Publications by authors named "Sook Kyung Do"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic Polymorphisms in Activating Transcription Factor 3 Binding Site and the Prognosis of Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncology 2021 Feb 24:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) plays a significant role in cancer development and progression. We investigated the association between variants in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) within ATF3 binding regions and the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgery.

Methods: A total of 772 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery were enrolled. Using a public database (http://galaxyproject.org), we selected 104 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eQTLs in the ATF3 binding regions. The association of those SNPs with disease-free survival (DFS) was evaluated.

Results: Among those SNPs, HAX1 rs11265425T>G was associated with significantly worse DFS (aHR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.00-1.69, p = 0.05), and ME3 rs10400291C>A was associated with significantly better DFS (aHR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46-0.95, p = 0.03). Regarding HAX1 rs11265425T>G, the significant association remained only in adenocarcinoma, and the association was significant only in squamous cell carcinoma regarding ME3 rs10400291C>A. ChIP-qPCR assays showed that the two variants reside in active enhancers where H3K27Ac and ATF3 binding occurs. Promoter assays showed that rs11265425 G allele had significantly higher HAX1 promoter activity than T allele. HAX1 RNA expression was significantly higher in tumor than in normal lung, and higher in rs11265425 TG+GG genotypes than in TT genotype. Conversely, ME3 expression was significantly lower in tumor than in normal lung, and higher in rs10400291 AA genotype than in CC+CA genotypes.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study shows that the functional polymorphisms in ATF3 binding sites, HAX1 rs11265425T>G and ME3 rs10400291C>A are associated with the clinical outcomes of patients in surgically resected NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514131DOI Listing
February 2021

Prognostic significance of genetic variants in GLUT1 in stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated with radiotherapy.

Thorac Cancer 2021 03 31;12(6):874-879. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Background: To examine the impact of polymorphisms of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) gene on the prognosis of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received radiotherapy.

Methods: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4658C>G, rs1385129G>A, rs3820589A>T, rs3806401A>C and rs3806400C>T) in GLUT1 gene were evaluated in 90 patients with pathologically confirmed stage III NSCLC. A total of 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, 25 with sequential chemoradiotherapy, and 44 with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The association of the genetic variations of five SNPs with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed.

Results: Two SNPs (rs1385129 and rs3806401) were significant risk factors for OS. Three SNPs (rs1385129, rs3820589 and rs3806401) were in linkage disequilibrium. In Cox proportional hazard models, GAA haplotype was a good prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.81, p = 0.002) and PFS (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.47-0.99, p = 0.043), compared to variant haplotypes. The GAA/GAA diplotype was observed in 46.7% of patients; these patients showed significantly better OS (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22-0.65, p < 0.001) and PFS (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31-0.85, p = 0.009) compared to those with other diplotypes.

Conclusions: These results suggest that polymorphisms of GLUT1 gene could be used as a prognostic marker for patients with stage III NSCLC treated with radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952810PMC
March 2021

Impact of immune checkpoint gene CD155 Ala67Thr and CD226 Gly307Ser polymorphisms on small cell lung cancer clinical outcome.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 19;11(1):1794. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41944, Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate the impact of genetic variants of immune checkpoint genes on the treatment outcome in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In the present study, 261 platinum doublet-treated SCLC patients were enrolled. A total of 96 polymorphisms in 33 immune checkpoint-related genes were selected, and their association with chemotherapy response and survival outcomes were analyzed. Among the polymorphisms studied, CD155 rs1058402G > A (Ala67Thr, A67T) and CD226 rs763361C > T (Gly307Ser, G307S) were significantly associated with SCLC treatment outcome. The rs1058402G > A had a worse chemotherapy response and overall survival (under a dominant model, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27-0.99, P = 0.05; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.12-2.14, P = 0.01, respectively). The rs763361C > T had better chemotherapy response and overall survival (under a dominant model, aOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.10-3.75, P = 0.02; aHR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.51-0.94, P = 0.02, respectively). When the rs1058402GA/AA and rs763361CC genotypes were combined, the chemotherapy response and overall survival were significantly decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33-0.81, Ptrend = 0.004; aHR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.19-1.84, Ptrend = 4 × 10, respectively). The 3-D structural model showed that CD155 A67T created a new hydrogen bond and structural change on CD155. These changes resulted in extending the distance and losing the hydrogen bonds between CD155 and CD226, thus weakening CD155/CD226 binding activity. In conclusion, CD155 rs1058402G > A and CD226 rs763361C > T may be useful for predicting the clinical outcomes of SCLC patients after chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81260-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815735PMC
January 2021

Genetic Variants in One-Carbon Metabolism Pathway Predict Survival Outcomes of Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncology 2020 13;98(12):897-904. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study was conducted to investigate the association between genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism and survival outcomes of surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: We genotyped 41 potentially functional variants of 19 key genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway among 750 NSCLC patients who underwent curative surgery. The association between genetic variants and overall survival (OS)/disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed.

Results: Among the 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed, 4 SNPs (MTHFD1L rs6919680T>G and rs3849794T>C, MTR rs2853523C>A, and MTHFR rs4846049G>T) were significantly associated with survival outcomes. MTHFD1L rs6919680T>G and MTR rs2853523C>A were significantly associated with better OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54-0.99, p = 0.04) and worse OS (aHR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.13-4.07, p = 0.02), respectively. MTHFD1L rs3849794T>C and MTHFR rs4846049G>T were significantly associated with worse DFS (aHR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.08-1.83, p = 0.01; and aHR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.10-3.53, p = 0.02, respectively). When the patients were divided according to histology, the associations were significant only in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but not in adenocarcinoma (AC). In SCC, MTHFD1L rs6919680T>G and MTR rs2853523C>A were significantly associated with better OS (aHR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.41-1.00, p = 0.05) and worse OS (aHR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.11-6.91, p = 0.03), respectively, and MTHFD1L rs3849794T>C and MTHFR rs4846049G>T were significantly associated with worse DFS (aHR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.17-2.56, p = 0.01; and aHR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.12-6.88, p = 0.03, respectively).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the genetic variants in the one-carbon metabolism pathway could be used as biomarkers for predicting the clinical outcomes of patients with early-stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509658DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of genetic variation in Notch regulator DTX1 on SCLC prognosis compared with the effect on NSCLC prongosis.

Thorac Cancer 2020 09 22;11(9):2698-2703. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Deltex-1 (DTX1) is a negative regulator of the Notch signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the clinical effect of DTX1 rs1732786A > G, which is associated with better prognosis in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in 261 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). DTX1 rs1732786A > G was associated with a significantly worse chemotherapy response and lower overall survival in the codominant model (odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.66, P = 2 × 10 ; hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.17-1.84, P = 0.001, respectively). An in vitro luciferase assay was performed, and the 1732786G allele demonstrated significantly higher promoter activity than the 1732786A allele (P = 2 × 10 ). In summary, DTX1 rs1732786A > G was associated with poor prognosis in patients with SCLC as opposed to patients with NSCLC. KEY POINTS: SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: DTX1 rs1732786A > G was associated with better prognosis in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in our previous study. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: DTX1 rs1732786A > G was associated with a significantly worse chemotherapy response and lower overall survival in small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471053PMC
September 2020

Polymorphisms in Glycolysis-Related Genes Are Associated with Clinical Outcomes of Paclitaxel-Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncology 2020 6;98(7):468-477. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea,

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms in glycolysis-related genes are associated with clinical outcomes of patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing chemotherapy.

Methods: A total of 377 patients with NSCLC were enrolled. Sixty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 26 genes involved in the glycolytic pathway were evaluated. The associations of the variants with the chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.

Results: Among the 65 variants investigated, PFKL rs2073436C>G and GPI rs7248411C>G significantly correlated with clinical outcomes after chemotherapy in multivariate analyses. PFKL rs2073436C>G was significantly associated with both a worse response to chemotherapy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90, p = 0.01) and a worse OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.61, p = 0.001). GPI rs7248411C>G was significantly associated with both a better chemotherapy response (aOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07-2.23, p = 0.02) and a better OS (aHR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.98, p = 0.03). When stratified by tumor histology, PFKL rs2073436C>G was significantly associated with OS only in squamous cell carcinoma, whereas GPI rs7248411C>G exhibited a significant association with the chemotherapy response and OS only in adenocarcinoma.

Conclusion: This result suggests that the PFKL rs2073436C>G and GPI rs7248411C>G are useful for predicting the clinical outcome of first-line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504175DOI Listing
July 2020

The effect of susceptibility variants, identified in never-smoking female lung cancer cases, on male smokers.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 07 30;35(4):929-935. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea.

Background/aims: Genome wide and candidate gene association studies have identified polymorphisms associated with the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between 11 polymorphisms identified in female never smokers and the lung cancer risk in male smokers.

Methods: This study included 714 lung cancer patients and 626 healthy controls. The polymorphisms were genotyped using SEQUENOM MassARRAY iPLEX assay or Taq-Man assay.

Results: Two polymorphisms were associated with the risk of lung cancer in male smokers, as in female never smokers. Male smokers carrying the rs4975616 variant allele had a significantly decreased risk of lung cancer (in a codominant model: odds ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.96; p = 0.02). The rs9387478 polymorphism also reduced lung cancer risk in male smokers (in a codominant model: odds ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.997; p = 0.046). In a stratified analysis, the association between these polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer was predominant in lighter smokers and for cases of adenocarcinoma.

Conclusion: These results suggest that a subset of polymorphisms known to be associated with the risk of lung cancer in female never smokers is also associated with the risk of lung cancer in male smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2018.417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373985PMC
July 2020

Polymorphism in ASCL1 target gene DDC is associated with clinical outcomes of small cell lung cancer patients.

Thorac Cancer 2020 01 5;11(1):19-28. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: Achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor and is essential in the differentiation of neuroendocrine cells and neural tissues. ASCL1 is frequently overexpressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCLC.

Methods: This study was conducted to identify the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ASCL1 target genes and clinical outcomes of patients with SCLC after chemotherapy. A total of 261 patients diagnosed with SCLC were enrolled in this study. The association between 103 SNPs in 58 ASCL1 target genes and the response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with SCLC were analyzed.

Results: Among the 103 SNPs, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with the response to chemotherapy, and 19 SNPs were associated with OS in multivariate analyses. Among these, Dopa Decarboxylase (DDC) rs12666409A>T was significantly associated with both a worse response to chemotherapy and worse OS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.18-0.90, P = 0.03; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10-2.10, P = 0.01, respectively, under a dominant model). In a stage-stratified analysis, the association was significant only in the extensive disease subgroup (aOR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06-0.60, P = 0.01; aHR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.16-2.56, P = 0.01, respectively, under a dominant model), but not in the limited disease subgroup.

Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that DDC rs12666409A>T may be useful markers for predicting the clinical outcomes of patients with SCLC undergoing chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938757PMC
January 2020

Genetic Variant of Notch Regulator DTX1 Predicts Survival After Lung Cancer Surgery.

Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Oct 16;26(11):3756-3764. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Background: We evaluated the association between genetic variants in the Notch pathway and survival outcomes of patients with surgically resected NSCLC.

Methods: Sixty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Notch pathway genes were evaluated in the discovery study (n = 354) and two sequential validation studies (n = 772 and n = 746, respectively). The association of genotype with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was evaluated.

Results: Of the 64 SNPs analyzed in the discovery study, 9 were significantly associated with OS or DFS. Among them, the association remained significant only for Deltex-1 (DTX1) rs1732786A>G in the first validation study. The second validation study confirmed again the association between DTX1 rs1732786A>G and survival outcomes. In the combined analysis, rs1732786A>G was significantly associated with better OS and DFS (adjusted HR ·aHR· for OS, 0.75; 95% CI 0.64-0.87; P = 0.0002; aHR for DFS, 0.79; 95% CI 0.71-0.89; P = 0.0001). In vitro luciferase assay showed that the rs1732786G allele was associated with higher promoter activity compared to rs1732786A allele. Consistently, relative mRNA expression level of DTX1 showed significant positive correlation with rs1732786 A-to-G change (P = 0.02) in tumor tissues.

Conclusions: These results suggest that DTX1 rs1732786 is a potential prognostic factor that may have clinical utility in the management of early stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07614-2DOI Listing
October 2019

Glucose transporter 3 gene variant is associated with survival outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer after surgical resection.

Gene 2019 Jun 4;703:58-64. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Department of Biomedical Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Lung Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to explore whether polymorphisms of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) gene affect the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GLUT3 were investigated in a total of 782 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) was analyzed. Among the four SNPs investigated, GLUT3 rs7309332C>T was significantly associated with OS and DFS in multivariate analyses. The SNP was associated with significantly worse OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-2.53, P = 0.03, under recessive model), and worse DFS (aHR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.18-2.29, P = 0.003, under recessive model). When stratified by tumor histology, the association between the GLUT3 rs7309332C>T and OS/DFS was not limited to either squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (AC), although the significant association remained only in AC for OS (P = 0.40 for SCC and P = 0.04 for OS) and only in SCC for DFS (P = 0.03 for SCC and P = 0.08 for OS). When AC patients were stratified according to EGFR mutation status, the SNP was significantly associated with DFS in patients with EGFR mutant tumors (aHR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.15-5.30, P = 0.02, under recessive model), but not in those with EGFR wild-type tumors. This study suggests that genetic variation in GLUT3 may be useful in predicting survival of patients with early stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.04.013DOI Listing
June 2019

TSC2 genetic variant and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer after curative surgery.

Thorac Cancer 2019 02 26;10(2):335-340. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of genes involved in the LKB1 pathway and the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LKB1 pathway were investigated in 782 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery. The association of SNPs with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Among the 23 SNPs investigated, TSC2 rs30259G > A was associated with significantly worse OS and DFS (adjusted hazard ratio for OS 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.91, P = 0.005; adjusted hazard ratio for DFS 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.15-2.38, P = 0.01, under codominant models, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that SNPs were significantly associated with survival outcomes in squamous cell carcinoma, ever-smokers, and stage I, but not in adenocarcinoma, never-smokers, and stage II-IIIA. The results suggest that TSC2 rs30259G > A may be useful to predict prognosis in patients with NSCLC, especially squamous cell carcinoma, after curative surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.12951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360237PMC
February 2019

An expression quantitative trait locus variant for LKB1 gene predicts the clinical outcomes of chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Genet 2018 12 16;228-229:73-82. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Lung Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea; BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Department of Biomedical Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: We conducted this study to identify regulatory variants in cancer-related pathway genes which can predict clinical outcomes of chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, using a comprehensive list of regulatory SNPs prioritized by RegulomeDB.

Methods: A total of 509 potentially functional SNPs in cancer-related pathway genes were evaluated. The SNPs were analyzed in a discovery set (n = 198), and an independent validation set (n = 181). The associations of the SNPs with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.

Results: In the discovery set, 95 SNPs were significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Among the 95 SNPs, only rs10414193A > G in the intronic region of ARID3A, an eQTL for LKB1, was consistently associated with chemotherapy response and OS in the validation set. In combined analysis, the rs10414193A > G was significantly associated with worse response to chemotherapy (adjusted odds ratio = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.47-0.85, P = 0.002), and with worse OS (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08-1.45, P = 0.004). Luciferase assay showed a significantly higher LKB1 promoter activity associated with rs10414193G allele compared with rs10414193A allele (P = 0.0009).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that rs10414193A > G may be useful for the prediction of clinical outcomes of chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2018.10.002DOI Listing
December 2018

Functional intronic variant of SLC5A10 affects DRG2 expression and survival outcomes of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

Cancer Sci 2018 Dec 7;109(12):3902-3909. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

RegulomeDB is a new tool that can predict the regulatory function of genetic variants. We applied RegulomeDB in selecting putative functional variants and evaluated the relationship between these variants and survival outcomes of surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer. Among the 244 variants studied, 14 were associated with overall survival (P < 0.05) in the discovery cohort and one variant (rs2257609 C>T) was replicated in the validation cohort. In the combined analysis, rs2257609 C>T was significantly associated with worse overall and disease-free survival under a dominant model (P = 2 × 10 and P = 0.001, respectively). rs2257609 is located in the SLC5A10 intron, but RegulomeDB predicted that this variant affected DRG2, not SLC5A10 expression. The expression level of SLC5A10 was not different with the rs2257609 genotype. However, DRG2 expression was different according to the rs2257609 genotype (P = 0.03) and was significantly higher in tumor than in non-malignant lung tissues (P = 1 × 10 ). Luciferase assay also showed higher promoter activity of DRG2 in samples with the rs2257609 T allele (P < 0.0001). rs2257609 C>T affected DRG2 expression and, thus, influenced the prognosis of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Broad of Kyungpook National University of Hospital (Approval No. KNUMC 2014-04-210-003).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6272084PMC
December 2018

Glucose Transporter 1 Gene Variants Predict the Prognosis of Patients with Early-Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Oct 30;25(11):3396-3403. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) gene are associated with the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection.

Methods: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GLUT1 were investigated in a total of 354 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery. The association of the SNPs with patients' survival was analyzed.

Results: Among the five SNPs investigated, two SNPs (GLUT1 rs3820589T > A and rs4658G > C) were significantly associated with OS in multivariate analyses. GLUT1 rs3820589T > A was associated with significantly better OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34-0.94, P = 0.03, under dominant model), and rs4658G > C was associated with significantly worse OS (aHR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.09-3.33, P = 0.02, under recessive model). In the stratified analysis by tumor histology, the effect of these SNPs on OS was only significant in squamous cell carcinoma but not in adenocarcinoma. When the two SNPs were combined, OS decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (Ptrend = 4 × 10).

Conclusions: This study suggests that genetic variation in GLUT1 may be useful in predicting survival of patients with early stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6677-1DOI Listing
October 2018

Intronic variant of EGFR is associated with GBAS expression and survival outcome of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2018 08 28;9(8):916-923. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Background: Genome-wide association studies have indicated that most of the currently identified disease and trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are intronic or intergenic. RegulomeDB is a recently developed database that provides functional annotations for regulatory features of SNPs located in non-coding regions. We evaluated the potential regulatory SNPs in the EGFR gene region using RegulomeDB and their associations with prognosis after surgery in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

Methods: A total of 698 patients with surgically resected NSCLC were enrolled and seven SNPs were selected based on the RegulomeDB database. All SNPs were genotyped using SEQUENOM MassARRAY iPLEX assay.

Results: Among the seven SNPs evaluated, rs9642391 (EGFR ivs19+2851C>G) was significantly associated with survival outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for overall survival = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.87, P = 0.001; adjusted HR for disease-free survival = 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97, P = 0.02; under a codominant model). According to RegulomeDB, rs9642391C>G, which is located in intron 19 of EGFR, was predicted to influence the expression of GBAS but not EGFR. As predicted, rs9642391C>G was associated with GBAS (P = 0.024) but not EGFR messenger RNA expression in tumor tissues.

Conclusion: In conclusion, our study provides evidence that rs9642391C>G in the intron of EGFR is associated with GBAS expression and survival outcomes of patients with surgically resected early-stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.12757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6068432PMC
August 2018

Polymorphisms in mitotic checkpoint-related genes can influence survival outcomes of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Oncotarget 2017 Sep 27;8(37):61777-61785. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate the association between variants in mitotic checkpoint-related genes and clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 766 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery were enrolled. Among the 73 variants evaluated, 4 variants were related with survival outcomes. rs7897156C>T was associated with worse overall survival under a recessive model (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.33, = 0.02). rs1059476G>A was associated with better overall survival under a recessive model (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.41-0.99, = 0.05). rs1895320T>C and rs1374297C>G were associated with worse disease-free survival. In the functional study, relative luciferase activity was higher at the rs7897156T allele compared to that at the C allele. Western blot showed that the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR in the variant-type (M) was significantly lower than in the wild-type (T). We found that 4 variants of mitotic checkpoint-related genes were associated with survival outcomes in patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Particularly, our results suggest that rs7897156C>T and rs1059476G>A are functional variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.18693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5617463PMC
September 2017

Polymorphisms in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-Related Genes and the Prognosis of Surgically Treated Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2017 Oct 1;24(11):3386-3395. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Lung Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study was conducted to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EMT-related genes may influence the prognosis of NSCLC after surgery.

Methods: There were 88 SNPs in EMT-related genes evaluated in a discovery set of 376 patients who underwent curative surgery for NSCLC. Significantly, 14 SNPs were evaluated in a validation set of 428 patients. Luciferase assay and RT-PCR were conducted to examine functional relevance of polymorphisms.

Results: Fourteen SNPs that were associated with survival outcomes in a discovery set were selected for validation. Among those, two SNPs (FOXF2 rs1711972A>C and HEYL rs784621G>A) were replicated in a validation study. In combined analysis, FOXF2 rs1711972 AC+CC genotype was associated with significantly better overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) compared with AA genotype (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for OS = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.88, P = 0.004; and aHR for DFS = 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.95, P = 0.01). HEYL rs784621 AA genotype exhibited a significantly worse OS compared with GG+GA genotype (aHR for OS = 2.65, 95% CI 1.63-4.31, P = 8 × 10). FOXF2 rs1711972C allele had a significantly increased promoter activity than rs1711972A allele (P = 0.01), and HEYL rs784621A allele had a significantly lower promoter activity than rs784621G allele (P = 0.004). FOXF2 rs1711972A>C was significantly associated with increased FOXF2 mRNA expression.

Conclusions: FOXF2 rs1711972A>C and HEYL rs784621G>A were associated with survival outcomes of surgically treated NSCLC. These SNPs may help to identify patients at high risk of poor disease outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-017-6002-4DOI Listing
October 2017

Effects of polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of never-smoking females on the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Genet 2017 04 20;212-213:8-12. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Departments of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea; Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea. Electronic address:

A number of genome-wide association studies have reported several variants that influence the risk of lung cancer in never-smoking females. We evaluated the impact of these variants on survival outcome in never-smoking females with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In total, 510 never-smoking females with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery were enrolled. Eleven variants associated with lung cancer susceptibility in never-smoking females were genotyped and their associations with survival outcome were analyzed. Among these 11 variants, TP63 rs7631358 and CSF1R rs10079250 affected survival outcomes. TP63 rs7631358 G > A was associated with a relatively worse overall survival (under a dominant model; hazard ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-4.52, P = 0.01). CSF1R rs10079250 A > G was associated with a relatively better disease-free survival (under a codominant model; hazard ratio = 0.70, 95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.93, P = 0.01). These results suggest that TP63 rs7631358 G > A and CSF1R rs10079250 A > G may affect the prognosis of NSCLC in never-smoking females, as well as the risk of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2017.03.003DOI Listing
April 2017

Functional polymorphisms in PD-L1 gene are associated with the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Gene 2017 Jan 10;599:28-35. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-842, Republic of Korea; Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-842, Republic of Korea; Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-842, Republic of Korea; Lung Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu 702-201, Republic of Korea; BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Department of Biomedical Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-842, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms of genes involved in immune checkpoints can predict the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection.

Materials And Methods: Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 genes were selected and genotyped. A total of 354 patients with early stage NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection were enrolled. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) was analyzed.

Results: Among the 12 SNPs investigated, PD-L1 rs4143815C>G, rs822336G>C, and rs822337T>A were significantly associated with worse survival outcomes in multivariate analyses. When the three SNPs were combined, OS decreased in a dose-dependent manner as the number of bad genotypes increased (P=0.0003). In the luciferase assay, rs4143815 G allele exhibited a decreased transcription activity compared with C allele (P=0.001), and the rs822336C-rs822337A haplotype had a decreased promoter activity compared with the rs822336G-rs822337T haplotype (P=0.004). Patients with higher expression of PD-L1 mRNA had a better survival compared with lower expression (P=0.03).

Conclusions: PD-L1 polymorphisms may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to understand the role of PD-L1 in the antitumor immunity and prognosis in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2016.11.007DOI Listing
January 2017

Genetic polymorphisms in glycolytic pathway are associated with the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Sci Rep 2016 10 21;6:35603. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Lung Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu 41404, Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms of genes involved in glycolysis are associated with the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 17 genes in glycolytic pathway were investigated in a total of 782 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Among the 44 SNPs investigated, four SNPs (ENO1 rs2274971A > G, PFKM rs11168417C > T, PFKP rs1132173C > T, PDK2 rs3785921G > A) were significantly associated with survival outcomes in multivariate analyses. When stratified by tumor histology, three SNPs (ENO1 rs2274971A > G, PFKM rs11168417C > T, and PDK2 rs3785921G > A) were significantly associated with OS and/or DFS only in squamous cell carcinoma, whereas PFKP rs1132173C > T exhibited a significant association with survival outcomes only in adenocarcinoma. When the four SNPs were combined, OS and DFS decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (Ptrend = 8 × 10 and 3 × 10, respectively). Promoter assays showed that ENO1 rs2274971G allele had significantly higher promoter activity compared to the rs2274971A allele. The four SNPs, especially ENO1 rs2274971A > G, may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in patients with surgically resected NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep35603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5073284PMC
October 2016

PD-L1 polymorphism can predict clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with first-line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy.

Sci Rep 2016 05 16;6:25952. Epub 2016 May 16.

Lung Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu 702-201, Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms of genes involved in immune checkpoints can predict the clinical outcomes of patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after 1st line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy. A total of 379 NSCLC patients were enrolled. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 genes were selected and genotyped. The associations of SNPs with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Among the 12 SNPs investigated, PD-L1 rs2297136T > C and rs4143815C > G were significantly associated with clinical outcomes after chemotherapy. The rs2297136T > C was significantly associated with both better chemotherapy response and better OS, and the rs4143815C > G had a significantly better response to chemotherapy. Consistent with the individual genotype analyses, rs2297136C-rs4143815G haplotype (ht4) carrying variant alleles at both loci was significantly associated with better chemotherapy response and OS compared with combined other haplotypes. Patients with at least one ht4 had significantly better chemotherapy response and OS compared to those without ht4. PD-L1 rs2297136T > C and rs4143815C > G polymorphisms may be useful for the prediction of clinical outcome of 1(st) line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy in NSCLC. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to understand the role of PD-L1 in the chemotherapy outcome of NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep25952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867646PMC
May 2016

TERT Polymorphism rs2853669 Influences on Lung Cancer Risk in the Korean Population.

J Korean Med Sci 2015 Oct 12;30(10):1423-8. Epub 2015 Sep 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. ; Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. ; BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Daegu, Korea.

Short telomeres are known as one of the risk factors for human cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association between 6 polymorphisms, which were related with short telomere length in the Korean population, and lung cancer risk using 1,100 cases and 1,096 controls. Among the 6 polymorphisms, TERT rs2853669 was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk under a recessive model (odds ratio [OR]=1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.81, P=0.02). The effect of rs2853669 on lung cancer risk was significant in younger individuals (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.18-2.54, P=0.005) and adenocarcinoma (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.07-2.07, P=0.02). Our results suggest that a common functional promoter polymorphism, TERT rs2853669, may influence both telomere length and lung cancer risk in the Korean population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2015.30.10.1423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4575930PMC
October 2015

Replication of the results of genome-wide and candidate gene association studies on telomere length in a Korean population.

Korean J Intern Med 2015 Sep 27;30(5):719-26. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Background/aims: A number of genome-wide and candidate gene association studies have identified polymorphisms associated with telomere length in Caucasian populations. This study was conducted to determine the impacts of 17 polymorphisms identified in Caucasians on telomere length in a Korean population.

Methods: Ninety-four healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Relative telomere length of chromosomes from peripheral blood samples was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Two polymorphisms, rs10936599 of MYNN and rs412658 of ZNF676, were found to be associated w ith telomere length (under dominant model, p = 0.04; under recessive model, p = 0.001). Three polymorphisms, rs2853669, rs7705526, and rs2736108, at the TERT locus were also associated with telomere length (under recessive model, p = 0.01, p = 0.02, and p = 0.01, respectively). The genotypes of the five polymorphisms associated with short telomere length were considered bad genotypes; telomere length was significantly decreased with increasing number of bad genotypes (p= 1.7 × 10(-5)).

Conclusions: We have identified polymorphisms associated with telomere length in a Korean population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2015.30.5.719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578038PMC
September 2015

Functional intronic ERCC1 polymorphism from regulomeDB can predict survival in lung cancer after surgery.

Oncotarget 2015 Sep;6(27):24522-32

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

We searched for potential regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) using RegulomeDB, a database integrating information from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, and investigated their association with survival after surgery in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among 364 SNPs found within ERCC1 region using RegulomeDB, four top priority SNPs (rs2298881C>A, rs1049739A>G, rs10415949A>G and rs6509214G>T) were selected for this study. The four SNPs were investigated in 316 patients. A replication study was performed (n = 579). Of the four SNPs analyzed in the discovery set, rs2298881C>A and rs6509214G>T were significantly associated with survival outcomes. The association was consistently observed only for rs2298881C>A in the validation cohort. In combined analysis, rs2298881C>A was significantly associated with worse overall survival and disease-free survival (P = 0.0002 and 0.02, respectively). A decreased reporter gene expression for rs2298881 A allele was observed compared with C allele by luciferase assay (P = 0.02). ERCC1 rs2298881C>A, an intronic SNP, is the first genetic polymorphism with functional evidence of regulating its expression, and the SNP is associated with prognosis of NSCLC. Our result supports the role of RegulomeDB as a comprehensive source of prioritized candidate SNPs for genetic association studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.4083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4695203PMC
September 2015

Unmethylation of the CHRNB4 gene is an unfavorable prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2014 Oct 12;86(1):85-90. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-422, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is currently a major health problem owing to difficulties in diagnosis at the early stage of the disease. Changes in DNA methylation status have now been identified as a critical component in the initiation of lung cancer, and the detection of DNA methylation is expected to be an important method for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Nicotine, the principal tobacco alkaloid, directly contributes to lung carcinogenesis through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs).

Materials And Methods: To investigate the role of the CHRNB4 gene, which encodes the nAchR β4 subunit that is ubiquitously expressed on lung epithelial cells, we analyzed its methylation status in 266 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and compared it with clinicopathological parameters.

Results And Conclusion: The frequency of CHRNB4 unmethylation was 13.5% and 8.3% in malignant and nonmalignant tissues, respectively. CHRNB4 demethylation was associated with upregulation of its mRNA expression and was more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma and pathological stages II-IIIA disease than in adenocarcinoma and pathological stage I disease, respectively (P=0.003 and P=0.01, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that CHRNB4 unmethylation was significantly associated with unfavorable overall survival in the entire patient group as well as in men and ever-smokers. These results suggest that epigenetic regulation of CHRNB4 may affect tumor progression and survival in patients with NSCLC. Further investigation into the molecular basis of the role of CHRNB4 in the progression of NSCLC is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.08.002DOI Listing
October 2014