Publications by authors named "Song Tang"

98 Publications

Exploring personal chemical exposures in China with wearable air pollutant monitors: A repeated-measure study in healthy older adults in Jinan, China.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 19;156:106709. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

The health impact of airborne contaminants has been challenging to assess due to current limitations in measurement technologies. The emergence of wearable passive samplers coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) chemical analysis has enabled comprehensive characterization of personal exposures. We conducted a repeated-measure study among 84 older adults in Jinan, China, as part of the Biomarkers for Air Pollutants Exposure (China BAPE) study. Study objectives were: 1) to characterize the occurrence, magnitude, and distribution of personal exposure to airborne contaminants; 2) to evaluate the temporal variation of chemical exposures across the study population; and 3) to identify behavioral and environmental factors that influence the observed variance in chemical exposures. The FreshAir wristband was worn by participants for three consecutive days each month from September 2018 to January 2019 and collected with paired time-activity logs. Passive air samplers were also deployed in parallel at a local outdoor air monitoring station. Spearman's Rho trend test and trajectory cluster analysis were used to identify exposure trends and variation patterns, respectively. Out of the 70 airborne compounds of potential concern screened, 26 compounds from 10 chemical classes were found to be above detection thresholds across >70% of the study population. Personal exposures were predominantly characterized by nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phthalates, three nitroaromatics, and two volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Phthalate personal exposures were positively correlated with outdoor temperatures while the inverse relationship was observed for certain PAHs (p < 0.05). Specifically, dimethyl phthalate (r = 0.31) decreased as temperatures declined, while nitrobenzene (r = -0.35) and naphthalene (r = -0.40) increased as temperatures decreased. Compared to levels measured at the outdoor air monitoring site, personal exposure of phthalates was elevated (p < 0.05) and hexachlorobutadiene was lower across participants (p < 0.01). Personal exposure of these chemicals was further found to be weakly associated with daily duration participants spent outdoors. Individuals formed distinct clusters based on trajectories of chemical exposures across the sampling period (September to January), potentially suggestive of distinct emission sources. In conclusion, we demonstrate the feasibility of characterizing the occurrence and magnitude of personal exposure to airborne chemical contaminants using passive wristband samplers. The temporal variability of these personal exposure profiles was highlighted and with distinct trends identified across different groups of individuals. Future studies will integrate this data with other omics datasets collected from this population of Chinese older adults to investigate associations between exposure profiles and health relevant biomarkers, to provide evidence in feasibility of disease prevention through environmental improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106709DOI Listing
June 2021

Ultrahigh specific strength in a magnesium alloy strengthened by spinodal decomposition.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 2;7(23). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Strengthening of magnesium (Mg) is known to occur through dislocation accumulation, grain refinement, deformation twinning, and texture control or dislocation pinning by solute atoms or nano-sized precipitates. These modes generate yield strengths comparable to other engineering alloys such as certain grades of aluminum but below that of high-strength aluminum and titanium alloys and steels. Here, we report a spinodal strengthened ultralightweight Mg alloy with specific yield strengths surpassing almost every other engineering alloy. We provide compelling morphological, chemical, structural, and thermodynamic evidence for the spinodal decomposition and show that the lattice mismatch at the diffuse transition region between the spinodal zones and matrix is the dominating factor for enhancing yield strength in this class of alloy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf3039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172136PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide identification of the tea plant bHLH transcription factor family and discovery of candidate regulators of trichome formation.

Sci Rep 2021 May 24;11(1):10764. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Horticulture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510642, People's Republic of China.

Leaf trichomes play vital roles in plant resistance and the quality of tea. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) play an important role in regulating plant development and growth. In this study, a total of 134 CsbHLH proteins were identified in the Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS) genome. They were divided into 17 subgroups according to the Arabidopsis thaliana classification. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that members of subgroups IIIc-I and IIIc-II might be associated with trichome formation. The expression patterns of CsbHLH116, CsbHLH133, CsbHLH060, CsbHLH028, CsbHLH024, CsbHLH112 and CsbHLH053 from clusters 1, 3 and 5 were similar to the trichome distribution in tea plants. CsbHLH024 and CsbHLH133 were located in the cell nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation ability. They could interact with CsTTG1, which is a regulator of tea trichome formation. This study provides useful information for further research on the function of CsbHLHs in trichome formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90205-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144589PMC
May 2021

Exposure to legacy and novel perfluoroalkyl substance disturbs the metabolic homeostasis in pregnant women and fetuses: A metabolome-wide association study.

Environ Int 2021 May 13;156:106627. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exist extensively and several of these have been verified to be toxic. Prenatal exposure to PFASs has attracted much attention. Metabolome-wide association analyses can be used to explore the toxicity mechanisms of PFASs by identifying associated biomarkers.

Objectives: To evaluate associations between the metabolites in maternal and cord serum and internal exposure to several common PFASs.

Methods: Paired maternal and cord serum samples were collected from 84 pregnant women who gave birth between 2015 and 2016. Seven legacy and two novel PFASs were measured. A nontarget metabolomic method and an iterative metabolite annotation based on metabolic pathways were applied to characterize the metabolic profiles. Linear regression adjusted with the false discovery rate and covariates was used to indicate the associations.

Results: A total of 279 features in maternal serum and 338 features in cord serum were identified as metabolites associated with PFAS exposure. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were two PFASs associated with more metabolites, while the two novel chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) showed less relevance to the metabolome. With pathway enrichment analysis, we found that three fatty acid metabolisms and retinol metabolism were correlated with PFAS exposure in maternal blood, and that sterol metabolism showed the correlation in both maternal serum and cord serum.

Conclusions: We identified metabolites and pathways in pregnant women and fetuses associated with the exposure to several PFAS, indicating a promising application for metabolome-wide association studies. Additional research is needed to confirm causation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106627DOI Listing
May 2021

Remodeling of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) lipidome under a stimulated scenario of Arctic warming.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 2;27(14):3282-3298. Epub 2021 May 2.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Arctic warming associated with global climate change poses a significant threat to populations of wildlife in the Arctic. Since lipids play a vital role in adaptation of organisms to variations in temperature, high-resolution mass-spectrometry-based lipidomics can provide insights into adaptive responses of organisms to a warmer environment in the Arctic and help to illustrate potential novel roles of lipids in the process of thermal adaption. In this study, we studied an ecologically and economically important species-Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)-with a detailed multi-tissue analysis of the lipidome in response to chronic shifts in temperature using a validated lipidomics workflow. In addition, dynamic alterations in the hepatic lipidome during the time course of shifts in temperature were also characterized. Our results showed that early life stages of Arctic char were more susceptible to variations in temperature. One-year-old Arctic char responded to chronic increases in temperature with coordinated regulation of lipids, including headgroup-specific remodeling of acyl chains in glycerophospholipids (GP) and extensive alterations in composition of lipids in membranes, such as less lyso-GPs, and more ether-GPs and sphingomyelin. Glycerolipids (e.g., triacylglycerol, TG) also participated in adaptive responses of the lipidome of Arctic char. Eight-week-old Arctic char exhibited rapid adaptive alterations of the hepatic lipidome to stepwise decreases in temperature while showing blunted responses to gradual increases in temperature, implying an inability to adapt rapidly to warmer environments. Three common phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) (PE 36:6|PE 16:1_20:5, PE 38:7|PE 16:1_22:6, and PE 40:7|PE 18:1_22:6) were finally identified as candidate lipid biomarkers for temperature shifts via machine learning approach. Overall, this work provides additional information to a better understanding of underlying regulatory mechanisms of the lipidome of Arctic organisms in the face of near-future warming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15638DOI Listing
July 2021

Financial Self-Efficacy and General Life Satisfaction: The Sequential Mediating Role of High Standards Tendency and Investment Satisfaction.

Front Psychol 2021 17;12:545508. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Important strides have been made toward understanding the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction. However, existing studies have largely focused on work and academic domains, leaving self-efficacy in the finance domain less frequently investigated. The present study applied the self-efficacy construct to the finance domain, namely "financial self-efficacy" (FSE), and tested the sequential mediating roles of high standards tendency and investment satisfaction in the relationship between FSE and general life satisfaction. A total of 323 employees from finance-related businesses completed anonymous questionnaires regarding FSE, high standards tendency, investment satisfaction, and general life satisfaction. Results indicated that FSE influenced general life satisfaction through investment satisfaction, and sequentially through high standards tendency and investment satisfaction. These results provide contributions to the current literature on life satisfaction, and positive psychology literature by shedding light on the roles of high standards tendency and investment satisfaction in the relation between FSE and general life satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.545508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009975PMC
March 2021

Enhanced Nontarget Screening Algorithm Reveals Highly Abundant Chlorinated Azo Dye Compounds in House Dust.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 15;55(8):4729-4739. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St George Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Humans spend 90% of their time indoors, but the majority of indoor pollutants remain unknown. In this study, a nontarget screening algorithm with reduced false discovery rates was developed to screen indoor pollutants using the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) database. First, a putative lock mass algorithm was developed for post-acquisition calibration of Orbitrap mass spectra to sub-ppm mass accuracy. Then, a one-stop screening algorithm was developed by combining MS spectra, isotopic peaks, retention time prediction, and MS spectra. A sufficient true positive rate (73%) and false discovery rate (5%) were achieved for the screening of halogenated compounds at a score cutoff of 0.28. Above this cutoff, 427 chemicals were detected from 24 house dust samples, including 39 chlorinated compounds. While some identified halogenated compounds (, triclosan) are well known, 18 previously unrecognized chlorinated azo dyes were detected with high abundance as the largest class of chlorinated compounds. Two chlorinated azo dyes were confirmed with authentic standards, but the two most abundant chlorinated azo dyes were missed by the algorithm due to the limited breadth of the TSCA database. These compounds were annotated as chlorinated analogues of Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 using the DIPIC-Frag method. This study revealed the presence of highly abundant chlorinated azo dyes in house dusts, highlighting their potential health risks in the indoor environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06382DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk factors and on-site simulation of environmental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the largest wholesale market of Beijing, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 2;778:146040. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China. Electronic address:

From June 11, 2020, a surge in new cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the largest wholesale market of Beijing, the Xinfadi Market, leading to a second wave of COVID-19 in Beijing, China. Understanding the transmission modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the personal behaviors and environmental factors contributing to viral transmission is of utmost important to curb COVID-19 rise. However, currently these are largely unknown in food markets. To this end, we completed field investigations and on-site simulations in areas with relatively high infection rates of COVID-19 at Xinfadi Market. We found that if goods were tainted or personnel in market was infected, normal transaction behaviors between sellers and customers, daily physiological activities, and marketing activities could lead to viral contamination and spread to the surroundings via fomite, droplet or aerosol routes. Environmental factors such as low temperature and high humidity, poor ventilation, and insufficient hygiene facilities and disinfection practices may contribute to viral transmission in Xinfadi Market. In addition, precautionary control strategies were also proposed to effectively reduce the clustering cases of COVID-19 in large-scale wholesale markets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921786PMC
July 2021

Recent advances in physical fields-based frying techniques for enhanced efficiency and quality attributes.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 10:1-20. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Frying is one of the most common units in food processing and catering worldwide, which involves simultaneous physicochemical and structural changes. However, the problems of traditional frying technology, such as low thermal utilization and poor processing efficiency, have been gradually exposed to industrial production. In this paper, strategies of applying physical fields, such as pressure field, electromagnetic field, and acoustic field in frying technology separately or synergistically with improved efficiency and quality attributes are reviewed. The role of physical fields in the frying process was discussed with modifications in heat and mass transfer and porous structures. The effects of physical fields and their processing parameters on moisture loss kinetics, oil uptake, texture, color, and nutrients retention of fried food are introduced, respectively. Recent advances in multi-physical field-based frying techniques were recommended with synergistic benefits. Furthermore, the trends and challenges that could further develop the multi-physical field-based frying techniques are proposed, showing further commercial prospects for the purpose. The application of physical fields has brought new inspiration to the exploitation of efficient and high-qualified frying technologies, while higher technical levels and economic costs need to be taken into consideration. HighlightsThe role of physical fields in pretreatments and frying process were reviewed.The mechanism of physics fields on frying efficiency and quality was summarized.The physicochemical and microstructure changes by physics fields were discussed.The synergy of physical fields in frying technology were outlined.The trends for further multi-physical field-based frying techniques were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1882933DOI Listing
February 2021

Identification of molecular toxicity pathways across early life-stages of zebrafish exposed to PCB126 using a whole transcriptomics approach.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 11;208:111716. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany; Department of Evolutionary Ecology and Environmental Toxicology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 13, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Although withdrawn from the market in the 1980s, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still found ubiquitously in the aquatic environment and pose a serious risk to biota due to their teratogenic potential. In fish, early life-stages are often considered most sensitive with regard to their exposure to PCBs and other dioxin-like compounds. However, little is known about the molecular drivers of the frequently observed teratogenic effects. Therefore, the aims of our study were to: (1) characterize the baseline transcriptome profiles at different embryonic life-stages in zebrafish (Danio rerio); and (2) to identify the molecular response to PCB exposure and life-stage specific-effects of the chemical on associated processes. For both objectives, embryos were sampled at 12, 48, and 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) and subjected to Illumina sequence-by-synthesis and RNAseq analysis. Results revealed that with increasing age more genes and related pathways were upregulated both in terms of number and magnitude. Yet, other transcripts followed an opposite pattern with greater transcript abundance at the earlier time points. Additionally, embryos were exposed to PCB126, a potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). ClueGO network analysis revealed significant enrichment of genes associated with basic cell metabolism, communication, and homeostasis as well as eye development, muscle formation, and skeletal formation. We selected eight genes involved in the affected pathways for an in-depth characterization of their regulation throughout normal embryogenesis and after exposure to PCB126 by quantification of transcript abundances every 12 h until 118 hpf. Among these, fgf7 and c9 stood out because of their strong upregulation by PCB126 exposure at 48 and 96 hpf, respectively. Cyp2aa12 was upregulated from 84 hpf on. Fabp10ab, myhz1.1, col8a1a, sulf1, and opn1sw1 displayed specific regulation depending on the developmental stage. Overall, we demonstrate that (1) the developmental transcriptome of zebrafish is highly dynamic, and (2) dysregulation of gene expression by exposure to PCB126 was significant and in several cases not directly connected to AHR-signaling. Hence, this study improves the understanding of linkages between molecular events and apical outcomes that are of regulatory relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111716DOI Listing
January 2021

Exploring the external exposome using wearable passive samplers - The China BAPE study.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 6;270:116228. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Environmental exposures are one of the greatest threats to human health, yet we lack tools to answer simple questions about our exposures: what are our personal exposure profiles and how do they change overtime (external exposome), how toxic are these chemicals, and what are the sources of these exposures? To capture variation in personal exposures to airborne chemicals in the gas and particulate phases and identify exposures which pose the greatest health risk, wearable exposure monitors can be deployed. In this study, we deployed passive air sampler wristbands with 84 healthy participants (aged 60-69 years) as part of the Biomarkers for Air Pollutants Exposure (China BAPE) study. Participants wore the wristband samplers for 3 days each month for five consecutive months. Passive samplers were analyzed using a novel gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry data-processing workflow to overcome the bottleneck of processing large datasets and improve confidence in the resulting identified features. The toxicity of chemicals observed frequently in personal exposures were predicted to identify exposures of potential concern via inhalation route or other routes of airborne contaminant exposure. Three exposures were highlighted based on elevated toxicity: dichlorvos from insecticides (mosquito/malaria control), naphthalene partly from mothballs, and 183 polyaromatic hydrocarbons from multiple sources. Other exposures explored in this study are linked to diet and personal care products, cigarette smoke, sunscreen, and antimicrobial soaps. We highlight the potential for this workflow employing wearable passive samplers for prioritizing chemicals of concern at both the community and individual level, and characterizing sources of exposures for follow up interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116228DOI Listing
February 2021

Long non-coding RNA 01126 promotes periodontitis pathogenesis of human periodontal ligament cells via miR-518a-5p/HIF-1α/MAPK pathway.

Cell Prolif 2021 Jan 24;54(1):e12957. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Periodontitis is a prevalent oral inflammatory disease, which can cause periodontal ligament to a local hypoxia environment. However, the mechanism of hypoxia associated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in periodontitis is still largely unknown.

Methods: Microarray was performed to detect the expression patterns of lncRNAs in 3 pairs of gingival tissues from patients with periodontitis and healthy controls. The expression of lncRNA 01126 (LINC01126), miR-518a-5p and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in periodontal tissues and in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) under hypoxia was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blot. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and cell fraction assay were performed to determine the subcellular localization of LINC01126 and miR-518a-5p. Overexpression or knockdown of LINC01126 or HIF-1α was used to confirm their biological roles in hPDLCs. MTT assays were performed to evaluate hPDLCs proliferation ability. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis. ELISA was used to measure the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to assess the binding of miR-518a-5p to LINC01126 and HIF-1α. RNA immunoprecipitation assay was used to identify whether LINC01126 and miR-518a-5p were significantly enriched in AGO-containing micro-ribonucleoprotein complexes.

Results: We selected LINC01126, which was the most highly expressed lncRNA, to further verify its functions in periodontitis-induced hypoxia. The expression of LINC01126 was increased in periodontal tissues. In vitro experiment demonstrated that LINC01126 suppressed proliferation, promoted apoptosis and inflammation of hPDLCs under hypoxia via sponging miR-518a-5p. Moreover, we identified HIF-1α acted as a direct target of miR-518a-5p in hPDLCs and LINC01126 promoted periodontitis pathogenesis by regulating the miR-518a-5p/HIF-1α/MAPK pathway.

Conclusion: LINC01126 promotes periodontitis pathogenesis of hPDLCs via miR-518a-5p/HIF-1α/MAPK pathway, providing a possible clue for LINC01126-based periodontal therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.12957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791173PMC
January 2021

Treatment Selection and Survival Outcomes in Locally Advanced Proximal Gastric Cancer: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis.

Front Oncol 2020 25;10:537051. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

We aimed to assess long-term survival between locally advanced proximal gastric cancer (LAPGC) patients who underwent proximal gastrectomy (PG) and those who underwent total gastrectomy (TG) to evaluate the optimal extent of resection and adjuvant therapy. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced proximal gastric adenocarcinoma were selected from the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2015) in America. Survival analysis was performed via Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. A total of 4,381 eligible patients were identified, 1,243 underwent PG and 3,138 underwent TG. Patients in TG group had a poor prognosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.25) compared with those in PG group. Moreover, postoperative chemoradiation therapy was associated with improved overall survival compared to surgery alone (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.97) in LAPGC patients who had PG, while preoperative chemotherapy (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.92) was associated with improved survival among patients who had TG. Our study suggested that LAPGC patients underwent PG experienced better long-term outcomes than those underwent TG. It also suggested that multimodality treatment of LAPGC, including preoperative chemotherapy followed by TG or postoperative chemotherapy followed by PG, should be considered to achieve better long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.537051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546198PMC
September 2020

Associations between Personal PM Elemental Constituents and Decline of Kidney Function in Older Individuals: the China BAPE Study.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 10 29;54(20):13167-13174. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Human Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China.

Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with kidney dysfunction. However, few studies have investigated acute effects of PM elemental constituents on renal function. We evaluated associations between personal PM and its elemental constituents and kidney function, assessed by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Biomarkers of Air Pollutants Exposure in the Chinese aged 60-69 study. Seventy one older individuals were visited monthly between September 2018 and January 2019. Each participant wore a PM monitor for 72 h, responded to a questionnaire, and underwent a physical examination with blood sampling. Linear mixed-effect models were used to estimate associations between personal PM elemental constituents and eGFR. We found that significant changes in eGFR from -1.69% [95% confidence interval (CI): -3.34%, -0.01%] to -3.27% (95% CI: -5.04%, -1.47%) were associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in individual PM exposures at various lag periods (7-12, 13-24, 0-24, 25-48, and 49-72 h). An IQR increase in 72 h moving averages of copper, manganese, and titanium in personal PM corresponded to -2.34% (95% CI: -3.67%, -0.99%) to -4.56% (95% CI: -7.04%, -2.00%) changes in eGFR. Personal PM and some of its elemental constituents are inversely associated with eGFR in older individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04051DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevention and control of COVID-19 in public transportation: Experience from China.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 31;266(Pt 2):115291. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100021, China; Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211166, China. Electronic address:

Due to continuous spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, long-term effective prevention and control measures should be adopted for public transport facilities, as they are increasing in popularity and serve as the principal modes for travel of many people. The human infection risk could be extremely high due to length of exposure time window, transmission routes and structural characteristics during travel or work. This can result in the rapid spread of the infection. Based on the transmission characteristics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the nature of public transport sites, we identified comprehensive countermeasures toward the prevention and control of COVID-19, including the strengthening of personnel management, personal protection, environmental cleaning and disinfection, and health education. Multi-pronged strategies can enhance safety of public transportation. The prevention and control of the disease during the use of public transportation will be particularly important when all countries in the world resume production. The aim of this study is to introduce experience of the prevention and control measures for public transportation in China to promote the global response to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833563PMC
November 2020

Aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2? Evidence, prevention and control.

Environ Int 2020 11 7;144:106039. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China; Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China. Electronic address:

As public health teams respond to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), containment and understanding of the modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is of utmost importance for policy making. During this time, governmental agencies have been instructing the community on handwashing and physical distancing measures. However, there is no agreement on the role of aerosol transmission for SARS-CoV-2. To this end, we aimed to review the evidence of aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Several studies support that aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is plausible, and the plausibility score (weight of combined evidence) is 8 out of 9. Precautionary control strategies should consider aerosol transmission for effective mitigation of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413047PMC
November 2020

Interactive Natural Language Grounding via Referring Expression Comprehension and Scene Graph Parsing.

Front Neurorobot 2020 25;14:43. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Technical Aspects of Multimodal Systems, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Natural language provides an intuitive and effective interaction interface between human beings and robots. Currently, multiple approaches are presented to address natural language visual grounding for human-robot interaction. However, most of the existing approaches handle the ambiguity of natural language queries and achieve target objects grounding via dialogue systems, which make the interactions cumbersome and time-consuming. In contrast, we address interactive natural language grounding without auxiliary information. Specifically, we first propose a referring expression comprehension network to ground natural referring expressions. The referring expression comprehension network excavates the visual semantics via a visual semantic-aware network, and exploits the rich linguistic contexts in expressions by a language attention network. Furthermore, we combine the referring expression comprehension network with scene graph parsing to achieve unrestricted and complicated natural language grounding. Finally, we validate the performance of the referring expression comprehension network on three public datasets, and we also evaluate the effectiveness of the interactive natural language grounding architecture by conducting extensive natural language query groundings in different household scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2020.00043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331387PMC
June 2020

Mask use during COVID-19: A risk adjusted strategy.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 25;266(Pt 1):115099. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100021, China; Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211166, China. Electronic address:

In the context of Coronavirus Disease (2019) (COVID-19) cases globally, there is a lack of consensus across cultures on whether wearing face masks is an effective physical intervention against disease transmission. This study 1) illustrates transmission routes of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); 2) addresses controversies surrounding the mask from perspectives of attitude, effectiveness, and necessity of wearing the mask with evidence that the use of mask would effectively interrupt the transmission of infectious diseases in both hospital settings and community settings; and 3) provides suggestion that the public should wear the mask during COVID-19 pandemic according to local context. To achieve this goal, government should establish a risk adjusted strategy of mask use to scientifically publicize the use of masks, guarantee sufficient supply of masks, and cooperate for reducing health resources inequities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314683PMC
November 2020

An artificial intelligence model for the simulation of visual effects in patients with visual field defects.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Jun;8(11):703

Shenzhen Eye Hospital Affiliated to Jinan University, Shenzhen Eye Institute, Shenzhen, China.

Background: This study aimed to simulate the visual field (VF) effects of patients with VF defects using deep learning and computer vision technology.

Methods: We collected 3,660 Humphrey visual fields (HVFs) as data samples, including 3,263 reliable 24-2 HVFs. The convolutional neural network (CNN) analyzed and converted the grayscale map of reliable samples into structured data. The artificial intelligence (AI) simulations were developed using computer vision technology. In statistical analyses, the pilot study determined 687 reliable samples to conduct clinical trials, and the two independent sample t-tests were used to calculate the difference of the cumulative gray values. Three volunteers evaluated the matching degree of shape and position between the grayscale map and the AI simulation, which was graded from 0 to100 scores. Based on the average ranking, the proportion of good and excellent grades was determined, and thus the reliability of the AI simulations was assessed.

Results: The reliable samples in the experimental data consisted of 1,334 normal samples and 1,929 abnormal samples. Based on the existing mature CNN model, the fully connected layer was integrated to analyze the VF damage parameters of the input images, and the prediction accuracy of the damage type of the VF defects was up to 89%. By mapping the area and damage information in the VF damage parameter quintuple data set into the real scene image and adjusting the darkening effect according to the damage parameter, the visual effects in patients were simulated in the real scene image. In the clinical validation, there was no statistically significant difference in the cumulative gray value (P>0.05). The good and excellent proportion of the average scores reached 96.0%, thus confirming the accuracy of the AI model.

Conclusions: An AI model with high accuracy was established to simulate the visual effects in patients with VF defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327351PMC
June 2020

Fine Particulate Matter and Poor Cognitive Function among Chinese Older Adults: Evidence from a Community-Based, 12-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 06 18;128(6):67013. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Background: Research on the relationship between long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter () and poor cognitive function is lacking in developing countries, especially in highly polluted areas.

Objectives: We evaluated associations of long-term exposure to with poor cognitive function in a diverse, national sample of older adults in China.

Methods: This analysis included data on 13,324 older adults (5,879 who were 65-79 years of age, 3,052 who were 80-89 years of age, 2,634 who were 90-99 years of age, and 1,759 who were of age) with normal cognitive function at baseline from March 2002 to September 2014, with 64,648 person-years of follow-up. We used a geographic information system analysis to estimate the annual average satellite-derived concentration for the geocoded location of the participants' baseline residences. Poor cognitive function was defined as a score of less than 18 on the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Competing risk models were performed to explore the association of with poor cognitive function.

Results: Each increase in was associated with a 5.1% increased risk of poor cognitive function [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.051; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.023, 1.079]. Compared to the lowest quartile of (), adjusted values were 1.20 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.33), 1.27 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.41), and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.34) for the second (), third (), and fourth () quartiles of , respectively ( for trend ). Subgroup analyses suggested stronger associations between and poor cognitive impairment in men than women. The association was positive in the 65- to 79- and age group but not significant and positive in the other two age groups with similar results.

Conclusion: was identified as a risk factor for poor cognitive function in Chinese older adults. Improving air quality may reduce the future population burden of poor cognitive function, especially in areas with high air pollution. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5304.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP5304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302441PMC
June 2020

Microbial lipid production from rice straw hydrolysates and recycled pretreated glycerol.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Sep 24;312:123580. Epub 2020 May 24.

Biomass Group, College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, 40 Dianjiangtai Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210031, China.

Microbial lipids were produced by both rice straw hydrolysates and recycled pretreated glycerol. First, lipid fermentation of glucose via Cryptococcus curvatus was optimized by response surface methodology. Variables were selected by Plackett-Burman design, and optimized by central composite design, achieving 4.9 g/L total lipid and 0.16 g/g lipid yield, and increased further as glucose increased from 30 to 50 g/L. Secondly, after pretreatment, 72% lignin of rice straw was removed with glucose yield increased by 2.4 times to 74% at 20% substrate and 3 FPU/g. Subsequently, its hydrolysates produced high total lipid (8.8 g/L) and lipid yield (0.17 g/g). Finally, recycled glycerol reached the maximum total lipid of 7.2 g/L and high lipid yield of 0.16 g/g. Based on the calculation, 2.9 g total lipid would be produced from 1 g rice straw and the recycled glycerol, with a similar composition to soybean oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123580DOI Listing
September 2020

Intention-Related Natural Language Grounding via Object Affordance Detection and Intention Semantic Extraction.

Front Neurorobot 2020 13;14:26. Epub 2020 May 13.

Technical Aspects of Multimodal Systems, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Similar to specific natural language instructions, intention-related natural language queries also play an essential role in our daily life communication. Inspired by the psychology term "affordance" and its applications in Human-Robot interaction, we propose an object affordance-based natural language visual grounding architecture to ground intention-related natural language queries. Formally, we first present an attention-based multi-visual features fusion network to detect object affordances from RGB images. While fusing deep visual features extracted from a pre-trained CNN model with deep texture features encoded by a deep texture encoding network, the presented object affordance detection network takes into account the interaction of the multi-visual features, and reserves the complementary nature of the different features by integrating attention weights learned from sparse representations of the multi-visual features. We train and validate the attention-based object affordance recognition network on a self-built dataset in which a large number of images originate from MSCOCO and ImageNet. Moreover, we introduce an intention semantic extraction module to extract intention semantics from intention-related natural language queries. Finally, we ground intention-related natural language queries by integrating the detected object affordances with the extracted intention semantics. We conduct extensive experiments to validate the performance of the object affordance detection network and the intention-related natural language queries grounding architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2020.00026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238763PMC
May 2020

Evaluation of the genotoxicity and teratogenicity of xylan using different model approaches.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Mar 31:1-7. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide group in plants and has a wide variety of food and pharmaceutical applications. However, little information on the safety assessment of extracted xylan as dietary supplement is available. As part of a comprehensive toxicological assessment, this study examined the potential toxicity of xylan extracted from sugarcane bagasse by three genotoxicity studies (Ames test, mice bone marrow micronucleus test, and mice sperm abnormality test) and a teratogenicity study in rats. In the Ames test, xylan showed no mutagenic activity on histidine dependent strains of at concentrations up to 5000 μg/plate; results of the mice bone marrow micronucleus test and mice sperm abnormality test indicated no significant effect on sperm morphology and micronucleus rate of polychromatic erythrocytes in mice at doses up to 5 g/kg body weight. In the teratogenicity study, a total of 60 pregnant rats were exposed to 10, 5, and 2.5% xylan in diet, from gestation days 7 to 16, and the no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of xylan was determined to be 9.8 g/kg body weight. The safe dose of xylan for human was estimated to be 98 mg/kg/day (i.e., 6.86 g/day for a 70-kg person), using a 100-fold safety factor. Taken together, results of this study indicated that xylan is practically nontoxic in terms of potential dietary consumption by humans in food or as a dietary supplement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2020.1745226DOI Listing
March 2020

Toxicokinetics of Brominated Azo Dyes in the Early Life Stages of Zebrafish () Is Prone to Aromatic Substituent Changes.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 04 24;54(7):4421-4431. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada.

Brominated azo dyes (BADs) have been identified as predominant indoor brominated pollutants in daycare dust; thus, their potential health risk to children is of concern. However, the toxicities of BADs remain elusive. In this study, the toxicokinetics of two predominant BADs, Disperse Blue 373 (DB373) and Disperse Violet 93 (DV93), and their suspect metabolite 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA) was investigated in embryos of zebrafish (). The bioconcentration factor of DV93 at 120 hpf is 6.2-fold lower than that of DB373. The nontarget analysis revealed distinct metabolism routes between DB373 and DV93 by reducing nitro groups to nitroso (DB373) or amine (DV93), despite their similar structures. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase were predicted as the enzymes responsible for the reduction of DB373 and DV93 by correlating time courses of the metabolites and enzyme development. Further in vitro recombinant enzyme and in vivo inhibition results validated NQO1 as the enzyme specifically reducing DB373, but not DV93. Global proteome profiling revealed that the expression levels of proteins from the "apoptosis-induced DNA fragmentation" pathway were significantly upregulated by all three BADs, supporting the bioactivation of BADs to mutagenic aromatic amines. This study discovered the bioactivation of BADs via distinct eukaryotic enzymes, implying their potential health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b07178DOI Listing
April 2020

Personal black carbon exposure and its determinants among elderly adults in urban China.

Environ Int 2020 05 3;138:105607. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Personal exposure to air pollution is affected by its concentration in the microenvironment and individual time-activity patterns. To investigate personal black carbon (BC) exposure levels and identify their potential determinants, we conducted a panel study among 67 elderly residents aged 60-69 years in Jinan, China. Personal BC exposure was measured using portable real-time monitors, while corresponding ambient BC concentrations and meteorological conditions were also collected from the local central site. Time-activity and household characteristics were recorded. A linear mixed-effects model was used to identify potential determinants of personal BC exposure. The daily average personal BC exposure concentration was 4.1 ± 2.0 μg/m (±standard deviation, SD), which was significantly lower than the ambient concentration (4.6 ± 2.5 μg/m) (p < 0.001). Strong correlation (Spearman's r = 0.63, p < 0.001) was found between personal and ambient BC concentrations. The fixed-site monitoring ambient concentration cannot fully reflect the actual personal exposure concentration. Ambient BC concentration, ambient temperature, relative humidity, education level and air purifier use were significant determinants of personal BC exposure. Our findings highlight the need for detailed assessment of personal exposure on health risk assessment of BC and also help develop strategies for targeted risk reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105607DOI Listing
May 2020

Modification Effects of Temperature on the Ozone-Mortality Relationship: A Nationwide Multicounty Study in China.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 03 18;54(5):2859-2868. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China.

Both ozone exposure and extreme temperatures are found to be significantly associated with mortality; however, inconsistent results have been obtained on the modification effects of temperature on the ozone-mortality association. In the present study, we conducted a nationwide time-series analysis in 128 counties from 2013-2018 to examine whether temperature modifies the association between short-term ozone exposure with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in China. First, we analyzed the effects of ozone exposure on mortality at different temperature levels. Then, we calculated the pooled effects through a meta-analysis across China. We found that high-temperature conditions (>75th percentile in each county) significantly enhanced the effects of ozone on nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36 and 0.51%), 0.42% (95% CI: 0.32 and 0.51%) and 0.50% (95% CI: 0.31 and 0.68%), respectively, for a 10 μg/m increase in ozone at high temperatures. Stronger effects on nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality were observed at high temperatures among elderly individuals aged 65 years and older compared with the younger people. Our findings provide evidence that health damage because of ozone may be influenced by the impacts of increasing temperatures, which point to the importance of mitigating ozone exposure in China under the context of climate change to further reduce the public health burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b05978DOI Listing
March 2020

Investigation of phthalate metabolites in urine and daily phthalate intakes among three age groups in Beijing, China.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 18;260:114005. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3, Canada; Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada; Department of Environmental Sciences, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA.

Phthalates are widely used as binders and plasticizers in industrial and consumer products but show diverse toxicity. We investigated the level of human exposure to phthalates in Beijing, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. In this study, 12 metabolites of phthalates were measured in 70 spot urine samples collected from Beijing residents from August 2017 to April 2018 using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found that metabolites of phthalates were ubiquitous in all urine samples. Total concentrations of phthalate metabolites ranged from 39.6 to 1931 ng mL, with median concentrations were in decreasing order of children (371 ng mL)> younger adults (332 ng mL)> older adults (276 ng mL). Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was the predominant compound, and occurred at concentrations greater than those reported for people in other countries. The mean values of estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of ∑phthalate were 35.2, 10.3 and 10.9 ng (kg-bm) d for children, younger adults and older adults, respectively. EDIs of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exceeded reference values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Food Safety Authority. When concentrations were normalized to volume or creatinine-adjusted, hazard quotients (HQs) for 40 of 70 participants exhibited larger HQs >1 for individual phthalates, which was indicative of potential for adverse effects. Thus, exposure to phthalates might be a critical factor contributing to adverse health effects in Beijing residents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish a pre-baseline level of urinary phthalate metabolites among residents in Beijing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114005DOI Listing
May 2020

Subchronic Study of a White Kidney Bean () Extract with -Amylase Inhibitory Activity.

Biomed Res Int 2019 22;2019:9272345. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Toxicology, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, China.

Common bean extract as a dietary supplement has received increased attention globally owing to its -amylase inhibitory activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a white kidney bean () extract by a repeated-dose 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the subchronic toxicity study, 80 rats were orally administrated with white kidney bean extract at doses of 4, 2, and 1 g/kg body weight daily for 90 days. The results showed that the white kidney bean extract at doses up to 4 g/kg/day did not induce significant changes in body weight, organ weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and histopathology in rats, as compared to the control. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of white kidney bean extract was determined to be >4 g/kg/day for both male and female rats, under the experimental conditions of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9272345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893270PMC
May 2020

High-concentrated substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw with glycerol and aluminum chloride at low cellulase loadings.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Dec 20;294:122164. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Biomass Group, College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, 40 Dianjiangtai Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210031, China.

Rice straw was pretreated with glycerol and AlCl for enzymatic hydrolysis at low cellulase loadings. Based on a central composite design, 83% delignification, 94% hemicellulose removal, and 92% cellulose recovery (or 76% cellulose in solid residue) were achieved under the optimized pretreatment conditions (0.08 mol/L AlCl as catalyst at 146.8 °C for 20 min with 90% glycerol). During glycerol-AlCl pretreatment, the lignin-carbohydrate complex was depolymerized, resulting in the complex and recalcitrant construction of straw effectively being destroyed. The enzyme adsorption ability of pretreated straw was 16.5 times that for the original sample. After pretreatment, glucose yield was increased by 2.4 times to 74% for 48 h. Moreover, concentrated solid (15%) with low cellulase loading (3.3 FPU/g dry substrate) achieved 58.6% glucose yield, and further increased by 12% to 65.7% by adding Tween 80. Glycerol-AlCl pretreatment was a promising approach to realize high-concentrated solid hydrolysis for sugars at low cellulase loadings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122164DOI Listing
December 2019

Underlying mechanisms of reproductive toxicity caused by multigenerational exposure of 2, bromo-4, 6-dinitroaniline (BDNA) to Zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmental relevant levels.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Nov 12;216:105285. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

2-bromo-4, 6-dinitroaniline (BDNA) is a mutagenic aromatic amine involved in the production and degradation of Disperse blue 79, one of the most extensively used brominated azo dyes. In our previous study, a multigenerational exposure of BDNA (0.5, 5, 50 and 500 μg/L) to zebrafish from F adult to F larvae including a recovery group in F larvae was conducted. The effects on apical points observed in individuals and the long-term effects predicted on population were all related to reproduction. In this study, we performed molecular analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the reproductive toxicity of BDNA. In F generation, measurement of vitellogenin and transcription levels of genes associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-gland (HPG) axis, estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) were conducted. There was a decrease in VTG level in the blood of F female fish and transcription of genes related to ER was more affected than that of genes related to AR. These results were consistent with adverse effects that sexual differentiation was biased towards males and fecundity was impaired in a concentration-dependent manner in adults of F generation after 150 days exposure. In F generation, global gene transcriptions of F larvae were investigated. It was uncovered that processes related to apoptosis, development and DNA damage were strongly affected. Alterations to these biological pathways accounted for the irreversible parental influence on a significant decrease in hatchability and increase in abnormality of F larvae. All evidence suggested that the multigenerational exposure of BDNA posed lasting effects transmitted from parents to offspring that persisted after exposure ceased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105285DOI Listing
November 2019