Publications by authors named "Soo K Shin"

4 Publications

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Intracisternal administration of tanshinone IIA-loaded nanoparticles leads to reduced tissue injury and functional deficits in a porcine model of ischemic stroke.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 5;10:18-30. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, United States.

Background: The absolute number of new stroke patients is annually increasing and there still remains only a few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments with significant limitations available to patients. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a promising potential therapeutic for ischemic stroke that has shown success in pre-clinical rodent studies but lead to inconsistent efficacy results in human patients. The physical properties of Tan-IIA, including short half-life and low solubility, suggests that Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-assisted delivery may lead to improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to develop Tan IIA-loaded nanoparticles (Tan IIA-NPs) and to evaluate their therapeutic effects on cerebral pathological changes and consequent motor function deficits in a pig ischemic stroke model.

Results: Tan IIA-NP treated neural stem cells showed a reduction in SOD activity in in vitro assays demonstrating antioxidative effects. Ischemic stroke pigs treated with Tan IIA-NPs showed reduced hemispheric swelling when compared to vehicle only treated pigs (7.85 ± 1.41 vs. 16.83 ± 0.62%), consequent midline shift (MLS) (1.72 ± 0.07 vs. 2.91 ± 0.36 mm), and ischemic lesion volumes (9.54 ± 5.06 vs. 12.01 ± 0.17 cm) when compared to vehicle-only treated pigs. Treatment also lead to lower reductions in diffusivity (-37.30 ± 3.67 vs. -46.33 ± 0.73%) and white matter integrity (-19.66 ± 5.58 vs. -30.11 ± 1.19%) as well as reduced hemorrhage (0.85 ± 0.15 vs 2.91 ± 0.84 cm) 24 h post-ischemic stroke. In addition, Tan IIA-NPs led to a reduced percentage of circulating band neutrophils at 12 (7.75 ± 1.93 vs. 14.00 ± 1.73%) and 24 (4.25 ± 0.48 vs 5.75 ± 0.85%) hours post-stroke suggesting a mitigated inflammatory response. Moreover, spatiotemporal gait deficits including cadence, cycle time, step time, swing percent of cycle, stride length, and changes in relative mean pressure were less severe post-stroke in Tan IIA-NP treated pigs relative to control pigs.

Conclusion: The findings of this proof of concept study strongly suggest that administration of Tan IIA-NPs in the acute phase post-stroke mitigates neural injury likely through limiting free radical formation, thus leading to less severe gait deficits in a translational pig ischemic stroke model. With stroke as one of the leading causes of functional disability in the United States, and gait deficits being a major component, these promising results suggest that acute Tan IIA-NP administration may improve functional outcomes and the quality of life of many future stroke patients.
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June 2021

Alcohol Induced Brain and Liver Damage: Advantages of a Porcine Alcohol Use Disorder Model.

Front Physiol 2020 7;11:592950. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Alcohol is one of the most commonly abused intoxicants with 1 in 6 adults at risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the United States. As such, animal models have been extensively investigated with rodent AUD models being the most widely studied. However, inherent anatomical and physiological differences between rodents and humans pose a number of limitations in studying the complex nature of human AUD. For example, rodents differ from humans in that rodents metabolize alcohol rapidly and do not innately demonstrate voluntary alcohol consumption. Comparatively, pigs exhibit similar patterns observed in human AUD including voluntary alcohol consumption and intoxication behaviors, which are instrumental in establishing a more representative AUD model that could in turn delineate the risk factors involved in the development of this disorder. Pigs and humans also share anatomical similarities in the two major target organs of alcohol- the brain and liver. Pigs possess gyrencephalic brains with comparable cerebral white matter volumes to humans, thus enabling more representative evaluations of susceptibility and neural tissue damage in response to AUD. Furthermore, similarities in the liver result in a comparable rate of alcohol elimination as humans, thus enabling a more accurate extrapolation of dosage and intoxication level to humans. A porcine model of AUD possesses great translational potential that can significantly advance our current understanding of the complex development and continuance of AUD in humans.
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January 2021

An Adolescent Porcine Model of Voluntary Alcohol Consumption Exhibits Binge Drinking and Motor Deficits in a Two Bottle Choice Test.

Alcohol Alcohol 2021 Apr;56(3):266-274

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, 425 River Road, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Aims: Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance leading to significant economic and medical burdens. Pigs are an attractive model for studying alcohol abuse disorder due to the comparable alcohol metabolism and consumption behavior, which are in stark contrast to rodent models. This study investigates the usage of a porcine model for voluntary binge drinking (BD) and a detailed analysis of gait changes due to motor function deficits during alcohol intoxication.

Methods: Adolescent pigs were trained to drink increasing concentration (0-8%) of alcohol mixed in a 0.2% saccharin solution for 1 h in a two bottle choice test for 2 weeks. The training period was followed by a 3-week alcohol testing period, where animals were given free access to 8% alcohol in 0.2% saccharin solution and 0.2% saccharin water solution. Blood alcohol levels were tested and gait analysis was performed pre-alcohol consumption, last day of training, and Day 5 of each testing period.

Results: Pigs voluntarily consumed alcohol to intoxication at all timepoints with blood alcohol concentration (BAL) ≥80 mg/dl. Spatiotemporal gait parameters including velocity, cadence, cycle time, swing time, stance time, step time, and stride length were perturbed as a result of intoxication. The stratification of the gait data based on BAL revealed that the gait parameters were affected in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: This novel adolescent BD porcine model with inherent anatomical and physiological similarities to humans display similar consumption and intoxication behavior that is likely to yield results that are translatable to human patients.
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April 2021

Characterization of tissue and functional deficits in a clinically translational pig model of acute ischemic stroke.

Brain Res 2020 06 16;1736:146778. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States; Neuroscience Program, Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States; Department of Animal and Dairy Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States. Electronic address:

The acute stroke phase is a critical time frame used to evaluate stroke severity, therapeutic options, and prognosis while also serving as a major tool for the development of diagnostics. To further understand stroke pathophysiology and to enhance the development of treatments, our group developed a translational pig ischemic stroke model. In this study, the evolution of acute ischemic tissue damage, immune responses, and functional deficits were further characterized. Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in Landrace pigs. At 24 h post-stroke, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a decrease in ipsilateral diffusivity, an increase in hemispheric swelling resulting in notable midline shift, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke negatively impacted white matter integrity with decreased fractional anisotropy values in the internal capsule. Like patients, pigs showed a reduction in circulating lymphocytes and a surge in neutrophils and band cells. Functional responses corresponded with structural changes through reductions in open field exploration and impairments in spatiotemporal gait parameters. Characterization of acute ischemic stroke in pigs provided important insights into tissue and functional-level assessments that could be used to identify potential biomarkers and improve preclinical testing of novel therapeutics.
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June 2020