Publications by authors named "Sonja E Steigen"

35 Publications

Tumor budding score predicts lymph node status in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma and should be included in the pathology report.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(9):e0239783. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Medical Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The majority of oral cavity cancers arise in the oral tongue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of tumor budding in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma, both as a separate variable and in combination with depth of invasion. We also assessed the prognostic impact of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification (TNM8), where depth of invasion (DOI) supplements diameter in the tumor size (T) categorization.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with primary oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated retrospectively. Spearman bivariate correlation analyses with bootstrapping were used to identify correlation between variables. Prognostic value of clinical and histopathological variables was assessed by Log rank and Cox regression analyses with bootstrapping using 5-year disease specific survival as outcome. The significance level for the hypothesis test was 0.05.

Results: One-hundred and fifty patients had available material for microscopic evaluation on Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides and were included in the analyses. Reclassification of tumors according to TNM8 caused a shift towards a higher T status compared to the previous classification. The tumor budding score was associated with lymph node metastases where 23% of the patients with low-budding tumors had lymph node metastases, compared with 43% of those with high-budding tumors. T-status, lymph node status, tumor budding, depth of invasion, and the combined tumor budding/depth of invasion score were all significantly associated with survival in univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses only N-status was an independent prognosticator of survival.

Conclusion: Reclassification according to TNM8 shifted many tumors to a higher T-status, and also increased the prognostic value of the T-status. This supports the implementation of depth of invasion to the T-categorization in TNM8. Tumor budding correlated with lymph node metastases and survival. Therefore, information on tumor budding can aid clinicians in treatment planning and should be included in pathology reports of oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239783PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518591PMC
November 2020

Nephronectin promotes breast cancer brain metastatic colonization via its integrin-binding domains.

Sci Rep 2020 07 22;10(1):12237. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsö, Norway.

This study demonstrates a role for the extracellular matrix protein nephronectin (NPNT) in promoting experimental breast cancer brain metastasis, possibly through enhanced binding to- and migration through brain endothelial cells. With the introduction of more targeted breast cancer treatments, a prolonged survival has resulted during the last decade. Consequently, an increased number of patients develop metastasis in the brain, a challenging organ to treat. We recently reported that NPNT was highly expressed in primary breast cancer and associated with unfavourable prognosis. The current study addresses our hypothesis that NPNT promotes brain metastases through its integrin-binding motifs. SAGE-sequencing revealed that NPNT was significantly up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue compared to pair-matched normal breast tissue. Human brain metastatic breast cancers expressed both NPNT and its receptor, integrin α8β1. Using an open access repository; BreastMark, we found a correlation between high NPNT mRNA levels and poor prognosis for patients with the luminal B subtype. The 66cl4 mouse cell line was used for expression of wild-type and mutant NPNT, which is unable to bind α8β1. Using an in vivo model of brain metastatic colonization, 66cl4-NPNT cells showed an increased ability to form metastatic lesions compared to cells with mutant NPNT, possibly through reduced endothelial adhesion and transmigration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69242-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376038PMC
July 2020

A combined histo-score based on tumor differentiation and lymphocytic infiltrate is a robust prognostic marker for mobile tongue cancer.

Virchows Arch 2020 Dec 30;477(6):865-872. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Medical Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

We wanted to evaluate the prognostic value of common histopathological variables in a large cohort of patients with cancer in the mobile tongue as such information can be important for treatment stratification of the individual patient, especially for patients with low-stage disease. In addition, we wanted to investigate whether an alternative scoring model with fewer options would compromise the prognostic value. One hundred fifty patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas that were treated in curative intent and with available HE-stained tumor sections were included. We reclassified all tumors and performed univariate and multivariate survival analyses of histopathological and clinical variables. For the complete cohort, lymph node status, grade of differentiation, perineural infiltration, and lymphocytic infiltration were independent prognosticators. In the low-stage disease group, independent prognostic factors were tumor size, grade of differentiation, and lymphocytic infiltrate. For patients with low-stage disease, a histo-score combining the scores for tumor differentiation and lymphocytic infiltrate identified a group of patients with particularly low survival, as patients with moderately or poorly differentiated tumors and little lymphocytic infiltrate had a less favorable 5-year survival outcome than patients in the high-stage disease group. This study shows that a histo-score combining tumor differentiation and lymphocytic infiltration should be given special consideration in treatment planning. Our results also illustrate that many variables can be scored with fewer options than previously suggested to increase their reproducibility, and still maintain their prognostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02875-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683438PMC
December 2020

No significant histological or ultrastructural tendinosis changes in the hamstring tendon in patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee?

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Apr 5;29(4):1067-1074. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Orthopedics, NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan, Sweden.

Purpose: To investigate the periarticular degenerative changes of the knee joint in association with osteoarthritis (OA). More tendinosis was expected to be found in the semitendinosus tendon in patients with knee OA than in patients without knee OA.

Methods: Samples from 41 patients were included between January 2016 and October 2017. Twenty-one patients median age 53 (33-63) years with mild to moderate OA underwent high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and 20 patients median age 38 (31-57) years without OA underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Biopsies from the semitendinosus tendon were obtained at the time of surgery and examined histologically, morphologically and ultrastructurally using light and electron microscope.

Results: The histological evaluation of the semitendinosus tendon revealed the presence of more hemosiderin in the ACLR group. No significant morphological or ultrastructural differences were shown between patients in the HTO and ACLR group.

Conclusion: Patients with mild and moderate medial compartment knee OA displayed no more degenerative changes in their semitendinosus tendon than patients without OA, as seen in both the light and the electron microscope.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06066-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973588PMC
April 2021

Characteristics and prognosis of primary treatment-naïve oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in Norway, a descriptive retrospective study.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(1):e0227738. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Objectives: Incidence of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas is rising worldwide, and population characterization is important to follow for future trends. The aim of this retrospective study was to present a large cohort of primary oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma from all four health regions of Norway, with descriptive clinicopathological characteristics and five-year survival outcomes.

Materials And Methods: Patients diagnosed with primary treatment-naïve oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas at all four university hospitals in Norway between 2005-2009 were retrospectively included in this study. Clinicopathological data from the electronic health records were compared to survival data.

Results: A total of 535 patients with primary treatment-naïve oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas were identified. The median survival follow-up time was 48 months (range 0-125 months) after treatment. The median five-year overall survival was found to be 47%. Median five-year disease-specific survival was 52%, ranging from 80% for stage I to 33% for stage IV patients. For patients given treatment with curative intent, the overall survival was found to be 56% and disease-specific survival 62%. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range 24-101 years), 64 years for men and 72 years for women. The male: female ratio was 1.2. No gender difference was found in neither tumor status (p = 0.180) nor node status (p = 0.266), but both factors influenced significantly on survival (p<0.001 for both).

Conclusions: We present a large cohort of primary treatment-naïve oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas in Norway. Five-year disease-specific survival was 52%, and patients eligible for curative treatment had a five-year disease-specific survival up to 62%.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227738PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6964975PMC
April 2020

Grading of oral squamous cell carcinomas - Intra and interrater agreeability: Simpler is better?

J Oral Pathol Med 2020 Aug 19;49(7):630-635. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Numerous studies have been presented on histological grading of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) for predicting survival, but uncertainty of their usefulness rises due to discordances of results. A scoring system should be robust and well validated, and intra- and interrater agreement can be used as a tool to visualize the strength of reproducibility.

Methods: Here, we present an intra- and inter-observer study on evaluation of OSCC using some of the most common histopathological parameters. The observers were from different Norwegian university hospitals, and calibration to ensure accuracy was first performed. Percentage of the agreement was calculated for the score made by the individual observer at different times, as well as between pairs of observers.

Results: The evaluation made by the same observer at two different time points (intrarater) correlated better than observations made by different participants (interrater). In an attempt to increase the rate of agreement, many of the parameters were either dichotomized into simply low- and high grade, or to a three-tier system when more than three options in the original design. This increased the concurrence with 15.4% for the intrarater and with 23% for the interrater comparisons.

Conclusion: High agreement for histopathological parameters can be difficult to obtain on hematoxylin and eosin staining in scoring systems with many options. A simpler system might be more advantageous to achieve higher degree of reproducibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12990DOI Listing
August 2020

APC mosaicism in a young woman with desmoid type fibromatosis and familial adenomatous polyposis.

Fam Cancer 2018 10;17(4):539-543

Section of Inherited Cancer, Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is usually caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The classic form is characterized by hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the colorectum and early onset colorectal cancer (CRC) if left untreated. FAP is also associated with multiple extra-colonic manifestations such as gastroduodenal polyps, osteomas, epidermoid cysts, fibromas and desmoids. Most desmoid tumours in FAP patients occur intra-abdominally. Approximately 15-20% of the APC mutations are de novo mutations. Somatic mosaicism has been reported in some sporadic cases of polyposis but is probably an underestimated cause of the disease. This case report presents the detection of a mosaic APC mutation in a 26-year-old woman who as a child had been diagnosed with desmoid type fibromatosis. FAP was suggested when she presented with extensive extra abdominal fibromatosis. Our findings indicate that APC mutations may be suspected in patients presenting with a desmoid regardless of its location. If there is clinical evidence that the patient has FAP, adenomas and colonic mucosa in addition to leukocyte DNA should be included in the screening, preferably using methods that are more sensitive than Sanger sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-018-0072-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182574PMC
October 2018

Increased lymph node retrieval decreases adjuvant chemotherapy rate for stage II colon cancer.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2016 Aug 10;51(8):949-55. Epub 2016 May 10.

c Department of Clinical Pathology , University Hospital of North Norway , Tromsø , Norway ;

Objective: Investigation of lymph nodes in colorectal specimens after surgery due to cancer is important for staging the cancer. There has to be an adequate number of lymph nodes to conclude a node-negative status. Our aim was to investigate if change in fixative could give increased lymph node yield, and if this could result in a potential decrease of adjuvant treatment for stage II patients. In addition, we wanted to evaluate if the change in fixative could potentially affect subsequent molecular testing.

Material And Methods: All resection specimens from one hospital were from 2011 fixed in GEWF while resection specimens from two other hospitals were fixed in conventional buffered formalin. Number of lymph nodes harvested were compared from two periods; 2009/2010 and 2012/2013. In addition, tumors fixed in GEWF and tumors fixed in formalin were tested separately with immunohistochemical staining and molecular testing.

Results: There was a significant increase in lymph node retrieval in specimens fixed in GEWF compared to number of lymph nodes found before the implementation of this fixative (p < 0.001). For hospitals using only formalin, the number of nodes did not increase significantly. Number of positive lymph nodes did not increase. Immunohistochemical staining can be a problem with tumors fixed in GEWF, but DNA quality seems not affected by the changes.

Conclusions: GEWF enhances lymph node detection in colorectal cancer specimens, leading to fewer patients being falsely defined as high-risk stage II. The loss of stability when staining for MMR-proteins can be overcome by molecular analysis when needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365521.2016.1162326DOI Listing
August 2016

Presence of tumour high-endothelial venules is an independent positive prognostic factor and stratifies patients with advanced-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Tumour Biol 2016 Feb 17;37(2):2449-59. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø-The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma is based on the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) system, which has been deemed insufficient for prognostic purposes. Hence, better prognostic tools are needed to reflect the biological diversity of these cancers. Previously, high numbers of specialized blood vessels called high-endothelial venules have been reported to be associated with prolonged survival in patients with breast cancer. In this study, we analysed the prognostic value and morphological characteristics of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules in oral cancer. The presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 75 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and analysed with correlation to clinicopathological parameters, patients' survival and vessel morphology. Ten of the samples were analysed at multiple levels to evaluate intratumoural heterogeneity. The presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules was found to be associated with lower disease-specific death in multivariate regression analyses (P = 0.002). High-endothelial venules were present in all (n = 53) T1-T2 tumours, but only in two thirds (n = 14) of the T3-T4 tumours. The morphology of high-endothelial venules was heterogeneous and correlated with lymphocyte density. High-endothelial venules were found to be distributed homogeneously within the tumours. We found the presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules to be an easy-to-use, robust, and independent positive prognostic factor for patients with oral cancer. Absence of these vessels in advanced-stage tumours might identify patients with more aggressive disease. Evaluating the presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules might help to tailor the treatment of oral cancer patients to their individual needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-015-4036-4DOI Listing
February 2016

Plectin as a prognostic marker in non-metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

BMC Oral Health 2015 Aug 26;15:98. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Department of Medical Biology - Tumor Biology Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is associated with a poor 5-year survival rate. In general, patients diagnosed with small tumors have a fairly good prognosis, but some small tumors have an aggressive behavior leading to early death. There are at present no reliable prognostic biomarkers for oral cancers. Thus, to optimize treatment for the individual patient, there is a need for biomarkers that can predict tumor behavior.

Method: In the present study the potential prognostic value of plectin was evaluated by a tissue microarray (TMA) based immunohistochemical analysis of primary tumor tissue obtained from a North Norwegian cohort of 115 patients diagnosed with OSCC. The expression of plectin was compared with clinicopathological variables and 5 year survival.

Results: The statistical analysis revealed that low expression of plectin in the tumor cells predicted a favorable outcome for patients with non-metastatic disease (p = 0.008). Furthermore, the expression of plectin was found to correlate (p = 0.01) with the expression of uPAR, which we have previously found to be a potential prognostic marker for T1N0 tumors.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that low expression of plectin predicts a favorable outcome for patients with non-metastatic OSCC and the expression level of plectin may therefore be used in the treatment stratification for patients with early stage disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-015-0084-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4548848PMC
August 2015

Nationwide improvement of rectal cancer treatment outcomes in Norway, 1993-2010.

Acta Oncol 2015 Nov 30;54(10):1714-22. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

m Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery , St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital , Trondheim , Norway.

Background: The Norwegian Rectal Cancer Project was initated in 1993 with the aims of improving surgery, decreasing local recurrence rates, improving survival, and establishing a national rectal cancer registry. Here we present results from the Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Registry (NCCR) from 1993 to 2010.

Material And Methods: A total of 15 193 patients were diagnosed with rectal cancer in Norway 1993-2010, and were registered with clinical data regarding diagnosis, treatment, locoregional recurrences and distant metastases. Of these, 10 796 with non-metastatic disease underwent tumour resection. The results were stratified into five time periods, and the treatment outcomes were compared. Recurrence rates are presented for the 9785 patients who underwent curative major resection (R0/R1).

Results: Among all 15 193 patients, relative five-year survival increased from 54.1% in 1993-1997 to 63.4% in 2007-2010 (p < 0.001). Among the 10 796 patients with stage I-III disease who underwent tumour resection, from 1993-1997 to 2007-2010, relative five-year survival improved from 71.2% to 80.6% (p < 0.001). An increasing proportion of these patients underwent surgery at large-volume hospitals; and 30- and 100-day mortality rates, respectively, decreased from 3.0% to 1.4% (p < 0.001) and from 5.1% to 3.0% (p < 0.011). Use of preoperative chemoradiotherapy increased from 6.5% in 1993 to 39.0% in 2010 (p < 0.001). Estimated local recurrence rate after major resection (R0/R1) decreased from 14.5% in 1993-1997 to 5.0% in 2007-2009 (p < 0.001), and distant recurrence rate decreased from 26.0% to 20.2% (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Long-term outcomes from a national population-based rectal cancer registry are presented. Improvements in rectal cancer treatment have led to decreased recurrence rates of 5% and increased survival on a national level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2015.1034876DOI Listing
November 2015

KIT and PDGFRA mutations and the risk of GI stromal tumor recurrence.

J Clin Oncol 2015 Feb 20;33(6):634-42. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Heikki Joensuu, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Piotr Rutkowski, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland; Toshirou Nishida, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan; Sonja E. Steigen, University Hospital of North Norway and Tumor Biology Research Group, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Peter Brabec, Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Lukas Plank, Jessenius Medical Faculty of Comenius University and University Hospital, Martin; Jozef Sufliarsky, National Cancer Institute, Bratislava, Slovak Republic; Bengt Nilsson, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Chiara Braconi, Centro Regionale di Genetica Oncologica, Oncologia Medica, Ancona; Massimo Federico, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; Chiara Braconi, The Institute of Cancer Research, Belmont, United Kingdom; Andrea Bordoni, Ticino Cancer Registry, Insitute of Pathology South of Switzerland, Locarno, Switzerland; Magnus K. Magnusson, University of Iceland; Jon G. Jonasson, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; Isabelle Hostein, Bergonié Institute, Bordeaux; Pierre-Paul Bringier, E. Herriot Hospital, Lyon; Jean-Francois Emile, Versailles University and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Ambroise Paré Hospital, Boulogne, France.

Purpose: Mutated KIT and platelet-derived growth factor alpha gene (PDGFRA) drive GI stromal tumor (GIST) oncogenesis, but the clinical significance of their single mutations is known incompletely.

Patients And Methods: We identified 11 population-based series of patients with GIST through a literature search and pooled individual data from 3,067 patients treated with macroscopically complete tumor excision. Mutation analysis was done from 1,505 tumors. We analyzed associations between KIT and PDGFRA mutations and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the subsets in which patients were treated with surgery alone.

Results: We identified 301 different single mutations in KIT and 33 in PDGFRA. Patients with PDGFRA mutations had more favorable RFS than those with KIT mutations (hazard ratio, 0.34; P = .004). Only one of the 35 GISTs with KIT exon 11 duplication mutations recurred. Patients with deletions of only one codon of KIT exon 11 had better RFS than those with another deletion type, and some KIT exon 11 substitution mutations (Trp557Arg, Val559Ala, and Leu576Pro) were also associated with favorable RFS. Patients with an identical mutation had greatly variable outcomes depending on the standard prognostic factors, notably, mitotic count. Commonly used risk stratification schemes tended to overestimate the risk for recurrence in subgroups with prognostically favorable mutations.

Conclusion: GISTs with an identical KIT or PDGFRA mutation may have widely varying risks for recurrence. Most of the patients with PDGFRA mutations and those with KIT exon 11 duplication mutation or deletion of one codon have favorable RFS with surgery alone and are usually not candidates for adjuvant therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.57.4970DOI Listing
February 2015

Characterisation and prognostic value of tertiary lymphoid structures in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

BMC Clin Pathol 2014 23;14:38. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø 9037, Norway.

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinomas are often heavily infiltrated by immune cells. The organization of B-cells, follicular dendritic cells, T-cells and high-endothelial venules into structures termed tertiary lymphoid structures have been detected in various types of cancer, where their presence is found to predict favourable outcome. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of tertiary lymphoid structures in oral squamous cell carcinomas, and if present, analyse whether they were associated with clinical outcome.

Methods: Tumour samples from 80 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were immunohistochemically stained for B-cells, follicular dendritic cells, T-cells, germinal centre B-cells and high-endothelial venules. Some samples were sectioned at multiple levels to assess whether the presence of tertiary lymphoid structures varied within the tumour.

Results: Tumour-associated tertiary lymphoid structures were detected in 21 % of the tumours and were associated with lower disease-specific death. The presence of tertiary lymphoid structures varied within different levels of a tissue block.

Conclusions: Tertiary lymphoid structure formation was found to be a positive prognostic factor for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Increased knowledge about tertiary lymphoid structure formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma might help to develop and guide immune-modulatory cancer treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6890-14-38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4148494PMC
September 2014

Tumour microenvironments induce expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and concomitant activation of gelatinolytic enzymes.

PLoS One 2014 26;9(8):e105929. Epub 2014 Aug 26.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells' expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.

Methods: The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography.

Results: We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.

Conclusions: Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the regulation of posttranslational modification of uPAR.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0105929PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4144900PMC
December 2015

Clinicopathological characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Northern Norway: a retrospective study.

BMC Oral Health 2014 Aug 18;14:103. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Department of Medical Biology - Tumour Biology Research Group, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The main aim of the study was to evaluate if patients with oral squamous carcinomas in Northern Norway differ from patients in other countries with regard to clinicopathological characteristics and also study the influence of risk factors. Such a comparison is of demographical interest, and also important for the interpretation of result from studies on prognostic biomarkers.

Methods: We describe clinicopathological characteristics of 133 North Norwegian patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in the period 1986-2002, and evaluate the significance of different risk factors.

Results: The cohort consisted of 69 men and 64 women, giving male/female ratio of 1.1. Forty-seven of the 133 patients (35%) died of the disease within 5 years from diagnosis. There was no significant difference between the genders concerning time to disease specific death, even though men both smoked and drank more alcohol than women. As expected, the strongest predictors for disease specific death were tumour size and the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. We also found that heavy smokers and drinkers presented with more advanced disease, more often localized to the floor of mouth compared to non-smoking and abstinent patients, who more often presented with tumours of the mobile tongue.

Conclusions: Our results correlate well with previously published clinicopathological data on comparable cohorts, which is important when considering the applicability of results from biomarker studies performed on this material compared to other cohorts, and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-14-103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4149799PMC
August 2014

Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are potential predictive biomarkers in early stage oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC).

PLoS One 2014 7;9(7):e101895. Epub 2014 Jul 7.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often associated with metastatic disease and a poor 5 year survival rate. Patients diagnosed with small tumours generally have a more favourable outcome, but some of these small tumours are aggressive and lead to early death. To avoid harmful overtreatment of patients with favourable prognosis, there is a need for predictive biomarkers that can be used for treatment stratification. In this study we assessed the possibility to use components of the plasminogen activator (PA) system as prognostic markers for OSCC outcome and compared this to the commonly used biomarker Ki-67. A tissue-micro-array (TMA) based immunohistochemical analysis of primary tumour tissue obtained from a North Norwegian cohort of 115 patients diagnosed with OSCC was conducted. The expression of the biomarkers was compared with clinicopathological variables and disease specific death. The statistical analyses revealed that low expression of uPAR (p = 0.031) and PAI-1 (p = 0.021) in the tumour cells was significantly associated with low disease specific death in patients with small tumours and no lymph node metastasis (T1N0). The commonly used biomarker, Ki-67, was not associated with disease specific death in any of the groups of patients analysed. The conclusion is that uPAR and PAI-1 are potential predictive biomarkers in early stage tumours and that this warrants further studies on a larger cohort of patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101895PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4084992PMC
February 2015

Clinical use of optical coherence tomography to identify angiographic silent stent thrombosis.

Scand Cardiovasc J 2014 Jun;48(3):156-60

Department of Pathology, University Hospital of North Norway , Norway.

Objectives: Patients previously treated with coronary stents may suffer an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) without any evidence of thrombus formation on coronary angiography (CAG). This may be due to partial, nonocclusive stent thrombosis with microembolization. In this paper, we illustrate possible mechanisms both with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histology.

Design: We present two cases with ACS from very late stent thrombosis who have been previously treated with first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES).

Results: The first patient had ACS 15 months after DES implantation. The angiogram (CAG) was near normal with slight peri-stent contrast staining. OCT revealed abnormalities including thrombus not visible on CAG. These are findings that may explain the ACS. The second patient had subclinical episodes with chest pain after DES implantation. The patient died from stent thrombosis in a DES. Postmortem histological examination of the coronary arteries revealed stent struts with little or no neointimal coverage, persistent peri-strut fibrin deposition, inflammatory cells, malapposition, and small luminal platelet-rich thrombi. Old spotty myocardial infarctions were found in the supplied territory possibly caused by earlier episodes of embolizing thrombus.

Conclusions: In patients with previous implanted DES presenting with ACS, OCT may detect abnormalities and thrombus formation not visible on CAG. Such findings may impact the treatment strategy in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14017431.2014.900185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4059223PMC
June 2014

Do Not Be Fooled by Fancy Mutations: Inflammatory Fibroid Polyps Can Harbor Mutations Similar to Those Found in GIST.

Case Rep Med 2013 6;2013:845801. Epub 2013 Nov 6.

Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Pb 4953 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

Goal. Surgeons that remove a typical polyp from the stomach or small intestine should be reluctant to accept a diagnosis of GIST just because there is a mutation in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alfa (PDGFRA). Background. A subtype of gastric and intestinal polyps is denoted as inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP). In some of these cases a mutation in PDGFRA is found, leading to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Study. This study includes two patients that had polyps removed from the ileum, and an extended investigation was performed with immunohistochemical staining and mutation analyses. Results. The tumors did not show typical immunohistochemical staining for markers used to diagnose GIST, but the mutation analysis revealed a mutation in PDGFRA exon 12. On the basis of the mutation analysis, both polyps were primarily diagnosed as GISTs, but the diagnosis was later changed to inflammatory fibroid polyp. Conclusion. It is important that both surgeons and pathologists be aware that IFP can harbor a mutation in PDGFRA where further treatment and follow-up is different with the two different diagnoses. A mutation analysis can be misleading when taken out of the context of clinical observations, histological characteristics and immunohistochemical staining.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/845801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836294PMC
December 2013

ROR2 is a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in leiomyosarcoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

J Pathol 2012 Jun 17;227(2):223-33. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA.

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a group of malignant tumours whose clinical management is complicated by morphological heterogeneity, inadequate molecular markers and limited therapeutic options. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been shown to play important roles in cancer, both as therapeutic targets and as prognostic biomarkers. An initial screen of gene expression data for 48 RTKs in 148 sarcomas showed that ROR2 was expressed in a subset of leiomyosarcoma (LMS), gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF). This was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 573 tissue samples from 59 sarcoma tumour types. Here we provide evidence that ROR2 expression plays a role in the invasive abilities of LMS and GIST cells in vitro. We also show that knockdown of ROR2 significantly reduces tumour mass in vivo using a xenotransplantation model of LMS. Lastly, we show that ROR2 expression, as measured by IHC, predicts poor clinical outcome in patients with LMS and GIST, although it was not independent of other clinico-pathological features in a multivariate analysis, and that ROR2 expression is maintained between primary tumours and their metastases. Together, these results show that ROR2 is a useful prognostic indicator in the clinical management of these soft-tissue sarcomas and may represent a novel therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.3986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3992120PMC
June 2012

Risk of recurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumour after surgery: an analysis of pooled population-based cohorts.

Lancet Oncol 2012 Mar 6;13(3):265-74. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The risk of recurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) after surgery needs to be estimated when considering adjuvant systemic therapy. We assessed prognostic factors of patients with operable GIST, to compare widely used risk-stratification schemes and to develop a new method for risk estimation.

Methods: Population-based cohorts of patients diagnosed with operable GIST, who were not given adjuvant therapy, were identified from the literature. Data from ten series and 2560 patients were pooled. Risk of tumour recurrence was stratified using the National Institute of Health (NIH) consensus criteria, the modified consensus criteria, and the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) criteria. Prognostic factors were examined using proportional hazards and non-linear models. The results were validated in an independent centre-based cohort consisting of 920 patients with GIST.

Findings: Estimated 15-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) after surgery was 59·9% (95% CI 56·2-63·6); few recurrences occurred after the first 10 years of follow-up. Large tumour size, high mitosis count, non-gastric location, presence of rupture, and male sex were independent adverse prognostic factors. In receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of 10-year RFS, the NIH consensus criteria, modified consensus criteria, and AFIP criteria resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0·79 (95% CI 0·76-0·81), 0·78 (0·75-0·80), and 0·82 (0·80-0·85), respectively. The modified consensus criteria identified a single high-risk group. Since tumour size and mitosis count had a non-linear association with the risk of GIST recurrence, novel prognostic contour maps were generated using non-linear modelling of tumour size and mitosis count, and taking into account tumour site and rupture. The non-linear model accurately predicted the risk of recurrence (AUC 0·88, 0·86-0·90).

Interpretation: The risk-stratification schemes assessed identify patients who are likely to be cured by surgery alone. Although the modified NIH classification is the best criteria to identify a single high-risk group for consideration of adjuvant therapy, the prognostic contour maps resulting from non-linear modelling are appropriate for estimation of individualised outcomes.

Funding: Academy of Finland, Cancer Society of Finland, Sigrid Juselius Foundation and Helsinki University Research Funds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70299-6DOI Listing
March 2012

S100A4 expression in xenograft tumors of human carcinoma cell lines is induced by the tumor microenvironment.

Am J Pathol 2011 May;178(5):2389-96

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.

Increased expression of the invasion- and metastasis-associated protein S100A4 is found in many types of cancer, but the regulation of S100A4 expression is poorly understood. The microenvironment surrounding tumors has a significant effect on tumor progression, and in the present study, we investigated the role of the microenvironment in the expression of S100A4. Tumors of three different human carcinoma cell lines were established in the tongue or skin of mice, and S100A4 expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis in tumors and stromal tissue and in cancer cells grown in vitro. Tongue tumors of the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line HSC-4 showed a pronounced increase in S100A4 expression during tumor growth, whereas only a minor increase was detected in skin tumors of the same cell line. The S100A4 expression correlated with the methylation status of cytosine-guanine sites in the first intron of the gene. For all cell lines, S100A4 expression in the tumor stroma was related to the presence of inflammatory cells rather than to the level of S100A4 in the tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.01.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081199PMC
May 2011

Stromal impact on tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis in human carcinoma xenografts.

Virchows Arch 2010 Dec 3;457(6):677-92. Epub 2010 Oct 3.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) arising in the oral cavity are associated with poor survival, mainly due to metastatic disease. In contrast, skin SCCs rarely metastasize and are usually curable. To study influence of tongue and skin stroma on cancer growth and induction of lymphangiogenesis, xenograft tumors of human carcinoma cells were established either in tongue or skin of BALB/c nude mice. Two oral and two skin SCC cell lines were used, as well as an endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line. Tongue tumors established from all cell lines were larger than corresponding skin tumors. Peritumoral lymphatic vessel density was up to five times higher in tongue than in corresponding skin tumors, and mRNA level of the lymphangiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C was twice as high in tongue tumors compared with corresponding skin tumors. Contrary to lymphatic vessel density, blood vessel density was higher in skin tumors than in tongue tumors. In a cohort of patient samples, lymphatic vessel density was found to be higher in tongue SCCs compared with skin SCCs, supporting a clinical relevance of our findings. Our results show that the tumor stroma has a profound impact on cancer growth and induction of lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. The difference in lymphatic vessel density between tongue and skin tumors may be important in directing metastatic potential of tumors arising in these organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-010-0980-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995317PMC
December 2010

Expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 in mesenchymal neoplasms.

Mod Pathol 2009 Jul 1;22(7):914-21. Epub 2009 May 1.

Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Northern Norway and University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the growth and development of cells and has been implicated in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Gene expression profiling studies on limited numbers of specimens have shown high expression of IGF2, encoding the activating ligand for this system, in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and in synovial sarcomas. This data may have concrete clinical implications, as several reports exist of patients with GISTs suffering from severe hypoglycemia, a predicted effect of IGF2. Furthermore, new drugs targeting IGF signaling are entering clinical trials. The purpose of this study is to survey IGF2 expression at the protein level on a broad number of mesenchymal tumors representing all major diagnostic classes. By immunostaining tissue microarrays, results were obtained for 51 diagnostic categories of bone and soft-tissue tumors representing 1288 cases. Distinct membranous and/or cytoplasmic IGF2 immunoreactivity was assessed according to published criteria. Solitary fibrous tumors had the highest expression. Of 20 tumor types represented by more than 10 cases, synovial sarcomas, myxoid liposarcomas, GISTs, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, chondrosarcomas, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (MFH), Ewing's sarcomas and tenosynovial giant cell tumors showed high levels of expression in more than 20% of cases. Of the 445 GIST cases with clinical information, those with high expression of IGF2 had a significantly worse outcome than those with low or no expression. IGF2 protein expression among mesenchymal tumors is largely consistent with gene expression studies and suggests a potential for molecular therapy targeting the IGF signaling pathway system in these neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2009.48DOI Listing
July 2009

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): a review.

APMIS 2009 Feb;117(2):73-86

Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Northern Norway and University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract, which, over the last 10 years, have emerged from a poorly understood neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity exhibiting particular molecular abnormalities and for which promising novel treatment modalities have been developed. GISTs probably arise from the precursor cell of the interstitial cell of Cajal, express KIT tyrosine kinase in most of the cases and harbor mutations of importance for individualized treatment. The molecular targets for therapeutic interventions are not only of importance for the treatment of GIST patients but also useful for in the development of novel drug modalities and new strategies in basic cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0463.2008.00020.xDOI Listing
February 2009

Dendritic cell infiltration pattern along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

APMIS 2008 Jun;116(6):445-56

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

We have previously reported that the dendritic cell (DC) functional index cytokine interleukin-12 was significantly decreased in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tissues. In this study, the DC infiltration pattern and the density of mature DCs (mDCs; labeled by anti-CD83 and anti-CD208) and immature DCs (iDCs; labeled by anti-CD1alpha) were characterized using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples from 23 patients with CRC, 33 patients with colorectal adenoma (CRA), and 19 healthy controls. In addition, the DC function inhibitor cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the downstream signal molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and related receptors EP2/EP4 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and double immunofluorescence staining. The IHC analyses revealed changed densities of mDCs and iDCs in the tumor microenvironment; in CRA and CRC, the density of mDCs was decreased, but the density of iDCs was gradually increased. Furthermore, the distribution patterns of DCs were also altered. In CRA, mDCs were abundantly distributed in the subepithelial stroma of the adenomatous mass. In CRC, the distribution of mDCs in the tumor stroma was not homogeneous, and mDCs residing in the stroma at invading edges were more frequently found compared with in the intratumoral stroma (P<0.05). Increased iDCs were found in the intratumoral mass in CRC, and some infiltrated into the malignant epithelium. By quantitative real-time PCR, a gradually increased level of COX-2 mRNA was demonstrated in the local tissues along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, and double immunofluorescence staining showed a colocalization of PGE2 receptors EP2/EP4 with mDCs in the stroma of CRC. In conclusion, our current findings revealed an altered DC infiltration pattern along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence; gradually increased COX-2 expression might contribute to the DC functional defect.
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June 2008

KIT codon 558 insertions in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Analysis of 17 rare KIT mutants.

Hum Pathol 2008 Dec 20;39(12):1728-36. Epub 2008 Aug 20.

Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, USA.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of gastrointestinal tract often driven by oncogenic KIT exon 11 mutations. Although deletions and substitutions are most frequent KIT exon 11 mutations, duplications and insertions have been reported as well. In contrast to duplications, which cluster in 3'KIT exon 11, insertions affect 5'KIT, particularly codon 558. Clinicopathologic profile of gastrointestinal stromal tumors with insertions in codon 558 is not known. In this study, 17 gastrointestinal stromal tumors with codon 558 insertions are reported. Fifteen (88.2%) KIT codon 558 insertions consisted of 1694_1695insTCC leading to Lys558delinsAsnPro. However, 2 variant mutants Lys558delinsAsnGln and Lys558delinsAsnAsn were also identified. Based on analysis of inserted and flanking sequences, the insertions contain inverted DNA sequences of the opposite strand. Therefore, these insertions may develop due to a DNA strand switch during replication by DNA polymerases and by the effects of several different DNA repair processes. Patient median age was 61 years, and male-to-female ratio was 1:1.8. gastrointestinal stromal tumors were diagnosed in stomach (n = 4), small intestine (n = 7), and rectum (n = 3). Three tumors were disseminated and primary location could not be established. Fourteen tumors had spindle cell morphology, and epithelioid cell features were seen in 2 intestinal and 1 disseminated gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Based on size and mitotic activity, 2 (50%) of 4 gastric and 3 (48.9%) of 7 small intestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumors had more than 50% risk of metastases according to previous studies of gastrointestinal stromal tumor prognosis. All 3 rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors were malignant. Metastases were verified in 8 (66.7%) of 12 patients with known clinical and follow-up data. In summary, KIT codon 558 insertions are rare mutations accounting for less than 1% of all KIT mutants. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors with these mutations appear to have predilection to female patients and intestinal location. Moreover, KIT codon 558 insertions might indicate an increased risk of malignant behavior for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2008.05.011DOI Listing
December 2008

DNA methylation in breast and colorectal cancer'.

Mod Pathol 2008 Aug;21(8):1063; author reply 1063-4

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2008.109DOI Listing
August 2008

Clinicopathologic profile of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with primary KIT exon 13 or exon 17 mutations: a multicenter study on 54 cases.

Mod Pathol 2008 Apr 1;21(4):476-84. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

Department of Soft Tissue Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, USA.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms driven by oncogenic, mutational activation of KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). GIST-specific KIT or PDGFRA mutations have been linked to tumor location, tumor cell morphology and clinical behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic profile of GISTs that have KIT exon 13 or exon 17 mutations. Through the collaboration of several GIST research groups, we gathered 54 cases from the pre-imatinib era that had such primary mutations. From our observations and those in the literature, we estimate that the frequency of these mutations is no higher than 1-2%. Almost all (32 of 33, 97%) of the KIT exon 13 mutations were the 1945A>G substitution leading to Lys642Glu. A majority (15 of 21, 71.4%) of the KIT exon 17 mutations were the 2487T>A substitution leading to Asn822Lys. Demographic and clinicopathologic data were available for 26 and 14 KIT exon 13 and exon 17 mutant GISTs, respectively. Median age and male to female ratio were similar to ones reported in other GIST studies. Small intestinal tumors were two times more frequent than gastric ones among KIT exon 17 mutants. Also, intestinal tumors were slightly overrepresented among KIT exon 13 mutants when compared with population-based studies. The majority of KIT exon 13 or exon 17 mutants had a spindle-cell morphology and only a few had epithelioid features. Tumor size varied from 1.2 to 25 cm and average mitotic rates were 9.5 and 4.2 for KIT exon 13 and exon 17 mutants, respectively. Gastric KIT exon 13 mutant GISTs tend to be slightly larger and more aggressive than gastric GISTs in average, whereas the behavior of small intestinal GISTs with KIT exon 13 mutations does not differ from other small intestinal GISTs. The latter is also true for all KIT exon 17 mutant GISTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2008.2DOI Listing
April 2008

Clinicopathologic factors and nuclear morphometry as independent prognosticators in KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

J Histochem Cytochem 2008 Feb 15;56(2):139-45. Epub 2007 Oct 15.

Department of Pathology, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromso, Norway.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms found in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether morphometric measurements could complement tumor size and mitotic activity in risk evaluation. Nuclear roundness and ellipse axis ratio were found to correlate with tumor size, mitotic activity, nuclear atypia, and hemorrhage. Morphometric variables in 422 GISTs were significant for overall survival in univariate analyses but did not retain independent significance in multivariate analyses incorporating mitotic count and tumor size. Traditional variables, together with sex, location of primary tumor, and nuclear atypia, seem to be the best parameters for prognostic evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/jhc.7A7333.2007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2324167PMC
February 2008

Diagnostic and prognostic markers for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Norway.

Mod Pathol 2008 Jan 5;21(1):46-53. Epub 2007 Oct 5.

Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø, Norway.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of GIST is based on histology together with a panel of immunohistochemical markers; the most important is KIT (CD117). A total of 434 cases of GISTs were confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry, and incorporated into tissue microarrays. Validation of histological features as well as the prognostic value of two immunohistochemical biomarkers (p16 and L1) was assessed. High mitotic rate, large tumor size, nuclear atypia, and small bowel primary site were all validated as negative prognostic factors in GISTs. Expression of p16 was significantly correlated with unfavorable prognosis, whereas L1 expression was not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.3800976DOI Listing
January 2008
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