Publications by authors named "Sonya G Arreola"

6 Publications

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Depression and Risk for Problem Drinking in Latino Migrant Day Laborers.

Subst Use Misuse 2017 08 27;52(10):1320-1327. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

c Center for AIDS Prevention Studies , University of California , San Francisco , California , USA.

Background: Given the structural vulnerability of Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs) to unstable and poorly paying work, harsh living conditions and frequent inability to support or even visit families in country of origin, psychological distress is a common response and one frequently implicated in risky outcomes such as problem drinking.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of three different forms of psychological distress to problem drinking in LMDLs: depression, anxiety, and desesperación, the latter a popular Latino culture-based idiom of psychological distress.

Methods: A cross sectional survey of 344 LMDLs was conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area from January to June of 2014. Independent contributions of depression, anxiety, and desesperación in explaining problem drinking as measured by a modified version of the AUDIT, were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis.

Results: Depression was significantly associated with risk for problem drinking while other forms of psychological distress were not. Conclusion/Importance: Findings provide stronger empirical support for the association between depression and problem drinking, a long suspected but under-demonstrated relationship in the literature on LMDLs. Implications for preventing problem drinking as well as mitigating psychological distress more generally for LMDLs are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2016.1276599DOI Listing
August 2017

in Latino migrant day laborers and its role in alcohol and substance-related sexual risk.

SSM Popul Health 2016 Dec 15;2:32-42. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

University of California, San Francisco, USA.

The purpose of this study was to better understand the relation between psychological distress and alcohol and substance related sexual risk in Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs). In addition to examining the roles of depression and anxiety, it was also necessary to examine the role of , a popular Latino idiom of distress frequently expressed by LMDLs in response to the thwarting of major migration related life goals such as traveling to the U.S. in search of work to support families, projects and purchases in country of origin. Given the structural vulnerability of LMDLs to under-employment and frequent unemployment, LMDLs also refer to as a prelude to problem drinking, substance use, and sexual risk taking. Hence we developed and validated a scale of for LMDLs to explore this culturally relevant construct of psychological distress in this unique population of Latinos. Based on a cross sectional survey of 344 LMDLs, this study found that the subscale of predicted alcohol-related sexual risk taking, while depression predicted substance-related sexual risk taking. These findings are discussed including implications of preventing alcohol and substance related sexual risk taking in LMDLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5757762PMC
December 2016

Sexual health of Latino migrant day labourers under conditions of structural vulnerability.

Cult Health Sex 2013 9;15(1):58-72. Epub 2012 Nov 9.

School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the context of the sexual health of Latino migrant day labourers in the USA, challenges to sexual health and ways of coping, with attention to conditions of structural vulnerability permeating the lives of this unique Latino population. Given the limited information about this topic and population, ethnographic research employing in-depth semi-structured interviews with 51 labourers, recruited through purposive sampling in the San Francisco Bay Area, was utilised. The sexual health aspirations of the men are deeply embedded in the core value and practice of Latino familismo or, in this case, the central goal of securing a family headed by men as providers and present husbands/fathers. However, such goals are frequently thwarted by the poverty engendering work and prolonged separations from home that characterise predominantly undocumented day labour in the USA. Resulting goal frustration, combined with pent up sexual urges, often lead to sexual risk in spite of efforts to cope with challenges to sexual health. Unless community-, state- and national-level interventions are developed to mitigate the pronounced structural vulnerability of migrant day labourers, individual level interventions to promote sexual health, and decrease risk and distress, are likely to have diminishing returns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2012.740075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743724PMC
May 2013

Sexual pleasure and sexual risk among women who use methamphetamine: a mixed methods study.

Int J Drug Policy 2012 Sep 3;23(5):385-92. Epub 2012 Sep 3.

Urban Health Program, RTI International, USA.

Background: The intersection of drug use, sexual pleasure and sexual risk behaviour is rarely explored when it comes to poor women who use drugs. This paper explores the relationship between sexual behaviour and methamphetamine use in a community-based sample of women, exploring not only risk, but also desire, pleasure and the challenges of overcoming trauma.

Methods: Quantitative data were collected using standard epidemiological methods (N=322) for community-based studies. In addition, using purposive sampling, qualitative data were collected among a subset of participants (n=34). Data were integrated for mixed methods analysis.

Results: While many participants reported sexual risk behaviour (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse) in the quantitative survey, sexual risk was not the central narrative pertaining to sexual behaviour and methamphetamine use in qualitative findings. Rather, desire, pleasure and disinhibition arose as central themes. Women described feelings of power and agency related to sexual behaviour while high on methamphetamine. Findings were mixed on whether methamphetamine use increased sexual risk behaviour.

Conclusion: The use of mixed methods afforded important insights into the sexual behaviour and priorities of methamphetamine-using women. Efforts to reduce sexual risk should recognize and valorize the positive aspects of methamphetamine use for some women, building on positive feelings of power and agency as an approach to harm minimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2012.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466046PMC
September 2012

Structure, agency, and sexual development of Latino gay men.

J Sex Res 2013 21;50(3-4):392-400. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

Urban Health Program, RTI International, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA.

There is a high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and HIV among Latino gay men, with limited proven HIV prevention interventions. This study used qualitative methods to explicate earlier findings showing differential health outcomes among Latino gay men who had no sex, voluntary, or forced sex before age 16. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 27 Latino gay men revealed that structural factors in childhood contribute to their developing sexuality by enhancing or inhibiting a sense of agency. Agency is essential for making decisions that are in line with their intentions to have healthy sexual lives. Findings suggest that interventions should focus on developing a sense of sexual agency among Latino gay men by (a) increasing their recognition of structural factors that contribute to feelings of worthlessness in order to relocate internalized blame and homophobia to external structural forces, (b) facilitating awareness of the social structural oppressions that lead to psychological and sexual risk in order to enhance their options for sexual health, and (c) shifting from individually focused constructions of sexual health to those that consider the structural factors that reduce agency and contribute to diminished sexual health among Latino gay men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2011.648028DOI Listing
April 2014

The prospect of implementing a Safer Injection Facility in San Francisco: perspectives of community stakeholders.

Int J Drug Policy 2011 May 18;22(3):239-41. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Urban Health Program, RTI International, San Francisco Regional Office, CA 94104, United States.

Background: Government-sanctioned Safer Injection Facilities (SIFs) have been implemented around the world to address public health and public order concerns associated with injection drug use. The goal of this study was to investigate how community stakeholders in San Francisco's Tenderloin district respond to the idea of implementing a SIF.

Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 purposively sampled stakeholders including representatives from neighbourhood and business associations, politicians, law enforcement, religious leaders, school officials, community activists and service providers. Data were analysed using an inductive approach.

Results: Stakeholders were concerned that implementation of a SIF would further degrade a community struggling with safety and cleanliness and questioned the efficacy of harm reduction strategies to address drug use. Stakeholders were open to dialogue about how a SIF might support neighbourhood goals, stressed the importance of respect and collaboration between stakeholders and those potentially implementing a SIF, and were interested in evidence of the impact SIFs have on communities. Government protection and political leadership would be necessary to implement a SIF.

Conclusions: Employment of a community collaborative model combined with political leadership could move the policy debate about implementation of a SIF in San Francisco forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2011.01.001DOI Listing
May 2011