Publications by authors named "Song Yang"

2,169 Publications

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Hierarchical Porous MIL-101(Cr) Solid Acid-Catalyzed Production of Value-Added Acetals from Biomass-Derived Furfural.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Oct 12;13(20). Epub 2021 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide &Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, State-Local Joint Laboratory for Comprehensive Utilization of Biomass, Center for Research and Development of Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

Considering economic and environmental impacts, catalytic biomass conversion to valuable compounds has attracted more and more attention. Of particular interest is furfural, a versatile biorefinery platform molecule used as a feedstock for the production of fuels and fine chemicals. In this study, the Cr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) MIL-101 were modified by chlorosulfonic acid, and MIL-101 was changed into a hierarchical MOF structure with smaller particles and lower particle crystallinity by CTAB, which significantly improved the acidic sites of the MOFs. The original and modified MIL-101(Cr) catalysts were characterized by XRD, N adsorption-desorption, SEM, TEM, and FT-IR. The effects of different catalysts, reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and alcohol type on the reaction were studied. Under the action of the MOFs catalyst, a new mild route for the condensation of furfural with various alkyl alcohols to the biofuel molecules (acetals) was proposed. The conversion route includes the conversion of furfural up to 91% yield of acetal could be obtained within 1 h solvent-free and in room-temperature reaction conditions. The sulfonic acid-functionalized MIL-101(Cr) is easy to recover and reuse, and can still maintain good catalytic activity after ten runs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13203498DOI Listing
October 2021

A Simulation Analysis of Maternal Pelvic Floor Muscle.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Oct 15;18(20). Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Pelvic floor disorder (PFD) is a common disease affecting the quality of life of middle-aged and elderly women. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) damage is related to delivery mode, fetal size, and parity. Spontaneous vaginal delivery causes especially great damage to PFM. The purpose of this study was to summarize the characteristics of PFM action during the second stage of labor by collecting female pelvic MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) data and, further, to try to investigate the potential pathogenetic mechanism of PFD. A three-dimensional model was established to study the influence factors and characteristics of PFM strength. In the second stage of labor, the mechanical responses, possible damage, and the key parts of postpartum lesions of PFM due to the different fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) sizes were analyzed by finite element simulations. The research results showed that the peak stress and strain of PFM appeared at one-half of the delivery period and at the attachment point of the pubococcygeus to the skeleton. In addition, during the simulation process, the pubococcygeus was stretched by about 1.2 times and the levator ani muscle was stretched by more than two-fold. There was also greater stress and strain in the middle area of the levator ani muscle and pubococcygeus. According to the statistics, either being too young or in old maternal age will increase the probability of postpartum PFM injury. During delivery, the entire PFM underwent the huge deformation, in which the levator ani muscle and the pubococcygeus were seriously stretched and the attachment point between the pubococcygeus and the skeleton were the places with the highest probability of postpartum lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010821DOI Listing
October 2021

Days at Home After Transcatheter vs Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Intermediate-Risk Patients.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.4036DOI Listing
October 2021

A photoelectrochemical biosensor based on SnO nanoparticles for phosphatidylcholine detection in soybean oil.

Anal Methods 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

College of Food Engineering, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin, 150028, China.

A photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on SnO nanoparticles (SnO NPs) was developed and applied for phosphatidylcholine (PC) detection in soybean oil. SnO NPs were grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode, polythionine (PTh) was electropolymerized on the surface of ITO/SnO NPs, and choline oxidase (ChO) was immobilized to prepare the ITO/SnO NPs/PTh/ChO electrode. The developed PEC biosensor can detect PC under visible light irradiation. The experimental conditions for PC detection were as follows: 1.8 mg mL ChO concentration, 0.5 V bias voltage, 18 mW cm light intensity, and pH 6. The PEC biosensor had a detection limit of 0.005 mM (S/N = 3) and a detection range from 0.03 mM to 4 mM. This PEC biosensor based on SnO NPs was applied to detect PC in soybean oil. The recovery rate tested by the standard addition method was 95.2-107.4%. These findings were consistent with the results obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, the proposed PEC biosensor based on SnO NPs has excellent reproducibility, stability, and great potential applications in the PEC analysis of PC in soybean oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ay01406dDOI Listing
October 2021

High carbohydrate diet induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, promoted inflammation and apoptosis, impaired intestinal barrier of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Oct 15;119:308-317. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Vodňany, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

This study assessed the effects of feed carbohydrate content on intestinal physical barrier and immunity in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Triplicate groups of juvenile fish (4.1 ± 0.2 g) were fed low (LCD, 7%), medium (MCD, 12%) and high (HCD, 17%) carbohydrate diets for eight weeks. Gut histology revealed the slight infiltration of inflammatory cells and moderate loss of mucous membrane layer in HCD group. Expression of ZO1, occluding, and claudin7 genes and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene were significantly decreased in HCD group indicating the impairment of tight junction and epithelial cell regeneration. The results showed the significant (P < 0.05) reduction of antioxidant capacity in HCD group compared to LCD. Furthermore, expression of intestinal ERS-related genes such as IRE1, Eif2α, GRP78, CHOPα and CHOPβ in HCD group was significantly higher than the LCD group. In addition, HCD induced the up-regulated expression of inflammatory (IL-8, IL-1β, TNFα and COX2) and apoptosis (TRAF2, bax, casepase3, caspase8 and casepase9) related genes in fish intestine. The data generated in this study clearly demonstrated that HCD induced ERS and oxidative stress, which promoted intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in juvenile largemouth bass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.10.019DOI Listing
October 2021

Single-Molecule Real-Time and Illumina Sequencing to Analyze Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Synthesis in Blueberry.

Front Plant Sci 2021 30;12:754325. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (Germplasm Resources Utilization), Research Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture, Xingcheng, China.

Blueberries () contain large amounts of flavonoids, which play important roles in the plant's ability to resist stress and can also have beneficial effects on human health when the fruits are eaten. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate flavonoid synthesis in blueberries are still unclear. In this study, we combined two different transcriptome sequencing platforms, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing, to elucidate the flavonoid synthetic pathways in blueberries. We analyzed transcript quantity, length, and the number of annotated genes. We mined genes associated with flavonoid synthesis (such as anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins) and employed fluorescence quantitative PCR to analyze the expression of these genes and their correlation with flavonoid synthesis. We discovered one R2R3 MYB transcription factor from the sequencing library, , that can positively regulate anthocyanin synthesis in blueberries. is mainly expressed in colored (mature) fruits. Experiments showed that overexpression and transient expression of promoted anthocyanin synthesis in , tobacco () plants and green blueberry fruits. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and transient expression experiments showed that VcMYB1 binds to the MYB binding site on the promoter of the structural gene for anthocyanin synthesis, VcMYB1 to positively regulate the transcription of , thereby promoting anthocyanin synthesis. We also performed an in-depth investigation of transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin synthesis. This study provides background information and data for studying the synthetic pathways of flavonoids and other secondary metabolites in blueberries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.754325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514788PMC
September 2021

Ginseng root extract attenuates inflammation by inhibiting the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and activating autophagy and p62-Nrf2-Keap1 signaling in vitro and in vivo.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 11;283:114739. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, 130117, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a type of herbal plant that has frequently been used in many Asian countries to treat a variety of diseases. Ginseng is considered to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pharmacological effects. However, the specific mechanism is still not entirely understood.

Aim Of The Study: In this study, we investigated if ginseng extract could attenuate inflammation and oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells and in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model.

Materials And Methods: RAW264.7 cells and LPS were used to develop inflammatory and oxidative cell models. C57/6J male mice and DSS were used to construct the animal models. O2-, mitochondria number, and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed using fluorescent probes and fluorescence microscopy. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation were detected with probes and microplate readers. The secreted amounts of inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Protein expression levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus were measured by western blotting analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the changes in mRNA levels. Autophagosome accumulation was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. A p62-specific siRNA was used to evaluate the effect of p62 on the anti-oxidative function of ginseng root extract (GRE). Asperuloside and SP600125 were used to confirm the involvement of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Results: We performed a systematic analysis of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and autophagy regulatory mechanisms of GRE in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. GRE considerably reduced the levels of nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-6 secreted by LPS-treated cells. GRE treatments dose-dependently upregulated IL-10 mRNA levels and decreased IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA levels in LPS-treated cells. Similar to the NF-κB and JNK inhibitors, GRE treatment significantly inhibited NF-κB activity and phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK, ERK-1/2, and p38). Additionally, GRE treatment remarkably decreased LPS-triggered reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction by motivating Nrf2 nuclear translocation by enhancing phosphorylated p62. Knockdown of p62 resulted in the loss of GRE anti-oxidative ability. Autophagy was strongly induced by GRE via the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, relieving excessive oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation, while enhancing Beclin-1, LC3 II, and Atg7 protein expression. Furthermore, GRE alleviated the degree of injury, inflammatory cytokine production, and regulated the relative signaling pathway in DSS-induced colitis.

Conclusions: GRE can exert both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative functions by targeting the MAPK/NF-κB and p62-Nrf2-Keap1 pathways, as well as autophagy, in vitro and vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114739DOI Listing
October 2021

Skeletal muscle gauge as a prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although skeletal muscle index (SMI) and radiodensity (SMD) are well-known prognostic factors, the clinical impact of the integrated measure, known as skeletal muscle gauge (SMG), has been limited in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).

Patients And Methods: A total of 727 and 268 patients with CRC at two tertiary centers were included and allocated into the training and test sets, respectively. Preoperative slice computed tomography images of the third lumbar area were evaluated for SMI and SMD. SMG was calculated as SMI × SMD and expressed as an arbitrary unit (AU). The optimal cutoff SMG value was determined to maximize the overall survival (OS) difference between the groups with respect to sex in the training set. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model evaluated the association of its clinical significance.

Results: With regard to SMG, 1640 and 1523 AU were identified as cutoff values for males and females, respectively. The patients with low SMG values showed significantly worse 5-year OS than those with high SMG values in the two datasets (both p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, low SMG was identified as an independent poor prognostic factor of OS in the training set (hazard ratio 2.18, 95% confidence interval 1.43-3.32, p < 0.001) and test set (hazard ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.00, p = 0.025), whereas SMI and SMD were not.

Conclusion: SMG acts synergistically to improve its prognostic predictive accuracy as compared with SMI or SMD alone in patients with CRC. Additional research is warranted to define its significance in different ethnic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4354DOI Listing
October 2021

Air Pollution Impairs Subjective Happiness by Damaging Their Health.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 09 30;18(19). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

: The impact of air pollution on residents' happiness remains unclear and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We aimed to examine the direct effect of air pollution on residents' happiness and indirect effect through mediating their health. Based on the 2017 China Comprehensive Social Survey Data (CGSS), data on happiness were retrieved from 11,997 residents in 28 provinces in China. An ordered-probit model was used to examine the effect of air pollution on residents' happiness and health, respectively. A stepwise regression was used to derive the direct effect of air pollution on residents' happiness and indirect effect from health impairment attributable to air pollution. Air pollution was associated with lower levels of health (coef. -0.190, 95% CI -0.212, -0.167, < 0.001), while health was positively associated with happiness (coef. 0.215, 95% CI 0.196, 0.234, < 0.001). Mediation analysis methods showed that air pollution impacted residents' happiness directly and indirectly: the percent of total effect that was mediated through health was 36.97%, and the ratio of indirect to direct effect was 0.5864. Health plays a major mediating role in the relation between air pollution and residents' happiness. In order to alleviate the impact of air pollution on residents' happiness, future strategies should focus on health promotion besides reducing air pollutant emission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507867PMC
September 2021

A Punishment Mechanism-Combined Recurrent Neural Network to Solve Motion-Planning Problem of Redundant Robot Manipulators.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Oct 8;PP. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

In order to make redundant robot manipulators (RRMs) track the complex time-varying trajectory, the motion-planning problem of RRMs can be converted into a constrained time-varying quadratic programming (TVQP) problem. By using a new punishment mechanism-combined recurrent neural network (PMRNN) proposed in this article with reference to the varying-gain neural-dynamic design (VG-NDD) formula, the TVQP problem-based motion-planning scheme can be solved and the optimal angles and velocities of joints of RRMs can also be obtained in the working space. Then, the convergence performance of the PMRNN model in solving the TVQP problem is analyzed theoretically in detail. This novel method has been substantiated to have a faster calculation speed and better accuracy than the traditional method. In addition, the PMRNN model has also been successfully applied to an actual RRM to complete an end-effector trajectory tracking task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3111204DOI Listing
October 2021

Applicability of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Trials to Real-World Clinical Practice: Findings From EXTEND-CoreValve.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Oct;14(19):2112-2123

Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of pivotal transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) trials to the real-world population of Medicare patients undergoing TAVR.

Background: It is unclear whether randomized controlled trial results of novel cardiovascular devices apply to patients encountered in clinical practice.

Methods: Characteristics of patients enrolled in the U.S. CoreValve pivotal trials were compared with those of the population of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent TAVR in U.S. clinical practice between November 2, 2011, and December 31, 2017. Inverse probability weighting was used to reweight the trial cohort on the basis of Medicare patient characteristics, and a "real-world" treatment effect was estimated.

Results: A total of 2,026 patients underwent TAVR in the U.S. CoreValve pivotal trials, and 135,112 patients underwent TAVR in the Medicare cohort. Trial patients were mostly similar to real-world patients at baseline, though trial patients were more likely to have hypertension (50% vs 39%) and coagulopathy (25% vs 17%), whereas real-world patients were more likely to have congestive heart failure (75% vs 68%) and frailty. The estimated real-world treatment effect of TAVR was an 11.4% absolute reduction in death or stroke (95% CI: 7.50%-14.92%) and an 8.7% absolute reduction in death (95% CI: 5.20%-12.32%) at 1 year with TAVR compared with conventional therapy (surgical aortic valve replacement for intermediate- and high-risk patients and medical therapy for extreme-risk patients).

Conclusions: The trial and real-world populations were mostly similar, with some notable differences. Nevertheless, the extrapolated real-world treatment effect was at least as high as the observed trial treatment effect, suggesting that the absolute benefit of TAVR in clinical trials is similar to the benefit of TAVR in the U.S. real-world setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.08.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Nomogram to Predict the Survival of Chinese Patients with Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 27;2021:4073503. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Division 3, Department of Hepatology, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100015, China.

Objectives: Alcohol-related liver disease is an increasing public health burden in China, but there is a lack of models to predict its prognosis. This study established a nomogram for predicting the survival of Chinese patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD).

Methods: Hospitalized alcohol-related liver disease patients were retrospectively enrolled from 2015 to 2018 and followed up for 24 months to evaluate survival profiles. A total of 379 patients were divided into a training cohort ( = 265) and validation cohort ( = 114). Cox proportional hazard survival analysis identified survival factors of the patients in the training cohort. A nomogram was built and internally validated.

Results: The 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month survival rates for the training cohort were 82.6%, 81.1%, 74.3%, and 64.5%, respectively. The Cox analysis showed relapse (=0.001), cirrhosis (=0.044), liver cancer ( < 0.001), and a model for end-stage liver diseases score of ≥21 (=0.041) as independent prognostic factors. A nomogram was built, which predicted the survival of patients in the training cohort with a concordance index of 0.749 and in the internal validation cohort with a concordance index of 0.756.

Conclusion: The long-term survival of Chinese alcohol-related liver disease patients was poor with a 24-month survival rate of 64.5%. Relapse, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and a model for end-stage liver disease score of ≥21 were independent risk factors for those patients. A nomogram was developed and internally validated for predicting the probability of their survival at different time points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4073503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490064PMC
October 2021

A first-principles study of phthalocyanine-based multifunctional spintronic molecular devices.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 19;23(34):18760-18769. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Image Processing & Shandong Provincial Engineering and Technical Center of Light Manipulations, School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250358, China.

In this study, using the first-principles method, we theoretically investigated the spin-dependent transport properties of a phthalocyanine (Pc) molecule, which is sandwiched between two zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (zGNR) electrodes. Owing to the spatial symmetry of the Pc molecule and spin splitting of zGNRs around Fermi energy, perfect spin filtering behavior is observed in designed molecular junctions. Meanwhile, the spin of electrons allowed through the device is right opposite to the spin polarization of zGNR electrodes. Further studies show that the spin filtering performance can be largely modulated by insetting different transition metal atoms (TM = Mn or Cr) into the central Pc molecule, and changing the spin-polarized direction of the TM atom leads to the spin filtering direction inversion. More intriguingly, the antiparallel magnetic configuration of two zGNR electrodes gives rise to the control of the conducting channel by bias polarization, which eventually leads to remarkable spin rectifying and giant magnetoresistance behaviors in transition metal phthalocyanine (TMPc) molecular junctions. The corresponding mechanisms are revealed by an analysis of spin-resolved transmission spectra, molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian and a projected density of states. These results are helpful in the design of TMPc-based multifunctional spin molecular devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp01126jDOI Listing
September 2021

Investigating Changes in the Serum Inflammatory Factors in Alzheimer's Disease and Their Correlation with Cognitive Function.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Innovation Center for Neurological Disorders and Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Beijing, P.R. China.

Background: Serum levels of inflammatory factors, such as C3, C4, C-reactive protein (CRP), immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, and IgM, in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their correlation with cognitive function remain unexplored.

Objective: To investigate the expression of serum inflammatory factors in patients with AD and its correlation with cognitive function.

Methods: Serum levels of C3, C4, CRP, IgG, IgA, and IgM in 200 patients with AD (mild, moderate, and severe) and those in 174 normal controls were assessed. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to explore the relationships among biomarker levels, cognitive function, and activities of daily living (ADL).

Results: Among these inflammatory factors, C3 and CRP levels were significantly lower, and IgG and IgA levels were significantly higher in the AD group than in the control group (p <  0.05). There were no significant differences in C4 and IgM levels between the two groups (p >  0.05). In all participants, CRP level was positively correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores (p <  0.05). In the AD group, IgA level was negatively associated with ADL scores (p <  0.05). No significant correlation was detected between the other factors and different cognitive scores (p >  0.05).

Conclusion: Inflammatory factors C3, CRP, IgG, and IgA have the potential to serve as biomarkers for AD. Furthermore, serum IgA was not only correlated with AD but also with ADL. These results support the hypothesis that inflammation is involved in the occurrence and development of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210552DOI Listing
September 2021

Anxiety and its relationship with sleep disturbance and problematic smartphone use among Chinese medical students during COVID-19 home confinement - A structural equation model analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 Oct 1;296:315-321. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Social Medicine, College of Health Management, China Medical University, 110122, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Background: The majority of medical students in China have experienced home confinement and a reliance on online resources to study medicine since the outbreak of COVID-19. More time spent studying online during the COVID-19 pandemic may be a potential risk factor for problematic smartphone use, since smartphones have become the most commonly used device for accessing the internet. The objective of the present study was to explore the association between anxiety, smartphone problematic use and sleep disturbance among medical students during the enforced COVID-19 home confinement.

Methods: Altogether, 666 medical students validly answered a self-administered questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, Smartphone addiction scale - short version, and the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance scale (short form). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to explore the associated factors of anxiety. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test hypothesized associations.

Results: Anxiety was significantly associated with problematic smartphone use and sleep disturbance among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Problematic smartphone use not only directly affected anxiety, but also exerted a significant indirect effect on anxiety via sleep disturbance. A significant decrease of the path coefficient of problematic smartphone use on anxiety (from β=0.53 to β=0.22, P<0.01) was observed with sleep disturbance being modeled as a mediator.

Limitations: Limitations include its cross-sectional design and samples recruited from only one medical school.

Conclusions: The detrimental impact of problematic smartphone use and the importance of sleep health on mitigating anxiety should be highlighted and incorporated into medical education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.09.095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484230PMC
October 2021

Bifunctional alginate/chitosan stabilized perfluorohexane nanodroplets as smart vehicles for ultrasound and pH responsive delivery of anticancer agents.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Wallace H Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.

The combination of ultrasound and chemotherapy has been proposed as a promising strategy to achieve a better anticancer therapeutic efficacy. Here we present a facile strategy to construct novel bifunctional nanodroplets as smart vehicles for ultrasound and pH responsive delivery of anticancer agents. PFH is used as core and chitosan/alginate complexes are used as the stable shells of the nanodroplets. The effects of alginate/chitosan ratio, and the amount of surfactant as well as PFH on the size, size distribution, and encapsulation efficiency of nanodroplets are systematically investigated with the optimized formulation identified. The release of the encapsulated doxorubicin hydrochloride can be triggered by changing the pH value of the surrounding environment and the exposure to ultrasound. The nanodroplets also show strong ultrasound contrast via droplet-to-bubble transition as demonstrated by B-mode ultrasound imaging. The hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity are further studied, revealing the biocompatibility of the nanodroplets. The in vivo antitumor results demonstrate that the prepared droplets show excellent antitumor therapeutic efficacy and outstanding tumor-targeting ability. The proposed alginate/chitosan stabilized PFH nanodroplets represent an important advance in fabricating multifunctional therapeutic materials with great promises in the applications of combined antitumor therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.09.166DOI Listing
September 2021

COVID-19 Outbreak Caused by Contaminated Packaging of Imported Cold-Chain Products - Liaoning Province, China, July 2020.

China CDC Wkly 2021 May;3(21):441-447

China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, China.

Few major outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in China after major non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccines have been deployed and implemented. However, sporadic outbreaks that had high possibility to be linked to cold chain products were reported in several cities of China..



In July 2020, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Dalian, China. The investigations of this outbreak strongly suggested that the infection source was from COVID-19 virus-contaminated packaging of frozen seafood during inbound unloading personnel contact.



Virus contaminated paper surfaces could maintain infectivity for at least 17-24 days at -25 ℃. Exposure to COVID-19 virus-contaminated surfaces is a potential route for introducing the virus to a susceptible population. Countries with no domestic transmission of COVID-19 should consider introducing prevention strategies for both inbound travellers and imported goods. Several measures to prevent the introduction of the virus via cold-chain goods can be implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392985PMC
May 2021

Two Reemergent Cases of COVID-19 - Hebei Province, China, January 2, 2021.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Jan;3(2):25-27

Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392897PMC
January 2021

A Case of COVID-19 - Tianjin Municipality, China, November 7, 2020.

China CDC Wkly 2020 Nov;2(46):884-885

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2020.241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393129PMC
November 2020

Reemergent Cases of COVID-19 - Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, July 16, 2020.

China CDC Wkly 2020 Sep;2(39):761-763

National Health Commission Key Laboratory for Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2020.206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393009PMC
September 2020

Giant magnetoelastic effect in soft systems for bioelectronics.

Nat Mater 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The magnetoelastic effect-the variation of the magnetic properties of a material under mechanical stress-is usually observed in rigid alloys, whose mechanical modulus is significantly different from that of human tissues, thus limiting their use in bioelectronics applications. Here, we observed a giant magnetoelastic effect in a soft system based on micromagnets dispersed in a silicone matrix, reaching a magnetomechanical coupling factor indicating up to four times more enhancement than in rigid counterparts. The results are interpreted using a wavy chain model, showing how mechanical stress changes the micromagnets' spacing and dipole alignment, thus altering the magnetic field generated by the composite. Combined with liquid-metal coils patterned on polydimethylsiloxane working as a magnetic induction layer, the soft magnetoelastic composite is used for stretchable and water-resistant magnetoelastic generators adhering conformably to human skin. Such devices can be used as wearable or implantable power generators and biomedical sensors, opening alternative avenues for human-body-centred applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-021-01093-1DOI Listing
September 2021
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