Publications by authors named "Sonia Ventanas"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cross-cultural emotional response to food stimuli: Influence of consumption context.

Food Res Int 2021 Apr 6;142:110194. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

IPROCAR Research Institute, TECAL Research Group, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain. Electronic address:

Emotional responses elicited by certain types of food can be influenced by past experiences, frequency of consumption, culture, and other personal preferences. The present research aimed i) to investigate the impact of culture (Brazilian and Spaniard) on consumers' emotional responses and acceptability of different food stimuli, and ii) to explore the influence of evoked contexts. Brazilian (n = 437) and Spanish (n = 397) participants were exposed to three visual food stimuli (image of chocolate, potato chips, and yogurt) in an online survey and reported their emotional responses. Sociodemographic data, liking, and frequency of consumption were also collected. The evoked context in our study were designed and proposed, for each product and culture, based on four dimensions (consumption time, location, social setting, and hungry state). The evoked emotional lexicon was different for each food stimulus and was clearly influenced by the cultural factor. However, there are more similarities between cultures when evaluating the same product category. The evoked contexts were appropriated and influenced the citing frequency of some emotion terms, including positive ones. The most cited emotion terms tended to positively impact product liking ratings, acting as drivers of liking. Consumption level was positively related to liking regardless of cultural interactions for both chocolate and potato chips stimuli. In conclusion, the cultural background demonstrated to be an important impact factor to be considered for understanding the effects of product, consumption occasions, and degree of liking, on emotional responses to foods. These findings offer new possibilities to be explored in marketing messages for interventions or stimuli that guide food choices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110194DOI Listing
April 2021

Impact of 'free-from' and 'healthy choice' labeled versions of chocolate and coffee on temporal profile (multiple-intake TDS) and liking.

Food Res Int 2020 11 19;137:109342. Epub 2020 May 19.

IPROCAR Research Institute, TECAL Research Group, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Product reformulation for obtaining "free-from" or "healthy choice" versions may confer significant changes in sensory characteristics which could not meet consumer expectations in terms of sensory perception. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the influence of formulations of different product categories on their dynamic sensory profile and consumer acceptability. A sensory panel of 23 semi-trained assessors evaluated two product categories, chocolate and milk coffee, using Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) over three consecutive intakes/sips (multiple-intake TDS) on two replications. TDS allowed us to describe the dynamic profile of classic products over the three intakes and to identify differences in the sensory temporal profile compared to their 'healthier choice' reformulated versions. For the chocolate category, increasing the cocoa and the reduction of lactose content mainly influenced the dominance of sweetness, dairy, cocoa, crunchy and bitterness attributes. No sugar addition and absence of caffeine (decaffeinated version) in ready to drink milk coffee beverage modified temporal perception of sweetness, bitterness, coffee flavor and smoothness texture. Higher overall liking averages were associated with the dominant attributes of chocolate with a higher level of cacao and milk coffee decaffeinated. The obtained results of the present work suggest that the multiple-intake TDS technique can be applied for the evaluation of different food categories, helping to develop healthier products and predicting the liking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109342DOI Listing
November 2020

Emotional responses to the consumption of dry-cured hams by Spanish consumers: A temporal approach.

Meat Sci 2019 Mar 22;149:126-133. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute of Meat and Meat Products (IPROCAR), University of Extremadura, Avd. Universidad s.n., Cáceres, Spain.

The objective of this study was to describe for the first time the emotional responses during the consumption of three types of Spanish dry-cured hams, namely, 'Iberian', 'Serrano' and 'Curado'. Moreover, dynamic sensory techniques such as Temporal Dominance of Emotions and Temporal Dominance of Sensations were applied to identify the dominant emotions and sensory attributes perceived during ham consumption. >50 emotional terms were generated during sample consumption including positive, negative and neutral terms. Noticeable differences were detected among the three types of dry-cured ham for their emotional profiles. The most dominant emotions evoked by Iberian dry-cured hams were "intense", "authentic" and "pleasant" and could be associated with the domination of cured flavour and juiciness, with both attributes being closely related to their high intramuscular fat content. However, in Serrano and Curado dry-cured hams, the domination of saltiness attribute seemed to contribute to evoking negative emotions as "ordinary", "indifferent" and "dissatisfied". Finally, high duration of the domination of positive emotions as "desirable", "intense", "pleasant" and "authentic" contributed to high overall liking scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.11.015DOI Listing
March 2019

Benefits of wine-based marination of strip steaks prior to roasting: inhibition of protein oxidation and impact on sensory properties.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Feb 27;99(3):1108-1116. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Animal Production and Food Science, IPROCAR Research Institute, TECAL Research Group, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of red wine-based marination on the oxidative stability and overall quality of roasted beef strip steaks. Four treatments were considered, according to the type of wine (300 mL dealcoholized wine/kilogram meat): 'Cabernet Sauvignon', 'Tempranillo', 'Isabel' (ISA), and a control. The formation of potentially harmful protein oxidation products during roasting, including protein carbonyls and dityrosines, was inhibited by bioactive components of the wine.

Results: ISA marinades were particularly resistant to protein oxidation, which could be due the particular composition of this wine in phenolic compounds. Wine-based marination was also effective in controlling the formation of lipid-derived volatile compounds, such as hexanal, octane-2,5-dione, and heptan-2-one, which led to a reduced perception of rancidity by panelists. Additionally, wines contributed to spicing roasted beef with wine-derived flavors from esters, alcohols, and lactones.

Conclusions: Hence, marination may be a feasible means to alleviate the potential negative effects that oxidative reactions cause to meat proteins, improve beef quality, and diversify beef cuts into a variety of safer and more flavored meat products. Among wines, ISA appeared to be most promising in terms of antioxidant protection; however, the limited consumer acceptance of steaks treated with this wine may be regarded as a drawback to be sorted out in future studies. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9278DOI Listing
February 2019

Near-infrared spectroscopy-based analysis to study sensory parameters on pork loins as affected by cooking methods and conditions.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Aug 22;98(11):4227-4236. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Food Technology, Research Institute of Meat and Meat Product, University of Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad S/N, Cáceres, Spain.

Background: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to classify pork loins under different methods and cooking conditions, and to predict sensory attributes of this product.

Results: Samples were oven cooked at two temperatures (150 and 180 °C) for different times (45, 60 and 75 min) and confit cooked for different times (120, 180 and 240 min). All cooked loin samples were subjected to a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis by a trained panel. For classification, principal component analysis was performed based on the NIRS database, showing a good discrimination between loins samples subjected to different cooking conditions. Regarding prediction, a data mining technique (multiple linear regression) was applied on a database constructed with data from NIRS and sensory analysis.

Conclusion: The correlation coefficient and the mean absolute error obtained suggest that the calculated prediction equations of this study are valid to predict the changes in the sensory attributes depending on the cooking method and conditions used for pork loins. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8944DOI Listing
August 2018

Effect of pre-cooking methods on the chemical and sensory deterioration of ready-to-eat chicken patties during chilled storage and microwave reheating.

J Food Sci Technol 2016 Jun 22;53(6):2760-9. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

IPROCAR Research Institute, TECAL Research Group, Universidad Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

The effects of pre-cooking methods, namely, boiling (BL), roasting (RT) and grilling (GR), refrigerated storage (14 days/+4 °C) and microwave reheating on chicken patties were studied. Physical, chemical and sensory parameters were evaluated in order to correlate the chemical deterioration of ready-to-eat chicken patties with the acceptance of the odor. Chemical deterioration was evaluated through the chemical composition, Maillard compounds, Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles. Sensory deterioration (odor liking) was performed by an acceptance test with hedonic scale. According to the TBARS values and volatile compounds generated in the head space during the examined stages, the pre-cooking method and the storage time had a significant effect on lipid oxidation, whereas reheating in a microwave had a negligible impact. At each succeeding processing stage, panelists gave lower odor scores to all samples and no significant differences were found between treatments at any stage. RT and GR patties showed less intense chemical changes and presented higher acceptation scores by the sensory panel than BL patties. Thus, the choice of pre-cooking method and control of storage conditions plays a key role in the inhibition of oxidative changes in ready-to-eat chicken patties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2248-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4951429PMC
June 2016

Reporting the sensory properties of dry-cured ham using a new language: Time intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS).

Meat Sci 2016 Nov 14;121:166-174. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Institute of Meat and Meat Products (IPROCAR), University of Extremadura, Avd. Uviversidad s.n., Cáceres, Spain. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt content (normal and reduced) and feeding system (montanera and concentrate) on the dynamic sensory characteristics of dry-cured hams using time-intensity (TI) and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) techniques. Differences in the temporal sensory information given by the two different techniques were found. Significant differences in the temporal perception of flavour and texture were detected between normal and reduced salt content dry-cured hams which are a Spanish pricy meat product very appreciated by consumers due to its particular sensory characteristics. The effect of the feeding system was mainly observed on flavour attributes such as saltiness and cured flavour and texture attributes such as juiciness. The application of TDS technique to study temporal sensory attributes of dry-cured ham is reported for the first time in the present article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.06.009DOI Listing
November 2016

Effect of protein oxidation on the impaired quality of dry-cured loins produced from frozen pork meat.

Food Chem 2016 Apr 20;196:1310-4. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

IPROCAR Research Institute, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain. Electronic address:

Dry-cured loins elaborated from frozen (-20 °C/20 weeks)/thawed longissimus dorsi muscles (F) were compared with counterparts elaborated from fresh (unfrozen) muscles (UF) for the extent of protein oxidation (carbonylation and Schiff base formation) and their sensory profile (quantitative-descriptive analysis). All samples had similar moisture, fat and protein contents (p>0.05). In accordance with previous studies, freezing meat prior to processing affected the oxidative stability of meat proteins. This chemical change occurred concomitantly with modifications of the sensory profile of the loins as F-samples received significantly (p<0.05) higher scores for rancid and salty flavor, hardness and fibrousness than UF-counterparts. The formation of cross-links (assessed as Schiff bases) during freezing and the subsequent processing may have contributed to strengthening the meat structure and hence, impairing the texture properties of dry-cured loins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.092DOI Listing
April 2016

Salt and intramuscular fat modulate dynamic perception of flavour and texture in dry-cured hams.

Meat Sci 2015 Sep 15;107:39-48. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

IPROCAR Research Institute, Animal Production and Food Science Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Avd/Universidad s.n., Cáceres, Spain. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt and intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory characteristics of two different types of dry-cured hams (Iberian and Serrano) using the time-intensity (TI) method. All studied TI parameters of flavour attributes (overall flavour, saltiness, cured and rancid flavours) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by variations in the salt and/or IMF content. However, regarding texture attributes only the maximum intensity (Imax) of hardness was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the salt content of hams. Compared to Iberian dry-cured hams, the dynamic perception of the flavour and texture of Serrano dry-cured hams was less influenced by variations in salt and/or IMF content. The dynamic sensory techniques may be helpful to guarantee the quality of dry-cured products subjected to strategies of salt and fat reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.03.025DOI Listing
September 2015

Impact of high pressure treatment and intramuscular fat content on colour changes and protein and lipid oxidation in sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham.

Meat Sci 2014 Aug 5;97(4):468-74. Epub 2014 Jan 5.

Department of Animal Production and Food Science, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain. Electronic address:

The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (600MPa) and intramuscular fat content (IMF) on colour parameters and oxidative stability of lipids and proteins in sliced vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham during refrigerated storage (120 days at 2°C) was investigated. Several studies have investigated the influence of HHP on lipid oxidation of meat products. However, its effects on protein carbonylation, as also the influence of IMF content on this carbonylation are poorly understood. HHP treatment had a significant effect on lean lightness after 0 and 120 days of storage while IMF content increased lightness and yellowness over time. Regarding oxidative stability, the effect of HHP treatment depended on IMF content samples with a high IMF having greater lipid instability while samples with a low IMF underwent more protein carbonylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.12.018DOI Listing
August 2014

Ultrasonic characterization of pork fat crystallization during cold storage.

J Food Sci 2014 May 2;79(5):E828-38. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Grupo de Análisis y Simulación de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Dept. Tecnología de Alimentos, Univ. Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s/n, E46022, Valencia, Spain.

Unlabelled: In this work, the feasibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurements for characterizing and differentiating the crystallization pattern in 2 pork backfats (Montanera and Cebo Iberian fats) during cold storage (0 °C, 2 °C, 5 °C, 7 °C, and 10 °C) was evaluated. The fatty acid profile, thermal behavior, and textural properties (hardness) of fat were also determined. Both fats became harder during cold storage (average hardness increase for both fats, 11.5 N, 8 N, and 1.8 N at 0, °C 2 °C, and 5 °C , respectively), showing a 2-step pattern related with the separate crystallization of the different existing triacylglycerols, which was well described using a modified Avrami equation (explained variance > 99%). Due to a greater content of saturated triacylglycerols, Cebo fat (45.1%) was harder than Montanera (41.8%). The ultrasonic velocity followed a similar 2-step pattern to hardness during cold storage, being found an average increase for both fats of 184, 161, and 150 m/s at 0 °C 2 °C, and 5 °C, respectively. Thus, ultrasonic measurements were useful both to characterize the textural changes taking place during cold storage and to differentiate between fats with different composition.

Practical Application: The cold storage of dry-cured meat products during their distribution and retail sale exert an important effect on their textural properties and consumers' acceptance due to the crystallization of the fat fraction, which is greatly influenced by the type of fat. In this work, a nondestructive ultrasonic technique was used to identify the textural changes provoked by the crystallization during cold storage, and to differentiate between fats, which could be used for quality control purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12410DOI Listing
May 2014

Impact of lipid content and composition on lipid oxidation and protein carbonylation in experimental fermented sausages.

Food Chem 2014 Mar 24;147:70-7. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Department of Animal Production and Food Science, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

This study aims to investigate the effect of lipid content (∼4%, ∼10% and ∼15%) and composition (different lipid sources; animal fat and sunflower oil) on the oxidative stability of proteins and lipids in experimental fermented sausages. Increasing the lipid content of sausages enhanced the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation whereas the effect on the formation of specific carbonyls from protein oxidation was not so evident. Sausages manufactured with different lipid sources affected the susceptibility of lipids and proteins to oxidation as a likely result of the modifications in the fatty acid profile, as well as to the presence of antioxidant compounds. While the fatty acid profile had a major effect on the occurrence and extent of lipid oxidation, the presence of compounds with potential antioxidant activity may be more influential on the extent of protein carbonylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.100DOI Listing
March 2014

The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.

Meat Sci 2014 Feb 11;96(2 Pt A):737-43. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Animal Production and Food Science Department, University of Extremadura, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.10.010DOI Listing
February 2014

A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.

Meat Sci 2014 Jan 1;96(1):385-93. Epub 2013 Aug 1.

Animal Production and Food Science Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Avd/Universidad s.n., Cáceres, Spain.

Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.035DOI Listing
January 2014

Effect of intramuscular fat content and serving temperature on temporal sensory perception of sliced and vacuum packaged dry-cured ham.

Meat Sci 2013 Mar 17;93(3):621-9. Epub 2012 Nov 17.

Department of Animal Production and Food Science, University of Extremadura, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of three serving temperatures (7 °C, 16 °C and 20 °C) and two different ham sections varying in the intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory characteristics of sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured hams using the time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, appearance and odour of dry-cured hams were evaluated using a descriptive profile. Fluidity and brightness of the external fat, brightness of lean and all odour attributes increased as serving temperature increased whereas the hardness of external fat decreased with temperature. Oral temperature would have disguised the effect of serving temperature over time as a consequence of a possible balance between both temperatures during samples' consumption. TI revealed that the effect of serving temperature on flavour and texture perception was more noticeable along the first seconds of chewing. Odour intensities increased with the IMF content and temporal perception of hardness, saltiness and rancid flavour were also significantly influenced by the IMF content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.017DOI Listing
March 2013

Protein carbonylation and water-holding capacity of pork subjected to frozen storage: effect of muscle type, premincing, and packaging.

J Agric Food Chem 2011 May 28;59(10):5435-43. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, Food Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The present work aimed to study the relationship between protein carbonylation and the loss of water-holding capacity (WHC) occurring during frozen storage of porcine muscles. Pork samples corresponding to two different muscle types, glycolytic M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and oxidative M. psoas major (PM), and subjected to two different premincing, minced (MINCED) and intact pork pieces (INTACT), and packaging, vacuum packaged (VACUUM) and packed in oxygen-permeable bags (OXYGEN), procedures were frozen (-18 °C/12 weeks) and analyzed at sampling times upon thawing (weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12) for the relative amount of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (AAS and GGS, respectively), and their ability to hold water using two different techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with the loss of WHC, and both phenomena were found to be more intense in LD muscles and in MINCED and OXYGEN pork samples. The loss in WHC was from ca. 10 to 30% in 12 weeks, depending on the method of determination. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may decrease the WHC of pork samples are thoroughly discussed in the present paper. Besides the likely impact of protein carbonylation in the water-myofibrillar protein relationships, the implication of AAS and GGS in further reactions including plausible cross-linking would explain the decrease of these semialdehydes by the end of frozen storage and would reinforce their liability in the loss of WHC of porcine muscles. The exact nature of these reactions, however, should be investigated in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf104995jDOI Listing
May 2011

Lipid and protein oxidation and sensory properties of vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham subjected to high hydrostatic pressure.

Meat Sci 2010 Jul 26;85(3):506-14. Epub 2010 Feb 26.

Department of Animal Production and Food Science, University of Extremadura, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

The effect of HHP treatment (600 MPa) on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham and the impact on the sensory characteristics of the product was investigated. In order to assess how different commercial presentations are affected by HHP treatment, three different presentations of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham were considered, namely, (i) intact format (IF) corresponding to non-sliced vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham, (ii) conventional-sliced format (CSF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices placed stretched out in the package and (iii) alternative-sliced format (ASF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices piled up horizontally. The oxidation of dry-cured ham lipids and proteins was enhanced by HHP-treatment with the presentation being highly influential on these oxidative reactions. Pre-slicing dry-cured ham results in a more susceptible product to oxidative reactions during pressurisation and subsequent refrigerated storage. Possible mechanisms, by which HHP-induced oxidative reactions would affect particular sensory traits in vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham such as colour, texture and flavour attributes, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.02.024DOI Listing
July 2010

Temporal changes of flavour and texture in cooked bologna type sausages as affected by fat and salt content.

Meat Sci 2010 Jul 13;85(3):410-9. Epub 2010 Feb 13.

Food Technology, University of Extremadura, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptive profiles of sausages were determined. Release of volatiles was analysed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and an instrumental texture analysis was also performed. Chromatographic results obtained for 1-octen-3-ol were strongly correlated with the intensity perception of the linked odour and flavour (mushroom). Modifications of sausages matrix in terms of fat and salt content differently affected the dynamic perception of mushroom flavour, saltiness and juiciness. NaCl contributed to increasing release of 1-octen-3-ol (salting-out effect) confirmed by SPME analysis as well as the intensity and duration of the related flavour (mushroom) evaluated by TI. Similarly, NaCl increased the temporal perception of both saltines and juiciness of sausages. Increase in fat content led to a higher retention of 1-octen-3-ol (lipophilic compound) and thus to a less intense and shorter duration of mushroom flavour. Moreover, fat contributed to a more intense and a longer juiciness of sausages. These results highlight the feasibility of TI technique to evaluate changes in the temporal flavour and texture perception of sausages caused by modification of matrix composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.02.009DOI Listing
July 2010

Analysis of volatile compounds of Iberian dry-cured loins with different intramuscular fat contents using SPME-DED.

Meat Sci 2008 May 31;79(1):172-80. Epub 2007 Aug 31.

Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avd de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

In order to study the effect of both, ripening time and IMF content on the volatile profile of Iberian dry-cured loin, volatile compounds from the headspace of 10 Iberian dry-cured loins with different intramuscular fat contents (IMF), low (average IMF content of 2.3%) and high (average IMF content of 6.7%), at days 40 and 55 of the ripening process were analysed using SPME coupled to a direct extraction device (DED) and subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Chromatographic areas of the main chemical families detected (hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and acids) increased with ripening time. A higher total chromatographic area was detected in the headspace of high IMF loins compared to low IMF ones. Several volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidative reactions, such as hexanol, octanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal or (E)-2-decenal, and others from the degradation of certain amino acids, such as dimethylsulfide, 3-methylbutanal or phenylacetaldehyde, showed higher chromatographic areas in the headspace of high IMF loins than in low IMF ones. Thus, IMF content could influence both the generation of volatile compounds and the transfer of such compounds from the product matrix to the headspace.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.08.011DOI Listing
May 2008

Preference and juiciness of Iberian dry-cured loin as affected by intramuscular fat content, crossbreeding and rearing system.

Meat Sci 2007 Nov 14;77(3):324-30. Epub 2007 Apr 14.

Food Science, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avd de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

Preference ranking tests for juiciness and overall liking of dry cured loins from Iberian pigs with different genetic backgrounds (pure Iberian or crossbred Iberian×Duroc pigs), reared under different productive systems (outdoors on acorns and grass or indoors with mixed diets) and with different intramuscular fat (IMF) content, were conducted. IMF showed a positive influence on preference for juiciness and liking in subjects over 25 years of age, while younger consumers showed a similar trend for juiciness but not for preference. Loins from pure Iberian pigs showed significantly better ranking for juiciness and overall liking than those from crossbred pigs, even when the IMF content was similar. Dry cured loins from pigs reared outdoors and fed on acorns and pasture were ranked significantly better than those from animals fed indoors on concentrates, even though the mixed diets used were enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E in order to obtain meat with similar features to that of pigs reared outdoors, and despite very similar IMF contents. In conclusion, dry cured loins with high IMF content, from pure Iberian pigs and reared outdoors on acorns and grass attain the highest consumer preference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.04.001DOI Listing
November 2007

Sensory characteristics of Iberian dry-cured loins: Influence of crossbreeding and rearing system.

Meat Sci 2007 Feb 28;75(2):211-9. Epub 2006 Aug 28.

Food Science, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avd de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

The sensory characteristics of Iberian dry-cured loins and the influence of crossbreeding (pure Iberian - IB, Iberian female×Duroc male - IB×D and Duroc female×Iberian male - D×IB) and rearing system (outdoors fed on acorns and pasture - MON, indoors fed on concentrates high in oleic acid sunflower oil and supplemented with 250mg/kg of α-tocopherol acetate -HOVE- and indoors fed on control concentrates - CON) on sensory attributes were studied. Dry-cured loins from IB-MON and IB-HOVE pigs, which showed the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p<0.01), reached higher scores for brightness, marbling traits (intensity, size and shape) and juiciness, and lower for hardness, dryness and fibrousness than loins from crossbred pigs (IB×D-HOVE, IB×D-CON and D×IB-HOVE). In fact, IMF content was positively linked to juiciness and marbling attributes and negatively to dryness, hardness and fibrousness, which was also observed in the principal component analysis (PCA). Neither the crossbreeding nor the rearing system seemed to influence odour, flavour and taste features. The PCA evidenced that dry-cured loins from IB-MON and IB-HOVE batches gathered together and were placed near to marbling attributes, juiciness and IMF content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.07.003DOI Listing
February 2007

Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on protein oxidation and colour and texture changes in refrigerated stored porcine liver pâté.

Meat Sci 2006 Oct 4;74(2):396-403. Epub 2006 May 4.

Food Technology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda Universidad s/n, Cáceres 10071, Spain.

The antioxidant effect of two plant essential oils (sage and rosemary) and one synthetic antioxidant (BHT) on refrigerated stored porcine liver pâté (4°C/90 days) was evaluated. Pâtés with no added antioxidants were used as controls. Liver pâtés were analysed for protein oxidation, modification of heme (HI) and non-heme iron (NHI) concentrations, and colour and texture characteristics at days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of refrigerated storage. The amount of carbonyls from protein oxidation significantly (p<0.05) increased during refrigerated storage, and this increase was significantly higher in the control pâtés than in their treated counterparts. Antioxidants successfully protected heme molecules from degradation and significantly inhibited the increase of NHI in refrigerated stored liver pâtés. Colour changes seemed not to be directly related to oxidative processes since pâtés with added antioxidants suffered greater colour modifications than the controls. The addition of rosemary essential oil significantly reduced hardness of liver pâtés. Sage and rosemary essential oils exhibited similar antioxidant properties to BHT denoting their suitability as alternatives to synthetic antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.010DOI Listing
October 2006

Quality traits in muscle biceps femoris and back-fat from purebred Iberian and reciprocal Iberian×Duroc crossbred pigs.

Meat Sci 2006 Aug 6;73(4):651-9. Epub 2006 May 6.

Food Technology Department, University of Extremadura, 10071, Cáceres, Spain.

The present study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics of muscle biceps femoris and back-fat from purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs and reciprocal crossbred Iberian×Duroc pigs (IB×D pigs: Iberian dams×Duroc sires; D×IB pigs: Duroc dams×Iberian sires). Muscles from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. In addition, muscles from PBI pigs were darker (lower L(∗)-values) and redder (higher a(∗)-values) and exhibited a more intense colour (higher chroma value) which was closer to the true red axis (lower hue value) than muscles from crossbred pigs. Back-fat from PBI pigs had significantly higher percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and significantly smaller percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than those from crossbred pigs. Regarding the fatty acid profiles of the muscle lipid fractions, the genetic background particularly affected the composition of the polar lipid (PL) fraction. PL in muscles from PBI pigs contained significantly higher proportions of oleic acid and total MUFA and significantly lower amounts of arachidonic acid, certain long-chain PUFA (ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids) and total amount of PUFA than PL in muscles from crossbred pigs. The results obtained indicate that tissues from PBI pigs would be more suitable for the production of dry-cured meats than those from cross-bred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian×Duroc crosses had no clear effects on meat quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.03.009DOI Listing
August 2006

Protein and lipid oxidation in Longissimus dorsi and dry cured loin from Iberian pigs as affected by crossbreeding and diet.

Meat Sci 2006 Apr 7;72(4):647-55. Epub 2005 Nov 7.

Tecnología y Bioquímica de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria Universidad de Extremadura, Avd de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

Lipid and protein oxidation in Longissimus dorsi (LD) and dry-cured loins from pigs with different genetic (pure Iberian (IBP), Iberian female×Duroc male (IB×D) and Duroc female×Iberian male (D×IB)) and feeding backgrounds (free rearing on acorn and pasture (MON), concentrates high in oleic acid and supplemented with 250ppm of vitamin E(HOVE) and control concentrates (CON)) were investigated. Diet influenced the fatty acids profile from PL and α- and γ-tocopherol contents of LD. IBP-MON pigs showed the lowest malonaldehyde (MDA) values at 200min of iron induced muscle oxidation. Dry-cured loins from IBP-HOVE pigs had significantly (p<0.05) higher values of TBARS than those from the other batches. Neither the diet nor crossbreeding affected hexanal counts in dry-cured loins. Protein carbonyl content showed a similar trend to that observed for MDA values in LD, suggesting a protective role of tocopherol against lipid and protein oxidation. The positive and significant correlations between iron induced lipid oxidation in LD (200 min) and carbonyl content in LD and dry-cured loin (R(2): 0.55 and R(2): 0.52, respectively, p<0.01) support the relationship between lipid and protein oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.09.011DOI Listing
April 2006

Incidence in diverse pig populations of an IGF2 mutation with potential influence on meat quality and quantity: An assay based on real time PCR (RT-PCR).

Meat Sci 2005 Nov 14;71(3):577-82. Epub 2005 Jul 14.

Departamento de Producción Animal y Ciencia de los Alimentos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain.

IGF2, insulin-like growth factor 2, is implicated in myogenesis and lean meat content. A mutation in a single base (A for G substitution) of the gene for IGF2 (position 3072 in intron 3) has been recently described as the cause of a major QTL effect on muscle growth in pigs [Van Laere, A. S, Nguyen, M., Braunschweig, M., Nezer, C., Collete, C., & Moreau, L. et al. (2003). Nature, 425, 832-836]. We describe here a rapid assay based on real time PCR (RT-PCR) to detect this mutation. We have evaluated the incidence of the mutation in commercial pig crosses, in three populations of purebred Iberian or Iberian×Duroc crosses, and in cured meat products and wild boars. The incidence of the mutation varies among these groups. Penetrance of the A mutation is about 80% in the commercial population. Purebred Iberian pigs were all homozygous G/G whereas crosses of Iberian pigs were heterozygous (90%) or homozygous A/A (10%). The implications of this gene for the selection of Iberian pigs are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.05.002DOI Listing
November 2005

Influence of the addition of rosemary essential oil on the volatiles pattern of porcine frankfurters.

J Agric Food Chem 2005 Oct;53(21):8317-24

Food Technology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

The effect of the addition of increasing levels of rosemary essential oil (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) on the generation of volatile compounds in frankfurters from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes (hexanal, octanal, nonanal) and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace (HS) of porcine frankfurters. Frankfurters from different pig breeds presented different volatile profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a likely result of their fatty acid composition and vitamin E content. Rosemary essential oil showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles depending on the type of frankfurter in which they were added. In frankfurters from Iberian pigs, the antioxidant effect of the essential oil improved with increasing levels, showing the highest activity at 600 mg/kg. In contrast, 150 mg/kg of the essential oil improved the oxidative stability of frankfurters from white pigs, whereas higher levels led to no effect or a prooxidant effect. The activity of the essential oil could have been affected by the different fatty acid compositions and vitamin E contents between types of frankfurters. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of volatile terpenes from frankfurters with added rosemary essential oil including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, l-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of frankfurters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf051025qDOI Listing
October 2005

Analysis of volatiles in porcine liver pâtés with added sage and rosemary essential oils by using SPME-GC-MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2004 Aug;52(16):5168-74

Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

The effect of the addition of two natural antioxidant extracts (sage and rosemary essential oils) and one synthetic (BHT) on the generation of volatile compounds in liver pâtés from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using SPME-GC-MS. Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes [hexanal, octanal, nonanal, hept-(Z)-4-enal, oct-(E)-2-enal, non-(Z)-2-enal, dec-(E)-2-enal, deca-(E,Z)-2,4-dienal] and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace of porcine liver pâtés. Pâtés from different pig breeds presented different volatiles profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a probable result of their fatty acid profiles and vitamin E content. Regardless of the origin of the pâtés, the addition of BHT successfully reduced the amount of volatiles derived from PUFA oxidation. Added essential oils showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles whether they were added in pâtés from Iberian or white pigs because they inhibited lipid oxidation in the former and enhanced oxidative instability in the latter. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of 41 volatile terpenes from pâtés with added sage and rosemary essential oils including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, 1-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of liver pâtés.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0496705DOI Listing
August 2004

Analysis of volatiles in meat from Iberian pigs and lean pigs after refrigeration and cooking by using SPME-GC-MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2003 May;51(11):3429-35

Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, 10071 Cáceres, Spain.

The volatile compounds generated in meat from Iberian and lean pigs after four different treatments (raw, refrigerated, cooked, and refrigerated cooked meat) were analyzed. The different treatments showed different volatile profiles. Methyl alcohols and ketones (such as 2-ethyl-hexan-1-ol, 2-methyl-butan-1-ol, 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, and 3-hydroxy-butan-2-one) were the most representative in refrigerated meat because of the degradation of carbohydrates and proteins together with the Strecker degradation pathway. Lipid-derived volatiles were the most abundant in cooked meat and refrigerated cooked meat. Meat from different pig breeds presented different volatile profiles, probably due to different enzymatic and oxidative deterioration susceptibility. Otherwise, the fat content and its compositional characteristics also played an important role in the generation of volatiles. As compared to samples from lean pigs, muscles from Iberian pigs showed a higher content of heme iron that may have promoted the generation of higher content of total lipid-derived volatiles during the refrigeration of cooked meat. Despite that, the formation of volatiles with low thresholds and related to intense rancidity perception likely to be derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in lean pork than in meat from Iberian pigs. This might be expected to lead to a more intense development of a warmed over flavor during refrigeration of cooked samples from lean pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf026218hDOI Listing
May 2003