer cell lines. mRNA was detected in the 22Rv1 cell line while it was not detected in DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The restoration of mRNA in the DU145 and PC-3 cell lines was induced with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to determine the specific CpG sites in the promoter responsible for expression. In addition, the level of methylation was assessed in each CpG by performing bisulfite sequencing and quantitative pyrosequencing analysis. The results suggested a remarkable inverse relationship between expression and promoter methylation in prostate cancer cell lines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19768354.2017.1336112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138301PMC
June 2017

Distinct Histone Modifications Modulate DEFB1 Expression in Human Vaginal Keratinocytes in Response to Lactobacillus spp.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2017 12;9(4):406-414

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea.

Vaginal commensal lactobacilli are considered to contribute significantly to the control of vaginal microbiota by competing with other microflora for adherence to the vaginal epithelium and by producing antimicrobial compounds. However, the molecular mechanisms of symbiotic prokaryotic-eukaryotic communication in the vaginal ecosystem remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that both DNA methylation and histone modifications were associated with expression of the DEFB1 gene, which encodes the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-1, in vaginal keratinocyte VK2/E6E7 cells. We investigated whether exposure to Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus reuteri would trigger the epigenetic modulation of DEFB1 expression in VK2/E6E7 cells in a bacterial species-dependent manner. While enhanced expression of DEFB1 was observed when VK2/E6E7 cells were exposed to L. gasseri, treatment with L. reuteri resulted in reduced DEFB1 expression. Moreover, L. gasseri stimulated the recruitment of active histone marks and, in contrast, L. reuteri led to the decrease of active histone marks at the DEFB1 promoter. It was remarkable that distinct histone modifications within the same promoter region of DEFB1 were mediated by L. gasseri and L. reuteri. Therefore, our study suggested that one of the underlying mechanisms of DEFB1 expression in the vaginal ecosystem might be associated with the epigenetic crosstalk between individual Lactobacillus spp. and vaginal keratinocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-017-9286-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5670195PMC
December 2017

Expression of a Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP)-IgM Fc Fusion Protein in Plants Using Tissue Subculture.

Front Plant Sci 2017 28;8:274. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Therapeutic Protein Engineering Laboratory, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University Seoul, South Korea.

In this study, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), which is overexpressed in human prostate cancer cells, was cloned to be fused to the IgM constant fragment (Fc) for enhancing immunogenicity and expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. Then, the transgenic plants were propagated by tissue subculture. Gene insertion and expression of the recombinant PAP-IgM Fc fusion protein were confirmed in each tested the first, second, and third subculture generations (SG, SG, and SG, respectively). Transcription levels were constantly maintained in the SG SG, and SG leaf section (top, middle, and base). The presence of the PAP-IgM Fc gene was also confirmed in each leaf section in all tested subculture generations. RNA expression was confirmed in all subculture generations using real-time PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. PAP-IgM Fc protein expression was confirmed in all leaves of the SG, SG, and SG recombinant transgenic plants by using quantitative western blotting and chemiluminescence immunoassays. These results demonstrate that the recombinant protein was stably expressed for several generations of subculture. Therefore, transgenic plants can be propagated using tissue subculture for the production of recombinant proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5329016PMC
February 2017

DNA Methylation-Mediated Downregulation of DEFB1 in Prostate Cancer Cells.

PLoS One 2016 11;11(11):e0166664. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 06974, Republic of Korea.

Epigenetic aberrations play crucial roles in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. The DEFB1 gene, which encodes human ß-defensin-1 (HBD-1), contributes to innate immune responses and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in urological cancers. We investigated whether differential DNA methylation at the low CpG-content promoter (LCP) of DEFB1 was associated with transcriptional regulation of DEFB1 in PCa cells. To identify distinct CpG loci within the DEFB1 LCP related to the epigenetic regulation of DEFB1, we performed an in vitro methylated reporter assay followed by bisulfite sequencing of the DEFB1 promoter fragment. The methylation status of two adjacent CpG loci in the DEFB1 LCP was found to be important for DEFB1 expression in PCa cells. Paired epithelial specimens of PCa patients (n = 60), which were distinguished as non-tumor and tumor tissues by microdissection, were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing of site-specific CpG dinucleotide units in the DEFB1 LCP. CpG methylation frequencies in the DEFB1 LCP were significantly higher in malignant tissues than in adjacent benign tissues across almost all PCa patients. These results suggested that methylation status of each CpG site in the DEFB1 promoter could mediate downregulation of DEFB1 in PCa cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0166664PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5105953PMC
June 2017

The Natural Substance MS-10 Improves and Prevents Menopausal Symptoms, Including Colpoxerosis, in Clinical Research.

J Med Food 2016 Mar 5;19(3):228-37. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

10 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Science, Hallym University , Gangwon, Korea.

Many natural substances were screened to develop nutraceuticals that reduce menopausal symptoms. A complex of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii and Thymus vulgaris extracts, named MS-10, had significant positive effects. Under a low concentration of estrogen, which represents postmenopausal physiological conditions, MS-10 had beneficial effects on estrogen receptor-expressing MCF-7 cells by reversibly enhancing estrogen activity. In addition, in the ovariectomized rat model, changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin, as well as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased by MS-10. These results show that MS-10 protected bone health and reduced metabolic disturbances. Furthermore, in a clinical study, all menopausal symptoms, including hot flushes, parenthesis, insomnia, nervousness, melancholia, vertigo, fatigue, rheumatic pain, palpitations, formication, and headache, as well as colpoxerosis, were significantly improved by taking MS-10 for 90 days. Therefore, the evidence supports that MS-10 is an effective natural substance that can safely improve menopausal symptoms, including colpoxerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2015.3547DOI Listing
March 2016

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DKK3 gene are associated with prostate cancer risk and progression.

Int Braz J Urol 2015 Sep-Oct;41(5):869-97

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

We had investigated whether sequence variants within DKK3 gene are associated with the development of prostate cancer in a Korean study cohort. We evaluated the association between 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DKK3 gene and prostate cancer risk as well as clinical characteristics (PSA, clinical stage, pathological stage and Gleason score) in Korean men (272 prostate cancer subjects and 173 benign prostate hyperplasia subjects) using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Of the 53 SNPs and 25 common haplotypes, 5 SNPs and 4 haplotypes were associated with prostate cancer risk (P=0.02-0.04); 3 SNPs and 2 haplotypes were significantly associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer, however 2 SNPs and 2 haplotypes exhibited a significant protective effect on prostate cancer. Logistic analyses of the DKK3 gene polymorphisms with several prostate cancer related factors showed that several SNPs were significant; three SNPs and two haplotypes to PSA level, three SNPs and two haplotypes to clinical stage, nine SNPs and two haplotype to pathological stage, one SNP and one haplotypes to Gleason score. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report documenting that DKK3 polymorphisms are not only associated with prostate cancer but also related to prostate cancer-related factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756964PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2014.0041DOI Listing
May 2016

Expression of Beta-Defensin 131 Promotes an Innate Immune Response in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

PLoS One 2015 9;10(12):e0144776. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Previously, using the Illumina HumanHT-12 microarray we found that β-defensin 131 (DEFB131), an antimicrobial peptide, is upregulated in the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 upon stimulation with lipoteichoic acid (LTA; a gram-positive bacterial component), than that in the untreated RWPE-1 cells. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of DEFB131 in RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection. We examined the intracellular signaling pathways and nuclear responses in RWPE-1 cells that contribute to DEFB131 gene induction upon stimulation with LTA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to determine whether NF-κB directly binds to the DEFB131 promoter after LTA stimulation in RWPE-1 cells. We found that DEFB131 expression was induced by LTA stimulation through TLR2 and p38MAPK/NF-κB activation, which was evident in the phosphorylation of both p38MAPK and IκBα. We also found that SB203580 and Bay11-7082, inhibitors of p38MAPK and NF-κB, respectively, suppressed LTA-induced DEFB131 expression. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB directly binds to the DEFB131 promoter, suggesting that NF-κB is a direct regulator, and is necessary for LTA-induced DEFB131 expression in RWPE-1 cells. Interestingly, with DEFB131 overexpression in RWPE-1 cells, the accumulation of mRNA and protein secretion of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12α) and chemokines (CCL20, CCL22, and CXCL8) were significantly enhanced. In addition, DEFB131-transfected RWPE-1 cells markedly induced chemotactic activity in THP-1 monocytes. We concluded that DEFB131 induces cytokine and chemokine upregulation through the TLR2/NF-κB signaling pathway in RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection and promotes an innate immune response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0144776PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4674080PMC
January 2019

Nicotine in high concentration causes contraction of isolated strips of rabbit corpus cavernosum.

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2015 May 30;19(3):257-62. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Advanced Urogenital Disease Research Center; Research Institute for Translational System Biomics; Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 156-755, Korea.

It is well known that cigarette smoke can cause erectile dysfunction by affecting the penile vascular system. However, the exact effects of nicotine on the corpus cavernosum remains poorly understood. Nicotine has been reported to cause relaxation of the corpus cavernosum; it has also been reported to cause both contraction and relaxation. Therefore, high concentrations of nicotine were studied in strips from the rabbit corpus cavernosum to better understand its effects. The proximal penile corpus cavernosal strips from male rabbits weighing approximately 4 kg were used in organ bath studies. Nicotine in high concentrations (10(-5)~10(-4) M) produced dose-dependent contractions of the corpus cavernosal strips. The incubation with 10(-5) M hexamethonium (nicotinic receptor antagonist) significantly inhibited the magnitude of the nicotine associated contractions. The nicotine-induced contractions were not only significantly inhibited by pretreatment with 10(-5) M indomethacin (nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and with 10(-6) M NS-398 (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), but also with 10(-6) M Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor). Ozagrel (thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor) and SQ-29548 (highly selective TP receptor antagonist) pretreatments significantly reduced the nicotine-induced contractile amplitude of the strips. High concentrations of nicotine caused contraction of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosal strips. This contraction appeared to be mediated by activation of nicotinic receptors. Rho-kinase and cyclooxygenase pathways, especially cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane A2, might play a pivotal role in the mechanism associated with nicotine-induced contraction of the rabbit corpus cavernosum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2015.19.3.257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4422966PMC
May 2015

The association of 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) gene polymorphisms with prostate cancer in a Korean population.

Korean J Urol 2015 Jan 12;56(1):19-30. Epub 2015 Jan 12.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Steroid 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) modifies testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SRD5A2 gene might affect DHT. We sought to understand the relationship of SRD5A2 SNPs to prostate cancer in the Korean population.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-six common SNPs in the SRD5A2 gene were assessed in 272 prostate cancer cases and 173 controls. Single-locus analyses were conducted by using conditional logistic regression. Additionally, we performed a haplotype analysis for the SRD5A2 SNPs tested.

Results: Among the 20 SNPs and 4 haplotypes, there were no statistically significant results in the prostate cancer patients and the controls. In the logistic analysis of SRD5A2 polymorphisms with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) criteria, two SNPs (rs508562, rs11675297) and haplotype 1 displayed significant results (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; p=0.05; OR, 1.88-2.02; p=0.01-0.04; OR, 0.59; p=0.02, respectively). rs508562, rs11675297, rs2208532, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.49; p=0.05; OR, 2.02; p=0.05; OR, 2.01; p=0.04; OR, 0.56-0.64, p=0.03-0.04, respectively) had significant associations with Gleason score. rs508562, rs11675297, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.41-2.34; p=0.004-0.05; OR, 1.74-1.82; p=0.03-0.05; OR, 0.42-0.67; p=0.0005-0.03, respectively) were significantly associated with clinical stage.

Conclusions: We conclude that there was no significant association between SRD5A2 SNPs and the risk of prostate cancer in the Korean population. However, we found that some SNPs and 1 haplotype influenced PSA level, Gleason score, and clinical stage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/kju.2015.56.1.19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4294851PMC
January 2015

Association between cytochrome CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in a Korean study population.

Asian J Androl 2015 Mar-Apr;17(2):285-91

Advanced Urogenital Disease Research Center; Research Institute for Translational System Biomics; Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 156-756, Korea.

In this study, we evaluated genetic variants of the androgen metabolism genes CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 to determine whether they play a role in the development of prostate cancer (PCa) in Korean men. The study population included 240 pathologically diagnosed cases of PCa and 223 age-matched controls. Among the 789 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database variants detected, 129 were reported in two Asian groups (Han Chinese and Japanese) in the HapMap database. Only 21 polymorphisms of CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 were selected based on linkage disequilibrium in Asians (r2 = 1), locations (SNPs in exons were preferred), and amino acid changes and were assessed. In addition, we performed haplotype analysis for the 21 SNPs in CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 genes. To determine the association between genotype and haplotype distributions of patients and controls, logistic analyses were carried out, controlling for age. Twelve sequence variants and five major haplotypes were identified in CYP17A1. Five sequence variants and two major haplotypes were identified in CYP3A4. Four sequence variants and four major haplotypes were observed in CYP3A43. CYP17A1 haplotype-2 (Ht-2) (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.18) was associated with PCa susceptibility. CYP3A4 Ht-2 (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.02-3.43) was associated with PCa metastatic potential according to tumor stage. rs17115149 (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.04-3.68) and CYP17A1 Ht-4 (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.07-4.11) showed a significant association with histologic aggressiveness according to Gleason score. Genetic variants of CYP17A1 and CYP3A4 may play a role in the development of PCa in Korean men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1008-682X.133320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4650481PMC
December 2015

Febrile urinary tract infection after prostate biopsy and quinolone resistance.

Korean J Urol 2014 Oct 10;55(10):660-4. Epub 2014 Oct 10.

Department of Urology, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Complications after prostate biopsy have increased and various causes have been reported. Growing evidence of increasing quinolone resistance is of particular concern. In the current retrospective study, we evaluated the incidence of infectious complications after prostate biopsy and identified the risk factors.

Materials And Methods: The study population included 1,195 patients who underwent a prostate biopsy between January 2007 and December 2012 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Cases of febrile UTI that occurred within 7 days were investigated. Clinical information included age, prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and biopsy done in the quinolone-resistance era. Patients received quinolone (250 mg intravenously) before and after the procedure, and quinolone (250 mg) was orally administered twice daily for 3 days. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to investigate the predictive factors for febrile UTI.

Results: Febrile UTI developed in 39 cases (3.1%). Core numbers increased from 2007 (8 cores) to 2012 (12 cores) and quinolone-resistant bacteria began to appear in 2010 (quinolone-resistance era). In the univariate analysis, core number≥12 (p=0.024), body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m(2) (p=0.004), and biopsy done in the quinolone-resistance era (p=0.014) were significant factors. However, in the multivariate analysis adjusted for core number, the results were not significant, with the exception of BMI>25 kg/m(2) (p=0.011) and biopsy during the quinolone-resistance era (p=0.035), which were significantly associated with febrile UTI.

Conclusions: Quinolone resistance is the main cause of postbiopsy infections in our center. We suggest that further evaluation is required to validate similar trends. Novel strategies to find alternative prophylactic agents are also necessary.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/kju.2014.55.10.660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198765PMC
October 2014

Predicting recurrence and progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in Korean patients: a comparison of the EORTC and CUETO models.

Korean J Urol 2014 Oct 10;55(10):643-9. Epub 2014 Oct 10.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to confirm the utility of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Spanish Urological Club for Oncological Treatment (CUETO) scoring systems and to determine which model is preferred as a prognostic model in Korean patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Materials And Methods: Between 1985 and 2011, 531 patients who were treated by transurethral resection of bladder cancer were retrospectively analyzed by use of the EORTC and CUETO models. Statistically, we performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; calculated Harrell's concordance index, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and cutoff values; and performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses.

Results: For risk of recurrence, with the use of the EORTC model, all groups had statistically significant differences except between the group with a score of 0 and the group with a score of 1-4. With the use of the CUETO model, all groups differed significantly. For risk of progression, with the use of the EORTC model, significant differences were observed between all groups except between the group with a score of 2-6 and the group with a score of 7-13. With the use of the CUETO model, a significant difference was observed between the group with a score of 0 and the other groups. The concordance index of the EORTC and CUETO models was 0.759 and 0.836 for recurrence and 0.704 and 0.745 for progression, respectively. The area under the ROC curve for the EORTC and CUETO models was 0.832 and 0.894 for recurrence and 0.722 and 0.724 for progression, respectively.

Conclusions: Both scoring systems, especially the CUETO model, showed value in predicting recurrence and progression in Korean patients, which will help in individualizing treatment and follow-up schedules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/kju.2014.55.10.643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198762PMC
October 2014

Pilot study of low-dose nonenhanced computed tomography with iterative reconstruction for diagnosis of urinary stones.

Korean J Urol 2014 Sep 5;55(9):581-6. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Department of Urology, Severance Hospital, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for detecting urinary stones with the use of an iterative reconstruction technique for reducing radiation dose and image noise.

Materials And Methods: A total of 101 stones from 69 patients who underwent both conventional nonenhanced computed tomography (CCT) and LDCT were analyzed. Interpretations were made of the two scans according to stone characteristics (size, volume, location, Hounsfield unit [HU], and skin-to-stone distance [SSD]) and radiation dose by dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (ED), and image noise. Diagnostic performance for detecting urinary stones was assessed by statistical evaluation.

Results: No statistical differences were found in stone characteristics between the two scans. The average DLP and ED were 384.60 ± 132.15 mGy and 5.77 ± 1.98 mSv in CCT and 90.08 ± 31.80 mGy and 1.34 ± 0.48 mSv in LDCT, respectively. The dose reduction rate of LDCT was nearly 77% for both DLP and ED (p<0.01). The mean objective noise (standard deviation) from three different areas was 23.0 ± 2.5 in CCT and 29.2 ± 3.1 in LDCT with a significant difference (p<0.05); the slight increase was 21.2%. For stones located throughout the kidney and ureter, the sensitivity and specificity of LDCT remained 96.0% and 100%, with positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 96.2%, respectively.

Conclusions: LDCT showed significant radiation reduction while maintaining high image quality. It is an attractive option in the diagnosis of urinary stones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/kju.2014.55.9.581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165920PMC
September 2014

The association between KL polymorphism and prostate cancer risk in Korean patients.

Mol Biol Rep 2014 Nov 14;41(11):7595-606. Epub 2014 Aug 14.

Advanced Urogenital Disease Research Center, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, 156-756, Korea.

The Klotho (KL) gene is a classical "aging suppressor" gene. Although recent studies have shown that KL participates in the progression of several types of human cancers, the relationship between KL polymorphism and prostate cancer was unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the association between KL genetic polymorphisms and prostate cancer. Twenty-five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KL gene (including KL gene polymorphism C1818T in exon 4) were assessed in 272 prostate cancer cases and 173 controls. Single-locus analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression. In addition, we did a haplotype analysis for the 25 KL SNPs tested. CC genotype of C1548T KL polymorphism had approximately twofold increased prostate cancer risk compared with the homozygous genotype TT and heterozygote CT (odds ratio 1.85 [95% CI, 1.09-3.12], P = 0.02). We also found that non-T allele carriers had significantly higher prostate cancer risk associated with the prostate cancer clinical characteristics (tumor stage or Gleason score). Our findings suggested that the C1548T polymorphism of KL gene is associated with the prostate cancer and may act as a risk factor for the development of prostate cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-014-3647-yDOI Listing
November 2014

Beta-Defensin 124 Is Required for Efficient Innate Immune Responses in Prostate Epithelial RWPE-1 Cells.

Korean J Urol 2014 Jun 16;55(6):417-25. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Research Institute for Translational System Biomics, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ; Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the role played by β-defensin 124 (DEFB124) in the innate immunity of prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection.

Materials And Methods: The expression of DEFB124 was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting, and immunocytochemistry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to determine the production of cytokines and chemokines. Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies were performed to assess the interaction between DEFB124 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in peptidoglycan (PGN)-stimulated RWPE-1 cells. By chemotaxis assay, we assessed the effect of DEFB124 on the migration of monocytes.

Results: Exposure to PGN induced DEFB124 upregulation and NF-κB activation through IκBα phosphorylation and IκBα degradation. Bay11-7082, an NF-κB inhibitor, blocked PGN-induced DEFB124 production. Also, NF-κB was shown to be a direct regulator and to directly bind to the -3.14 kb site of the DEFB124 promoter in PGN-treated human prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells. When DEFB124 was overexpressed in RWPE-1 cells, interestingly, the production of cytokines (interleukin [IL] 6 and IL-12) and chemokines (CCL5, CCL22, and CXCL8) was significantly increased. These DEFB124-upregulated RWPE-1 cells markedly induced chemotactic activity for THP-1 monocytes.

Conclusions: Taken together, these results provide strong evidence for the first time that increased DEFB124 expression via NF-κB activation in PGN-exposed RWPE-1 cells enhances the production of cytokines and chemokines, which may contribute to an efficient innate immune defense.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/kju.2014.55.6.417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064052PMC
June 2014

Genetic variations in VDR associated with prostate cancer risk and progression in a Korean population.

Gene 2014 Jan 9;533(1):86-93. Epub 2013 Oct 9.

Department of Urology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, South Korea; CHA Cancer Research Center, CHA University, Seoul, South Korea.

Low levels of vitamin D are implicated as a potential risk factor for prostate cancer, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may be important in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, sequence variants in the VDR gene were investigated in a Korean study cohort to determine whether they are associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated the association between 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene and prostate cancer risk as well as clinical characteristics (prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, pathological stage and Gleason score) in Korean men (272 prostate cancer patients and 173 benign prostatic hyperplasia patient who underwent a prostate biopsy, which was negative for malignancy) using unconditional logistic regression. The statistical analysis suggested that two VDR sequence variants (rs2408876 and rs2239182) had a significant association with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]. 1.41; p=0.03; OR, 0.73; p=0.05, respectively). Logistic analyses of the VDR polymorphisms with several prostate cancer related factors showed that several SNPs were significant; nine SNPs to PSA level, three to clinical stage, two to pathological stage, and three SNPs to the Gleason score. The results suggest that some VDR gene polymorphisms in Korean men might not only be associated with prostate cancer risk but also significantly related to prostate cancer-related risk factors such as PSA level, tumor stage, and Gleason score. However, current limitation for small cohort with not-healthy control group might have false positive effects; therefore it should be overcome via further large-scale validating studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.09.119DOI Listing
January 2014

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in fibroblast growth factor 23 gene, FGF23, are associated with prostate cancer risk.

BJU Int 2014 Aug 2;114(2):303-10. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Advanced Urogenital Disease Research Center, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Research Institute for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To determine whether sequence variants within the FGF23 gene are associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer in a Korean population.

Patients And Methods: Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FGF23 gene were assessed in 272 patients with prostate cancer and 173 control subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Single-locus analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. In addition, we performed a haplotype analysis for the five FGF23 SNPs tested.

Results: Three SNPs in the FGF23 gene (rs11063118, rs13312789 and rs7955866) were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in our study population. Odds ratios for homozygous variants vs wild-type variants ranged from 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-2.46) to 1.79 (95% CI: 1.16-2.75).

Conclusion: This is the first study showing that genetic variations in FGF23 increase prostate cancer susceptibility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.12396DOI Listing
August 2014

Licochalcone A enhances geldanamycin-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated caspase activation.

Pharmacology 2013 30;92(1-2):49-59. Epub 2013 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea.

Background And Purpose: Geldanamycin and licochalcone A induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, whether the combination of geldanamycin and licochalcone A-induced apoptosis in epithelial ovarian cancer cells is mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species, leading to the activation of apoptotic caspase, has not been studied.

Experimental Approach: Using the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3, we investigated the promoting effect of licochalcone A on geldanamycin-induced apoptosis.

Results: Geldanamycin induced changes in apoptosis-related protein levels, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, cleavage of PARP-1, formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Licochalcone A enhanced geldanamycin-induced apoptosis-related protein activation, formation of reactive oxygen species, caspase activation and cell death. The combined effect was inhibited by the addition of oxidant scavengers.

Conclusions: Licochalcone A may potentiate the apoptotic effect of geldanamycin on ovarian carcinoma cell lines by the activation of the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. The apoptosis-promoting effect of licochalcone A may be mediated by its stimulatory action on the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of GSH, which results in the activation of caspases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000351846DOI Listing
April 2014

Effectiveness of flexible ureteroscopic stone removal for treating ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones: a single-center experience.

Korean J Urol 2013 Jun 12;54(6):377-82. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of simultaneous flexible ureteroscopic removal of stones (URS) for ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for renal stone-free status.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent simultaneous flexible URS of ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones from January 2010 to May 2012. All operations used a flexible ureteroscope. We identified 74 cases of retrograde intrarenal surgery and 74 ureteral stones (74 patients). Stone-free status was respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones <3 mm on a postoperative image study. Predictive factors for stone-free status were evaluated.

Results: The immediate postoperative renal stone-free rate was 70%, which increased to 83% at 1 month after surgery. The immediate postoperative ureteral stone-free rate was 100%. Among all renal stones, 15 (20.3%) were separately located in the renal pelvis, 11 (14.8%) in the upper calyx, 15 (20.3%) in the mid calyx, and 33 (44.6%) in the lower calyx. The mean cumulative stone burden was 92.22±105.75 mm(2). In a multivariate analysis, cumulative stone burden <100 mm(2) was a significant predictive factor for postoperative renal stone-free status after 1 month (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Flexible URS can be considered simultaneously for both ureteral and renal stones in selected patients. Flexible URS is a favorable option that promises high stone-free status without significant complications for patients with a stone burden <100 mm(2).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/kju.2013.54.6.377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3685637PMC
June 2013

Relaxing effect of acetylcholine on phenylephrine-induced contraction of isolated rabbit prostate strips is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

Korean J Urol 2013 May 14;54(5):333-8. Epub 2013 May 14.

Department of Urology, Viet Duc University Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Purpose: The location of acetylcholinesterase-containing nerve fibers suggests a role for acetylcholine in both contractility and secretion in the prostate gland. The colocalization of nitrergic nerves with cholinergic nerves, and the cotransmission of nitric oxide with acetylcholine in cholinergic nerves, has been demonstrated in the prostate glands of various species. Thus, we investigated the effects of acetylcholine on phenylephrine-induced contraction and the correlation between cholinergic transmission and nitric oxide synthase by using isolated prostate strips of rabbits.

Materials And Methods: Isolated prostate strips were contracted with phenylephrine and then treated with cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine. Changes in acetylcholine-induced relaxation after preincubation with NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, 7-nitroindazole, and aminoguanidine were measured. The effects of selective muscarinic receptor antagonists were also evaluated.

Results: In the longitudinal phenylephrine-contracted strip, the cumulative application of acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-4) M) elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation effect. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was inhibited not only by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (10 µM L-NAME or 10 µM 7-nitroindazole) but also by 10 µM atropine and some selective muscarinic receptor antagonists (10(-6) M 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperdinyl]acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one and 10(-6) M 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine). In contrast, relaxation was significantly increased by pretreatment of the strips with 10 mM L-arginine.

Conclusions: Acetylcholine relaxed phenylephrine-induced contractions of isolated rabbit prostate strips. This relaxation may be mediated via both cholinergic and constitutive nitric oxide synthase with both the M2 and M3 receptors possibly playing key roles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/kju.2013.54.5.333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659228PMC
May 2013

The effects of α-defensin 1 on electrical field stimulation-induced contraction of rat bladders.

Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Sep 28;715(1-3):420-3. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Department of Urology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

This study was designed to investigate the effects of α-defensin 1 on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions in isolated rat bladder detrusor muscles. We evaluated the effects of α-defensin 1 (50 pM∼5 nM) on EFS-induced contractions in the detrusor smooth muscles from 35 rats (2-30 Hz). Bladder strips were pretreated with α-defensin 1 and then changes of contractions by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) were observed. Moreover, after pretreatment with α-defensin 1 for 10 min, changes in concentration-response curves to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated. Alpha-defensin 1 has increased EFS-induced contractions, significantly, and the contractile response to ATP (1,2,5,10mM) was also increased significantly when strips were pretreated with α-defensin 1. In addition, alpha-defensin 1 increased H2O2-induced contractions. The present study demonstrates that α-defensin 1 increases EFS-induced contractions of rat detrusor muscles via purinergic contraction coupled with the Rho kinase pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.03.032DOI Listing
September 2013

Improvement of andropause symptoms by dandelion and rooibos extract complex CRS-10 in aging male.

Nutr Res Pract 2012 Dec 31;6(6):505-12. Epub 2012 Dec 31.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea.

Many aging male suffer various andropause symptoms including loss of physical and mental activities. This study evaluated the putative alleviative effects of CRS-10 dandelion and rooibos extract complex (CRS-10) on the symptoms of andropause. The survival rate of TM3 Leydig cells (TM3 cells) treated with CRS-10 was measured based on typical physiological stress. After daily intake of CRS-10 for 4 weeks, the level of testosterone, physical activity and both the number and activity of sperm in older rats (18 weeks) were measured. Furthermore, thirty males were surveyed with AMS (Aging Males' Symptoms) questionnaire after intake of 400 mg of CRS-10. Overall, CRS-10 protected TM3 cells from serum restriction and oxidative stress via activation of ERK and Akt pathways. The level of testosterone and activation of spermatogenesis in rats were significantly enhanced. In addition, physical locomotion was markedly improved. Daily intake of 400 mg of CRS-10 improved the quality of life among agingmale respondents, according to a clinical survey using the AMS. The results indicate the potential of CRS-10 as a safe and efficacious natural substance for reducing or alleviating andropause symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2012.6.6.505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3542440PMC
December 2012

Delayed presentation of intravesical bone penetration after pelvic ring fracture.

Korean J Urol 2012 Dec 20;53(12):887-9. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Department of Urology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Retrograde cystography and computed tomography (CT) are considered the gold standard for investigating bladder and pelvic bone injury. However, these methods can miss extraperitoneal bladder rupture caused by a penetrating bone fragment from a pelvic bone fracture. We experienced a routine conventional cystography and CT scan that failed to identify penetration of the bladder by a bone fragment, which thus delayed optimal treatment. Therefore, different diagnostic methods such as CT cystography or cystoscopy should be considered to rule out penetrating injury by a bony fragment in patients with extraperitoneal bladder rupture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/kju.2012.53.12.887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3531646PMC
December 2012