Publications by authors named "Sook-Young Park"

97 Publications

Production and Activity of Cristazarin in the Lichen-Forming Fungus .

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Jul 26;7(8). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Plant Medicine, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea.

Lichens are a natural source of bioactive compounds. var. KoLRI002260 is a rare lichen known to produce phenolic compounds, such as rhodocladonic, thamnolic, and didymic acids. However, these metabolites have not been detected in isolated mycobionts. We investigated the effects of six carbon sources on metabolite biosynthesis in the mycobiont. Red pigments appeared only in Lilly and Barnett's media with fructose at 15 °C after 3 weeks of culture and decreased after 6 weeks. We purified these red pigments using preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography and analyzed them via nuclear magnetic resonance. Results indicated that 1% fructose-induced cristazarin and 6-methylcristazarin production under light conditions. In total, 27 out of 30 putative polyketide synthase genes were differentially expressed after 3 weeks of culture, implying that these genes may be required for cristazarin production in Moreover, the white collar genes and were highly upregulated at all times under light conditions, indicating a possible correlation between cristazarin production and gene expression. The cancer cell lines AGS, CT26, and B16F1 were sensitive to cristazarin, with IC values of 18.2, 26.1, and 30.9 μg/mL, respectively, which highlights the value of cristazarin. Overall, our results suggest that 1% fructose under light conditions is required for cristazarin production by mycobionts, and cristazarin could be a good bioactive compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7080601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397021PMC
July 2021

Nematicidal Activity of Grammicin Biosynthesis Pathway Intermediates in KCTC 13121BP against .

Molecules 2021 Aug 2;26(15). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

Grammicin, a polyketide metabolite produced by the endolichenic fungus KCTC 13121BP, shows strong nematicidal activity against This study was performed to elucidate the grammicin biosynthesis pathway of KCTC 13121BP and to examine the nematicidal activity of the biosynthesis intermediates and derivatives against . Two grammicin biosynthesis intermediates were isolated from a T-DNA insertion transformant (strain TR-74) of KCTC 13121BP and identified as 2-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (compound ) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (compound ), which were also reported to be intermediates in the biosynthesis pathway of patulin, an isomer of grammicin. This indicates that the grammicin biosynthesis pathway overlaps almost with that of patulin, except for the last few steps. Among 13 grammicin biosynthesis intermediates and their derivatives (except grammicin), toluquinol caused the highest J2 mortality, with an LC value of 11.13 µg/mL, which is similar to grammicin with an LC value of 15.95 µg/mL. In tomato pot experiments, the wettable powder type formulations (WP) of toluquinol (17.78 µg/mL) and grammicin (17.78 µg/mL) also effectively reduced gall formation on the roots of tomato plants with control values of 72.22% and 77.76%, respectively, which are much higher than abamectin (16.67%), but lower than fosthiazate (100%). The results suggest that toluquinol can be used directly as a biochemical nematicide or as a lead molecule for the development of new synthetic nematicides for the control of root-knot nematode diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348278PMC
August 2021

Draft Genome Sequence of EL000614, a Strain Producing Grammicin, a Potent Nematicidal Compound.

Mycobiology 2021 28;49(3):294-296. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Microorganism Resources Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, Korea.

An endolichenic fungus, strain EL000614, showed strong nematicidal effects against plant pathogenic nematode, by producing grammicin. We report genome assembly of EL000614 comprised of 25 scaffolds with a total length of 54.73 Mb, N50 of 4.60 Mb, and 99.8% of BUSCO completeness. GC contents of this genome were 44.02%. Gene families associated with biosynthesis of secondary metabolites or regulatory proteins were identified out of 13,730 gene models predicted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2021.1914360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259839PMC
April 2021

First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fructicola on Hybrid Pear Fruit in Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Sunchon National University, 65380, Plant Medicine, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Korea (the Republic of), 57922.

In August 2020, anthracnose-like symptoms was observed on pear fruit (Pyrus pyrifolia  P. communis) cultivated at 0.2 ha by the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science Pear Research Institute at the Rural Development Administration (Naju, Jeonnam Province in Korea). Symptoms were observed only on fruit (112 days after full bloom (DAFB)), and disease incidences was at least 90%. Initial black specks developed into larger brown or black lesions on fruit after 3 days. Later, sunken lesions with orange conidial masses were observed. Finally, infected fruit dropped prematurely. To isolate and identify the pathogen, small pieces (5  5 mm) from the margin of lesions on fruit were surface sterilized by immersing in 70% ethanol for 1 minute, washed three times with sterile water, dried, and placed on water agar amended with 100 ppm streptomycin, then incubated in the dark at 25°C. Hyphae emerging from the three independent tissues were subcultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), resulting in three independent isolates (CP-1, CP-2, CP-3) after single spore isolation. Colonies were pale gray on PDA, but the colony edges were white. Conidia were transparent, cylindrical with rounded ends, and 13.8 to 20.1 μm  4.8 to 6.2 μm (avg. 18.3 μm  5.4 μm, n = 100) in size. Appressoria were dark brown, globose or subcylindrical, and 6.3 to 9.5 μm  5.2 to 6.9 μm in size (8.1  6.1 μm, n = 100). The morphological characteristics were similar to the descriptions of C. gloeosporioides species complex (Weir et al. 2012). Sequences of ITS (MT921589-91), GAPDH (MT921987-89), CAL (MT921990-92), ACT (MT921993-95), CHS-1 (MT921996-98), TUB2 (921999-01), and ApMAT (MT922002-04) sequences from CP-1, CP-2, and CP-3 matched with C. fruiticola strain BRIP 62871 (100%; MK298285), HXQT-2 (100%; MN52588), HXQT-2 (100%; MN52839), HXQT-2 (99.65; MN525801), ICKP18B4 (99.34%; LC494275), HB5 (100%; MH985245), and GQHZJ23 (100%; MN338294), respectively. Concatenated gene sequences were used for a phylogenetic analysis based on the maximum likelihood method. The reference gene accessions and other information are presented in Weir et al. (2012). The analysis placed the isolates within a clade comprising C. fructicola. Pathogenicity of CP-1 was tested using 120 healthy pear fruits. The fruit surfaces were sterilized with 70% ethyl alcohol for 2 min and washed twice with sterilized water. Three 120 DAFB fruits were inoculated with 10 l of a conidial suspension (1×106 conidia/ml) with and without wounding. Another three control fruits were inoculated with sterile distilled with and without wounding. The inoculated fruit were placed in a plastic box to maintain high humidity and incubated in the dark at 25°C. Symptoms were observed on both wounded fruits after 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and 5 dpi on the unwounded fruits. No symptoms were observed in the control on both the wounded fruits. Pathogenicity tests was performed in duplicate. The pathogen was re-isolated from symptomatic tissues (100%) on treatments on both the wounded and unwounded fruits, but not control. The identity of the both re-isolated pathogen from the wounded and unwounded fruits was confirmed via analysis of seven genes and morphological characteristics, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. Although C. fructicola has been reported on apples and peaches in Korea (Kim et al. 2018; Lee et al. 2020), this is the first report of anthracnose caused by C. fructicola on pear fruit in Korea, highlighting the need for systematically investigating the diversity and incidence of pear anthracnose in Korea. This study will contribute to the development of control strategies for anthracnose disease on pear fruit in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-20-1866-PDNDOI Listing
May 2021

Harnessing chemical ecology for environment-friendly crop protection.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Seoul National University, Agricultural Biotechnology, CALS, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of), 151-921;

Heavy reliance on synthetic pesticides for crop protection becomes increasingly unsustainable, calling for robust alternative strategies that do not degrade the environment and vital ecosystem services. There exist numerous reports of successful disease control using various microbes in small-scale trials. However, their inconsistent efficacy has hampered large-scale applications. An enhanced understanding of how beneficial microbes interact with plants, other microbes, and the environment and which factors affect their efficacy of disease control is crucial to deploy microbial allies as effective and reliable pesticide alternatives. Diverse metabolites produced by plants and microbes participate in pathogenesis and defense, regulate the growth and development of themselves and neighboring organisms, help maintain cellular homeostasis under varied environmental conditions, and affect the assembly and activity of plant and soil microbiomes. However, research on the metabolites associated with plant growth/health-related processes, except antibiotics, has not received adequate attention. This review highlights several classes of metabolites known or suspected to affect plant health, focusing on those associated with biocontrol and belowground plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. The review also presents how new insights anticipated from systematically exploring the diversity and mechanism of action of bioactive metabolites can be harnessed to develop novel crop protection strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-01-21-0035-RVWDOI Listing
April 2021

Draft Genome Sequence of Strain SJ1-7, a Soil Bacterial Isolate.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Mar 11;10(10). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Plant Medicine, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, South Korea

The draft genome sequence of strain SJ1-7, a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of a plant, is reported. The whole-genome assembly comprised 7.9 Mbp, with a GC content of 71.80% and 4,262 predicted protein-coding genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01283-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953297PMC
March 2021

First Report of Bleeding Canker of Pear Tree Trunks Caused by Dickeya fangzhongdai in Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Sunchon National University, 65380, Plant Medicine, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Korea (the Republic of), 57922.

Pears (Pyrus pylifolia L.) are cultivated nationwide as one of the most economically important fruit trees in Korea. At the end of October 2019, bleeding canker was observed in a pear orchard located in Naju, Jeonnam Province (34°53'50.54″ N, 126°39'00.32″ E). The canker was observed on trunks and branches of two 25-year-old trees, and the diseased trunks and branches displayed partial die-back or complete death. When the bark was peeled off from the diseased trunks or branches, brown spots or red streaks were found in the trees. Bacterial ooze showed a rusty color and the lesion was sap-filled with a yeasty smell. Trunks displaying bleeding symptoms were collected from two trees. Infected bark tissues (3 × 3 mm) from the samples were immersed in 70% ethanol for 1 minute, rinsed three times in sterilized water, ground to fine powder using a mortar and pestle, and suspended in sterilized water. After streaking each suspension on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar, the plates were incubated at 25°C without light for 2 days. Small yellow-white bacterial colonies with irregular margins were predominantly obtained from all the samples. Three representative isolates (ECM-1, ECM-2 and ECM-3) were subjected to further characterization. These isolates were cultivated at 39 C, and utilized (-)-D-arabinose, (+) melibiose, (+)raffinose, mannitol and myo-inositol but not 5-keto-D-gluconate, -gentiobiose, or casein. These isolates were identified as Dickeya sp. based on the sequence of 16S rRNA (MT820458-820460) gene amplified using primers 27f and 1492r (Heuer et al. 2000). The 16S rRNA sequences matched with D. fangzhongdai strain ND14b (99.93%; CP009460.1) and D. fangzhongdai strain PA1(99.86%; CP020872.1). The recA, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, and dnaX genes and the intergenic spacer (IGS) regions were also sequenced as described in Van der wolf et al. (2014). The recA (MT820437-820439), fusA (MT820440-820442), gapA (MT820443-820445), purA (MT820446-820448), rplB (MT820449-820451), dnaX (MT820452-820454) and IGS (MT820455-820457) sequences matched with D. fangzhongdai strains JS5, LN1 and QZH3 (KT992693-992695, KT992697-992699, KT992701-992703, KT992705-992707, KT992709-992711, KT992713-992715, and KT992717-992719, respectively). A neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated recA, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, dnaX and IGS sequences placed the representative isolates within a clade comprising D. fangzhongdai. ECM-1 to 3 were grouped into a clade with one strain isolated from waterfall, D. fangzhongdai ND14b from Malaysia. Pathogenicity test was performed using isolate ECM-1. Three two-year-old branches and flower buds on 10-year-old pear tree (cv. Nittaka), grown at the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science Pear Research Institute (Naju, Jeonnam Province in Korea), were inoculated with 10 μl and 2 μl of a bacterial suspension (108 cfu/ml), respectively, after wounding inoculation site with a sterile scalpel (for branch) or injecting with syringe (for flower bud). Control plants were inoculated with water. Inoculated branches and buds in a plastic bag were placed in a 30℃ incubator without light for 2 days (Chen et al. 2020). Both colorless and transparent bacterial ooze and typical bleeding canker were observed on both branches and buds at 3 and 2 weeks post inoculation, respectively. No symptoms were observed on control branches and buds. This pathogenicity assay was conducted three times. We reisolated three colonies from samples displaying the typical symptoms and checked the identity of one by sequencing the dnaX locus. Dickeya fangzhongdai has been reported to cause bleeding canker on pears in China (Tian et al. 2016; Chen et al. 2020). This study will contribute to facilitate identification and control strategies of this disease in Korea. This is the first report of D. fangzhongdai causing bleeding canker on pears in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-20-1948-PDNDOI Listing
February 2021

Two nuclear effectors of the rice blast fungus modulate host immunity via transcriptional reprogramming.

Nat Commun 2020 11 17;11(1):5845. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea.

Pathogens utilize multiple types of effectors to modulate plant immunity. Although many apoplastic and cytoplasmic effectors have been reported, nuclear effectors have not been well characterized in fungal pathogens. Here, we characterize two nuclear effectors of the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Both nuclear effectors are secreted via the biotrophic interfacial complex, translocated into the nuclei of initially penetrated and surrounding cells, and reprogram the expression of immunity-associated genes by binding on effector binding elements in rice. Their expression in transgenic rice causes ambivalent immunity: increased susceptibility to M. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, hemibiotrophic pathogens, but enhanced resistance to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, a necrotrophic pathogen. Our findings help remedy a significant knowledge deficiency in the mechanism of M. oryzae-rice interactions and underscore how effector-mediated manipulation of plant immunity by one pathogen may also affect the disease severity by other pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19624-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672089PMC
November 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of JS-1345, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Stem Tissue of Korean Fir.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Apr 2;9(14). Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Genetic Resources Assessment Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea

The fungus strain JS-1345, isolated from stem tissue of (Korean fir), has shown strong anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we report the genome sequence of JS-1345. The final assembly consisted of 133 scaffolds totaling 38,652,569 bp (G+C content, 44.07%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01284-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118187PMC
April 2020

The rice/maize pathogen Cochliobolus spp. infect and reproduce on Arabidopsis revealing differences in defensive phytohormone function between monocots and dicots.

Plant J 2020 07 13;103(1):412-429. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Plant Immunity Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea.

The fungal genus Cochliobolus describes necrotrophic pathogens that give rise to significant losses on rice, wheat, and maize. Revealing plant mechanisms of non-host resistance (NHR) against Cochliobolus will help to uncover strategies that can be exploited in engineered cereals. Therefore, we developed a heterogeneous pathosystem and studied the ability of Cochliobolus to infect dicotyledons. We report here that C. miyabeanus and C. heterostrophus infect Arabidopsis accessions and produce functional conidia, thereby demonstrating the ability to accept Brassica spp. as host plants. Some ecotypes exhibited a high susceptibility, whereas others hindered the necrotrophic disease progression of the Cochliobolus strains. Natural variation in NHR among the tested Arabidopsis accessions can advance the identification of genetic loci that prime the plant's defence repertoire. We found that applied phytotoxin-containing conidial fluid extracts of C. miyabeanus caused necrotic lesions on rice leaves but provoked only minor irritations on Arabidopsis. This result implies that C. miyabeanus phytotoxins are insufficiently adapted to promote dicot colonization, which corresponds to a retarded infection progression. Previous studies on rice demonstrated that ethylene (ET) promotes C. miyabeanus infection, whereas salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) exert a minor function. However, in Arabidopsis, we revealed that the genetic disruption of the ET and JA signalling pathways compromises basal resistance against Cochliobolus, whereas SA biosynthesis mutants showed a reduced susceptibility. Our results refer to the synergistic action of ET/JA and indicate distinct defence systems between Arabidopsis and rice to confine Cochliobolus propagation. Moreover, this heterogeneous pathosystem may help to reveal mechanisms of NHR and associated defensive genes against Cochliobolus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14743DOI Listing
July 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus oryzae BP2-1, Isolated from Traditional Malted Rice in South Korea.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Jan 2;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Genetic Resources Assessment Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, Republic of Korea

The fungus strain BP2-1 was isolated from the traditional malted starter culture nuruk. We report here the draft whole-genome sequence of BP2-1, which is comprised of 14 scaffolds with a total length of 39,455,382 bp and a GC content of 47.13%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01405-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940305PMC
January 2020

Transcriptome Profiling of the Rice Blast Fungus and Its Host During Infection.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2020 Feb 2;33(2):141-144. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Interdisciplinary Program in Agricultural Genomics, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, South Korea.

The rice blast (fungal pathogen: and host: ) is one of the most important model pathosystems for understanding plant-microbe interactions. Although both genome sequences were published as the first cases of pathogen and host, only a few in planta transcriptome data during infection are available. Due to technical difficulties, previously reported fungal transcriptome data are not highly qualified to comprehensively profile the expression of fungal genes during infection. Here, we report the high-quality transcriptomes of and rice during infection using a sheath infection-based RNA sequencing approach. This comprehensive expression profiling of the fungal pathogen and its host will provide a better platform for understanding the plant-microbe interactions at the genomic level and serve as a valuable resource for the research community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-07-19-0207-ADOI Listing
February 2020

Survival Factor Gene Is Required for Normal Growth and Stress Resistance in .

Plant Pathol J 2019 Oct 1;35(5):393-405. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Applied Biology, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea.

Survival factor 1 (Svf1) is a protein involved in cell survival pathways. In , Svf1 is required for the diauxic growth shift and survival under stress conditions. In this study, we characterized the role of , the homolog in the homothallic ascomycete fungus . In the deletion mutant, conidial germination was delayed, vegetative growth was reduced, and pathogenicity was completely abolished. Although the deletion mutant produced perithecia, the normal maturation of ascospore was dismissed in deletion mutant. The deletion mutant also showed reduced resistance to osmotic, fungicide, and cold stress and reduced sensitivity to oxidative stress when compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, we showed that affects glycolysis, which results in the abnormal vegetative growth in the deletion mutant. Further, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated in the deletion mutant, and this accumulated ROS might be related to the reduced sensitivity to oxidative stress and the reduced resistance to cold stress and fungicide stress. Overall, understanding the role of in provides a new target to control infections in fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2019.0070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6788415PMC
October 2019

Pi5 and Pii Paired NLRs Are Functionally Exchangeable and Confer Similar Disease Resistance Specificity.

Mol Cells 2019 Sep;42(9):637-645

Graduate School of Biotechnology and Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an effective layer of plant defense initiated upon recognition of avirulence (Avr) effectors from pathogens by cognate plant disease resistance (R) proteins. In rice, a large number of genes have been characterized from various cultivars and have greatly contributed to breeding programs to improve resistance against the rice blast pathogen . The extreme diversity of gene repertoires is thought to be a result of co-evolutionary history between rice and its pathogens including . Here we show that is an allele of Pi5 by DNA sequence characterization and complementation analysis. and cDNAs were cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from the -carrying cultivar Fujisaka5 . The complementation test in susceptible rice cultivar Dongjin demonstrated that the rice blast resistance mediated by Pii , similar to , requires the presence of two nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat genes, and . Consistent with our hypothesis that and are functionally indistinguishable, the replacement of by and by , respectively, does not change the level of disease resistance to M. oryzae carrying AVR-Pii. Surprisingly, Exo70F3, required for -mediated resistance, is dispensable for -mediated resistance. Based on our results, despite similarities observed between Pi5 and Pii, we hypothesize that Pi5 and Pii pairs require partially distinct mechanisms to function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6776156PMC
September 2019

Draft Genome Sequence of JS-1675, an Endophytic Fungus from .

Microbiol Resour Announc 2019 May 16;8(20). Epub 2019 May 16.

Genetic Resources Assessment Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea

The fungus strain JS-1675 has been reported to exert antimicrobial effects against various plant-pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of for the first time. The assembly comprises 48,177,783 bp with 18 scaffolds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00069-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522779PMC
May 2019

Genetic Diversity of the Pear Scab Fungus in Korea.

Mycobiology 2019 Mar 1;47(1):76-86. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Plant Medicine, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Korea.

Scab disease caused by is of agroeconomic importance in cultivation of Asian pear. However, little is known about the degree of genetic diversity in the populations of this pathogen. In this study, we collected 55 isolates from pear scab lesions in 13 major cultivation areas in Korea and examined the diversity using sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, β-tubulin (TUB2), and translation elongation factor-1 (TEF-1) genes as molecular markers. Despite a low level of overall sequence variation, we found three distinctive subgroups from phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, TUB2, and TEF-1 sequences. Among the three subgroups, subgroup 1 (60% of isolates collected) was predominant compared to subgroup 2 (23.6%) or subgroup 3 (16.4%) and was distributed throughout Korea. To understand the genetic diversity among the subgroups, RAPD analysis was performed. The isolates yielded highly diverse amplicon patterns and none of the defined subgroups within the dendrogram were supported by bootstrap values greater than 30%. Moreover, there is no significant correlation between the geographical distribution and the subgroups defined by molecular phylogeny. Our data suggest a low level of genetic diversification among the populations of in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2019.1572263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452914PMC
March 2019

Corrigendum to "Caspase-independent cell death by allicin in human epithelial carcinoma cells: involvement of PKA."[Canc. Lett. (2005) 224 (1) 123-32].

Cancer Lett 2019 Mar 6;444:188. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Immunopharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do, 440-746, South Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2018.11.036DOI Listing
March 2019

Isolation and Identification of Fungal Species from the Insect Pest in Rice Processing Complexes in Korea.

Plant Pathol J 2018 Oct 1;34(5):356-366. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Plant Medicine, College of Life Science and Natural Resources, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea.

The red flour beetle, , is one of the most common and economically important pests of stored cereal products worldwide. Furthermore, these beetles can act as vectors for several fungal post-harvest diseases. In this study, we collected from 49 rice processing complexes (RPCs) nationwide during 2016-2017 and identified contaminating fungal species on the surface of the beetles. Five beetles from each region were placed on potato dextrose agar media or selection media after wet processing with 100% relative humidity at 27°C for one week. A total of 142 fungal isolates were thus collected. By sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region, 23 fungal genera including one unidentified taxon were found to be associated with . The genus spp. (28.9%) was the most frequently present, followed by spp. (12.0%), (9.2%), spp. (8.5%), spp. (6.3%), spp. (5.6%), spp. (3.5%), (2.8%) and sp. (2.8%). Less commonly identified were genera , , , , , , , , , , , , , and . Among the isolates, two known mycotoxin-producing fungi, and spp. were also identified. This result is consistent with previous studies that surveyed fungal and mycotoxin contamination in rice from RPCs. Our study indicates that the storage pest, , would play an important role in spreading fungal contaminants and consequently increasing mycotoxin contamination in stored rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2018.0027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200038PMC
October 2018

Effect of Evening Primrose Oil on Korean Patients With Mild Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study.

Ann Dermatol 2018 Aug 27;30(4):409-416. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Dermatology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is related to a deficiency of delta-6-desaturase, an enzyme responsible for converting linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Evening primrose oil (EPO) as a source of GLA has been of interest in the management of AD.

Objective: The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EPO in Korean patients with AD.

Methods: Fifty mild AD patients with an Eczema Area Severity Index (EASI) score of 10 or less were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The first group received an oval unmarked capsule containing 450 mg of EPO (40 mg of GLA) per capsule, while placebo capsules identical in appearance and containing 450 mg of soybean oil were given to the other group. Treatment continued for a period of four months. EASI scores, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin hydration were evaluated in all the AD patients at the baseline, and in months 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the study.

Results: At the end of month 4, the patients of the EPO group showed a significant improvement in the EASI score (=0.040), whereas the patients of the placebo group did not. There was a significant difference in the EASI score between the EPO and placebo groups (=0.010). Although not statistically significant, the TEWL and skin hydration also slightly improved in the EPO patients group.

Conclusion: We suggest that EPO is a safe and effective medicine for Korean patients with mild AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2018.30.4.409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029968PMC
August 2018

Revision of the Lichen Genus (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) in South Korea.

Mycobiology 2018 3;46(2):101-113. Epub 2018 May 3.

Korean Lichen Research Institute, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, South Korea.

Lichen genus (Schreb.) Hoffm is distributed throughout the world. Although 15 species have been recorded in Korea, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary research has been conducted for nearly two decades. In this study, we collected 260 putative spp. samples and identified the species based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. From the collected samples, 10 species of were identified, nine of which had already been reported, although this was the first report for the tenth, . Hue, in Korea. General characteristics of spp. include coralloid phyllocladia and tubercular cephalodia; however, the specimen first collected in Korea was a rare species with tomentum on the pseudopodetia. The specimen of is characterized by the presence of a primary thallus, granule to short coralloid phyllocladia, and pseudopodetia up to 1 cm in size, with tubercular cephalodia. To determine the phylogeny of the specimens, we compared the ITS sequences of ribosomal DNA and the β-tubulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean species were monophyletic and placed in the previous phylogenetic classification. Species of and , however, were polyphyletic, and are morphologically variable and widespread species. Overall, we present here detailed morphological and chemical descriptions of each species identified and a revised key of all known species in South Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2018.1461314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6023260PMC
May 2018

Role of the Histone Acetyltransferase Rtt109 in Development and Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2018 11 26;31(11):1200-1210. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

1 Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) by the fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 plays important roles in maintaining genome integrity and surviving DNA damage. Here, we investigated the implications of Rtt109-mediated response to DNA damage on development and pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae). The ortholog of Rtt109 in M. oryzae (MoRtt109) was found via sequence homology and its functionality was confirmed by phenotypic complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtt109 deletion strain. Targeted deletion of MoRtt109 resulted in a significant reduction in acetylation of H3K56 and rendered the fungus defective in hyphal growth and asexual reproduction. Furthermore, the deletion mutant displayed hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, confirming the conserved importance of Rtt109 in genome integrity maintenance and genotoxic stress tolerance. Elevated expression of DNA repair genes and the results of the comet assay were consistent with constitutive endogenous DNA damage. Although the conidia produced from the mutant were not impaired in germination and appressorium morphogenesis, the mutant was significantly less pathogenic on rice leaves. Transcriptomic analysis provided insight into the factors underlying phenotypic defects that are associated with deficiency of H3K56 acetylation. Overall, our results indicate that MoRtt109 is a conserved histone acetyltransferase that affects proliferation and asexual fecundity of M. oryzae through maintenance of genome integrity and response to DNA damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-01-18-0015-RDOI Listing
November 2018

Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Induced by Triamcinolone in a Patient with Atopic Dermatitis.

J Korean Med Sci 2018 Mar 19;33(12):e87. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Korea.

Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agents used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including allergic disease. They are frequently considered the therapy-of-choice for many skin diseases. However, allergic reactions caused by corticosteroids have been reported. Among these, delayed reactions to topical steroids are more common, whereas immediate reactions to systemic steroids are rare. Herein, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman with triamcinolone-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction, in which the patient had a positive prick test result with triamcinolone. She has had atopic dermatitis (AD) for three years. She had used systemic steroid, cyclosporine, and antihistamine with topical steroids for AD. In clinic, approximately 10 minutes after intralesional injection of triamcinolone, she complained of erythematous patches with slight elevation and itching on the face, trunk, and both hands. After intravenous injection of dexamethasone, her symptoms got worse. After treatment with epinephrine, all symptoms resolved within two hours. We performed an open test and skin prick test. She had a positive result only from the prick test with triamcinolone; all other steroids showed negative results from the open tests. Dermatologists should be aware of the possibility of anaphylaxis or other allergic hypersensitivity in response to corticosteroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2018.33.e87DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852418PMC
March 2018

Taxonomic Revision of the Lichen Genera , , and (Pertusariales, Ascomycota) in South Korea.

Mycobiology 2017 Dec 31;45(4):270-285. Epub 2017 Dec 31.

Korean Lichen Research Institute, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea.

The crustose lichen genus comprises over ca. 800 species worldwide. In total, 20 species were localized to the Mt. Sorak and Jeju-do in Korea. To date, information regarding the distribution of species in the South Korean peninsula is scarce. In this study, we collected species across South Korea and identified them based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. Of the 387 samples collected, we identified 24 taxa and 1 variety, of which 17 were previously recorded, and 6 taxa were newly found in South Korea (, var. , , , , and ), 2 known species were transferred to ( and ), one species was transferred to as a new record () and one was a new species ( J. S. Park & J.-S. Hur, sp. nov.). Characteristics of the newly discovered species, , are as follows: smooth to bumpy thallus, scattered to crowded poriform apothecia, blackish ostioles, definitely sunken, thin yellowish green rims around ostioles, 8-spored ascus, and the presence of perlatolic acid and thiophaninic acid (chlorinated xanthone). Phylogenetic studies on based on the mitochondrial small subunit sequence revealed proximity to and , and supported its classification as a new species within the genus . Additionally, we describe the chemical composition and morphology of all listed species in detail and provide an artificial key for identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2017.45.4.270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5780359PMC
December 2017

(Arthoniaceae, Arthoniales), A New Lichen Species from South Korea.

Mycobiology 2017 Dec 31;45(4):255-262. Epub 2017 Dec 31.

Korean Lichen Research Institute, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea.

A total of 121 species of lichens belonging to the genus have been described to date, most of which have been found in tropical regions. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel species for the first time in South Korea. Until now, was the only species reported in South Korea. Among the 113 specimens collected in this study, we identified and a putative new species, (J. S. Park & J.-S. Hur, sp. nov.). The diagnostic characters of are as follows: apothecia punctate, shortly elongate to branched, small, 0.1-0.2 mm wide, hypothecium hyaline to pale brown and obovate to broadly ellipsoid, muriform ascospores, 29.5-44.6 × 12.2-18.2 μm. The new species was found in Mt. Seokbyeong at an altitude of 790 m on smooth bark. Upon phylogenic analysis, the putative new species, , was separated from other species although the specimens analyzed were clustered with Arthoniaceae in phylogenetic trees based on both the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequence and combined mtSSU and nuclear ribosomal large subunit sequences. Our data clearly indicate that this species is a new species belonging to the family Arthoniaceae. To elucidate the taxonomic characteristics of the new species, we provide morphological descriptions and a distribution map.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2017.45.4.255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5780357PMC
December 2017

Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Histamine Levels in Selected Foods.

Ann Dermatol 2017 Dec 30;29(6):706-714. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Histamine in food is known to cause food poisoning and allergic reactions. We usually ingest histamine in cooked food, but there are few studies about the influence of cooking method on the histamine level.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of cooking methods on the concentration of histamine in foods.

Methods: The foods chosen were those kinds consumed frequently and cooked by grilling, boiling, and frying. The histamine level of the food was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Grilled seafood had higher histamine levels than raw or boiled seafood. For meat, grilling increased the histamine level, whereas boiling decreased it. For eggs, there was not much difference in histamine level according to cooking method. Fried vegetables had higher histamine levels than raw vegetables. And fermented foods didn't show much difference in histamine level after being boiled.

Conclusion: The histamine level in food has changed according to the cooking method used to prepare it. Frying and grilling increased histamine level in foods, whereas boiling had little influence or even decreased it. The boiling method might be helpful to control the effect of histamine in histamine-sensitive or susceptible patients, compared with frying and grilling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2017.29.6.706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705351PMC
December 2017

Genome Sequence of an Endophytic Fungus, JS-169, Which Has Antifungal Activity.

Genome Announc 2017 Oct 19;5(42). Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Genetic Resources Assessment Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea

An endophytic fungus, strain JS-169, isolated from a mulberry twig, showed considerable antifungal activity. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. The assembly comprises 17 scaffolds, with an value of 4.93 Mb. The assembled genome was 45,813,297 bp in length, with a G+C content of 49.91%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01071-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5646396PMC
October 2017

Draft Genome Sequence of NIBRFGC000004109, Which Has Antibacterial Activity against Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria.

Genome Announc 2017 Sep 21;5(38). Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Genetic Resources Assessment Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea

The fungus strain NIBRFGC000004109 is capable of producing penicillic acid and showed antibacterial activity against various plant-pathogenic bacteria, including pv. pruni. Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of The assembly comprises 38,414,373 bp, with 12 scaffolds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00932-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609410PMC
September 2017

Incidence Rates of Major Diseases of Kiwiberry in 2015 and 2016.

Plant Pathol J 2017 Aug 1;33(4):434-439. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Department of Plant Medicine, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea.

Incidence rates of diseases in kiwiberry orchards were investigated monthly from late June to late September in Gwangyang and Boseong in 2015 and 2016. The impact of postharvest fruit rot was investigated during ripening after harvest. Bacterial canker was only observed on one single tree in 2015, but black rot, powdery mildew, leaf spot and blight, and postharvest fruit rot diseases were problematic throughout the study period in both 2015 and 2016. Incidence rates of the diseases varied with kiwiberry cultivar, region and sampling time. Incidence rates of powdery mildew, leaf spot and blight diseases increased significantly during the late growing stages near fruit harvest, while black rot peaked in late August. Incidence rate of postharvest fruit rot on fruit without fruit stalks was less than half of fruit with fruit stalks, regardless of kiwiberry cultivars. Among the four cultivars, Mansu was relatively resistant to black rot and postharvest fruit rot diseases. In our knowledge, this is the first report of various potential pathogens of kiwiberry in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.NT.01.2017.0010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5538448PMC
August 2017

Draft Genome Sequence of an Endophytic Fungus, sp. Strain JS-464, Isolated from a Reed Plant, .

Genome Announc 2017 Aug 3;5(31). Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Genetic Resources Assessment Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea

An endophytic fungus, sp. strain JS-464, is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites which showed significant nitric oxide reduction activity. The draft genome assembly has a size of 53,151,282 bp, with a G+C content of 53.11% consisting of 80 scaffolds with an of 7.46 Mbp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00734-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543644PMC
August 2017
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