Publications by authors named "Song Huang"

240 Publications

Molnupiravir combined with different repurposed drugs further inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in human nasal epithelium in vitro.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jun 2;150:113058. Epub 2022 May 2.

Epithelix Sàrl, Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a worldwide pandemic with unprecedented economic and societal impact. Currently, several vaccines are available and multitudes of antiviral treatments have been proposed and tested. Although many of the vaccines show clinical efficacy, they are not equally accessible worldwide. Additionally, due to the continuous emergence of new variants and generally short duration of immunity, the development of effective antiviral treatments remains of the utmost importance. Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, substantial efforts have been undertaken to repurpose existing drugs for accelerated clinical testing and emergency use authorizations. However, drug-repurposing studies using cellular assays often identify hits that later prove ineffective clinically, highlighting the need for more complex screening models. To this end, we evaluated the activity of single compounds that have either been tested clinically or already undergone extensive preclinical profiling, using a standardized in vitro model of human nasal epithelium. Furthermore, we also evaluated drug combinations based on a sub-maximal concentration of molnupiravir. We report the antiviral activity of 95 single compounds and 30 combinations. We show that only a few single agents are highly effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication while selected drug combinations containing 10 µM molnupiravir boosted antiviral activity compared to single compound treatment. These data indicate that molnupiravir-based combinations are worthy of further consideration as potential treatment strategies against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113058DOI Listing
June 2022

Improvement of the silver staining method for bacterial flagella.

J Microbiol Methods 2022 Jul 27;198:106495. Epub 2022 May 27.

School of Biology, Food and Environment, Hefei University, Hefei 230601, PR China; Anhui Key Laboratory of Sewage Purification and Eco-restoration Materials, Hefei 230088, PR China. Electronic address:

Flagella staining is a common method used in microbial research to identify and mark morphological features of bacteria. We improved the Blendon staining method by adding two steps to the usual procedure, viz. "preparation of a pre-atomized microscope slide" and "stretching flagella in situ". The staining effects were then comparatively studied for this new, improved method on Bacillus subtilis, under four different culture conditions: 1) liquid culture medium, 2) aqueous solution at the bottom of slant medium, 3) solid culture medium adding water for stretching after culture, and 4) semi-solid culture medium adding water for stretching after culture. The results revealed that after the addition of these two steps to the usual procedure, the order of the staining effects for the four culture conditions from best to worst was as follows: semi-solid culture medium > solid culture medium > aqueous solution at the bottom of slant medium > liquid culture medium. Hence, the semi-solid culture medium brought about the best staining effect, with flagella stretching freely and not entangled with each other, while the liquid culture medium had the worst staining, owing to the serious background interference. This improved method is simple, low cost, and worthy of promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2022.106495DOI Listing
July 2022

A generalized multi-skill aggregation method for cognitive diagnosis.

World Wide Web 2022 May 14:1-30. Epub 2022 May 14.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Big Data Analysis and Application, School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 230000 Hefei, Anhui China.

Online education brings more possibilities for personalized learning, in which identifying the cognitive state of learners is conducive to better providing learning services. Cognitive diagnosis is an effective measurement to assess the cognitive state of students through response data of answering the problems(e.g., right or wrong). Generally, the cognitive diagnosis framework includes the mastery of skills required by a specified problem and the aggregation of skills. The current multi-skill aggregation methods are mainly divided into conjunctive and compensatory methods and generally considered that each skill has the same effect on the correct response. However, in practical learning situations, there may be more complex interactions between skills, in which each skill has different weight impacting the final result. To this end, this paper proposes a generalized multi-skill aggregation method based on the Sugeno integral (SI-GAM) and introduces fuzzy measures to characterize the complex interactions between skills. We also provide a new idea for modeling multi-strategy problems. The cognitive diagnosis process is implemented by a more general and interpretable aggregation method. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the model are verified on synthetic and real-world datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11280-021-00990-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106983PMC
May 2022

Alterations of Lysine Acetylation Profile in Murine Skeletal Muscles Upon Exercise.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 3;14:859313. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Rehabilitation, School of Medical Technology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Objective: Regular exercise is a powerful tool that enhances skeletal muscle mass and strength. Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification (PTM) involved in a broad array of cellular functions. Skeletal muscle protein contains a considerable number of lysine-acetylated (Kac) sites, so we aimed to investigate the effects of exercise-induced lysine acetylation on skeletal muscle proteins.

Methods: We randomly divided 20 male C57BL/6 mice into exercise and control groups. After 6 weeks of treadmill exercise, a lysine acetylation proteomics analysis of the gastrocnemius muscles of mice was performed.

Results: A total of 2,254 lysine acetylation sites in 693 protein groups were identified, among which 1,916 sites in 528 proteins were quantified. The enrichment analysis suggested that protein acetylation could influence both structural and functional muscle protein properties. Moreover, molecular docking revealed that mimicking protein deacetylation primarily influenced the interaction between substrates and enzymes.

Conclusion: Exercise-induced lysine acetylation appears to be a crucial contributor to the alteration of skeletal muscle protein binding free energy, suggesting that its modulation is a potential approach for improving exercise performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.859313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9110802PMC
May 2022

The Resting-State Brain Network Functional Connectivity Changes in Patients With Acute Thyrotoxic Myopathy Based on Independent Component Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 24;13:829411. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Objective: The independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to explore the correlation between clinical manifestation and the functional connectivity changes of the sensorimotor network (SMN) and left frontoparietal network (LFPN) in patients with acute thyrotoxic myopathy (ATM), which was expected to provide a functional imaging basis for the exploration of the pathophysiological mechanism of ATM.

Methods: 13 ATM patients (ATM) and 12 non-ATM patients (nATM) who met the diagnostic and inclusion criteria were enrolled. Their resting-state brain function images were obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). GIFT software was used for independent component analysis to obtain the brain regions with SMN and LFPN changes. The correlation between the functional connectivity of these brain regions and clinical indicators was calculated.

Results: The SMN functional connectivity of ATM patients was increased at the posterior lobe of cerebellum, anterior lobe of cerebellum, right superior temporal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, left precuneus, and left postcentral gyrus compared with that of nATM patients. However, it was decreased at the occipital lobe, right dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus, paracentral lobule, angular gyrus, and superior parietal gyrus (FDR correction, P<0.05). The LFPN functional connectivity of ATM patients was increased at the posterior lobe of cerebellum, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and right cingulate gyrus compared with that of nATM patients; but was decreased at frontal lobe, parahippocampal gyrus, precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus (FDR correction, P<0.05) Correlation analysis results showed that the enhancement of SMN functional connection at right superior temporal gyrus was significantly negatively correlated with the free thyroxine level, and the decrease of SMN functional connectivity at occipital lobe was significantly positively correlated to the thyroid stimulating hormone level. The SMN and LFPN functional connectivity changes in other brain regions were not found to be significantly correlated with thyroid function parameters.

Conclusion: The bulbar paralysis (such as dysphagia, dysarthria) in ATM patients may be related to the functional connectivity changes of resting-state SMN and LFPN. The fMRI is expected to be one of the objective imaging indicators for the early clinical intervention of ATM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.829411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8986988PMC
April 2022

Dual-color quantum dots nanobeads based suspension microarray for simultaneous detection of dual prostate specific antigens.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Apr 9;1204:339704. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

College of Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Featured with high multiplexibility, suspension microarray technology usually involves the conjugation of second-antibody with organic dye based fluorescent proteins, which are inherently unsuitable for multicolor signaling under single wavelength excitation. In addition, application of single QDs-based fluorescent reporter in suspension microarray is dramatically hampered since its preparation often suffers from poor reproducibility and stability. Herein, a novel suspension microarray system based on dual color quantum dots (QDs) nanobead as fluorescence label was developed for simultaneous detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) biomarkers. When both antigens are present in sera sample, free (f)-PSA antibody-conjugated green and complexed (c)-PSA antibody-conjugated red QDs nanobeads would be both specifically absorbed onto the surface of total PSA antibody-conjugated magnetic beads, leading to the formation of magnetic fluorescent hybrid that can be purified from the mixture by an external magnet prior to flow cytometry analysis. The proposed method demonstrates simultaneous detection ability for f- and c- PSA antigen assay with high detection sensitivity that is comparable to clinical approaches including ELISA and chemiluminescence assay. Furthermore, result of clinical application of the proposed method is consistency with clinical data, demonstrating its potential in suspension microarray for accurate prostate cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339704DOI Listing
April 2022

Changes of LRP6/β-catenin pathway in adipose tissue of rats with intrauterine growth restriction with catch-up growth.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Dec;50(6):755-761

To investigate the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6)/β-catenin pathway related proteins in adipose tissue of rats with intrauterine growth restriction with catch-up growth SD rats were randomly divided into nutrition-restriction rats and normal feed rats during pregnancy. CG-IUGR model was established by reducing the number of offspring in the nutrition-restriction rats (CG-IUGR group); while the rats in the control group were offspring of the normal feed pregnant rats. In order to exclude the interference of gender, male offspring mice were selected in both the CG-IUGR group and the control group in the following studies. The CG-IUGR group and the control group were subjected to glucose tolerance test at 12 weeks of age, and the perirenal adipose tissue samples were taken to observe the adipose structure by HE staining. Expression of LRP6, β-catenin and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in adipocytes were examined by confocal microscopy. Protein expression of LRP6, β-catenin and IRS-1 were measured by Western blotting. Blood glucose level and the area under the cure of CG-IUGR group were significantly higher than that of control group (both <0.05). Adipocyte size in the CG-IUGR group was significantly larger than that of control group, and the expression of LRP6, β-catenin and IRS-1 protein in adipose tissue of the CG-IUGR group was significantly lower than that of control group (all <0.05). : The expression of LRP6/β-catenin pathway related proteins is reduced in the adipose tissue in CG-IUGR rats, probably contributing to the insulin resistance in these rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8931619PMC
December 2021

Discovery of novel spiro compound as RAF kinase inhibitor with in vitro potency against KRAS mutant cancer.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2022 05 8;63:128666. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Shanghai Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 279 Wenjing Road, Shanghai 200245, China.

The development of RAF inhibitors targeting cancers with wild type RAF kinase and/or RAS mutation has been challenging due to the paradoxical activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade following RAF inhibitor treatment. Herein is the discovery and optimization of a series of RAF inhibitors with a novel spiro structure. The most potent spiro molecule 9 showed excellent in vitro potency against b/c RAF enzymes and RAS mutant H358 cancer cells with minimal paradoxical RAF signaling activation. Compound 9 also exhibited good drug-like properties as demonstrated by in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP), liver microsome stability (LMS) data and moderate oral pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles in rat and mouse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2022.128666DOI Listing
May 2022

2 µm sub-GHz harmonic mode-locked soliton generation based on a BiS saturable absorber.

Opt Express 2022 Jan;30(2):2278-2287

Saturable absorber (SA) based harmonic mode-locking (HML) techniques at 2 µm waveband are much less reported than those at 1.5 µm waveband, the maximum repetition rate of the harmonic pulse generated by such techniques at 2 µm waveband is also much lower than those generated at 1.5 µm waveband. In this paper, the 39th harmonic with the repetition rate of 908.6 MHz is realized in a BiS-based thulium-doped fiber laser. The fundamental mode-locked pulse has a central wavelength of 1954.2 nm and a 3-dB bandwidth of 5.1 nm. The repetition rate is 23.27 MHz and the pulse width is 902 fs. The characteristics of the material and harmonic mode-locked pulse are investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest and the closest resonance frequency to GHz among the reported SA-based harmonic mode-locked fiber lasers operating at 2 µm waveband.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.446876DOI Listing
January 2022

EN1 Regulates Cell Growth and Proliferation in Human Glioma Cells via Hedgehog Signaling.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jan 20;23(3). Epub 2022 Jan 20.

National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China.

Glioblastoma is an aggressive cancer of the nervous system that accounts for the majority of brain cancer-related deaths. Through cross-species transcriptome studies, we found that Engrailed 1 (EN1) is highly expressed in serum-free cultured glioma cells as well as glioma tissues, and increased expression level predicts a worse prognosis. EN1 controls glioma cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and tumorigenic capacity in vivo. It also influences sensitivity of glioma cells to γ-ray irradiation by regulating intracellular ROS levels. Mechanistically, EN1 influences Hedgehog signaling by regulating the level of Gli1 as well as primary cilia length and the primary cilia transport-related protein TULP3. In conclusion, we demonstrate that EN1 acts as an oncogenic regulator that contributes to glioblastoma pathogenesis and could serve as a diagnostic/prognostic marker and therapeutic target for glioblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8834903PMC
January 2022

[Dexmedetomidine alleviates LPS/D-Gal-induced acute liver injury via up-regulation of LC3-II expression in mice].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2021 Dec;73(6):901-908

Center of Emergency and Trauma, First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-Gal) and the underlying mechanism. Male BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS/D-Gal to induce acute liver injury model, and pretreated with DEX or in combination with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) 30 min before injection. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver tissue were determined with the corresponding kits. Serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were determined by ELISA. The protein expression levels of LC3-II and P62 in liver tissue were determined by Western blot. Liver histopathological changes were detected by HE staining. The results showed that, compared with control group, LPS/D-Gal enhanced ALT and AST activity, increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels, as well as MPO activity, up-regulated LC3-II and P62 protein expression levels, and significantly induced pathological damage in liver tissue. DEX reversed the above changes in the LPS/D-Gal group, whereas these protective effects of DEX were blocked by 3-MA. The above results suggest that DEX alleviates LPS/D-Gal-induced acute liver injury, which may be associated with the up-regulation of LC3-II protein expression and the activation of autophagy.
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December 2021

Discovery of Salidroside-Derivated Glycoside Analogues as Novel Angiogenesis Agents to Treat Diabetic Hind Limb Ischemia.

J Med Chem 2022 01 23;65(1):135-162. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.

Therapeutic angiogenesis is a potential therapeutic strategy for hind limb ischemia (HLI); however, currently, there are no small-molecule drugs capable of inducing it at the clinical level. Activating the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway in skeletal muscle induces the secretion of angiogenic factors and thus is an attractive therapeutic angiogenesis strategy. Using salidroside, a natural glycosidic compound as a lead, we performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for developing a more effective and druggable angiogenesis agent. We found a novel glycoside scaffold compound () with better efficacy than salidroside in enhancing the accumulation of the HIF-1α protein and stimulating the paracrine functions of skeletal muscle cells. This in turn significantly increased the angiogenic potential of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and, subsequently, induced the formation of mature, functional blood vessels in diabetic and nondiabetic HLI mice. Together, this study offers a novel, promising small-molecule-based therapeutic strategy for treating HLI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00947DOI Listing
January 2022

Identification of Species in Tibet and Characterization of in China.

Plant Dis 2022 Jun 3;106(6):1669-1674. Epub 2022 May 3.

Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Samples of peach and plum fruits with brown rot symptoms were collected from Tibet in 2019 and 2020, and the causal agent was identified as , which represents the first characterization of spp. on peach and plum in Tibet. Morphological investigation showed that some conidia from naturally diseased fruits were larger than those observed in previously isolated . Some conidia of isolates from Tibet produced more than two, even up to six germ tubes from different parts of each conidium, instead of one or two germ tubes developing from the pointy sides of each conidium. The alignment of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region sequences revealed that some isolates from Tibet displayed a mutation at the 374th position from adenine (A) to cytosine (C). Although abovementioned differences were observed between isolates from Tibet and other regions, phylogenetic analysis indicated that all of the isolates from different stone fruits and different regions in China were clustered together without obvious genetic differentiation. These results revealed that hosts and geographic environments did not play a major role in the evolution of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-21-1890-REDOI Listing
June 2022

White Matter Microstructural Abnormalities of the Visual Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Generalized Q-sampling Imaging Study.

Acad Radiol 2022 03 18;29 Suppl 3:S166-S174. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: Neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We assessed the white matter microstructural integrity of the visual pathway in diabetes patients vs. healthy subjects, and investigated the advantages of generalized Q-sampling imaging (GQI) in the assessment of the visual pathway.

Materials And Methods: T1-weighted, T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and simultaneous multislice- diffusion sequences were acquired from 21 DR patients, 29 diabetes patients without DR (NDR group), and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Diffusion source images were reconstructed to GQI. Region of interest (ROI)-based analysis was utilized to evaluate microstructural alterations in the visual pathway. Multivariate linear regression analysis (forward stepwise method) was performed to investigate associations between clinical data and mean GQI parameters.

Results: ROI-based analyses indicated that the GQI parameters generalized fractional anisotropy, quantitative anisotropy (QA), and normalized QA (NQA) were significantly lower in the NDR group than in the healthy controls, and even lower in the DR group than in the NDR group. Disease duration was significantly and negatively correlated with mean generalized fractional anisotropy and mean NQA.

Conclusion: GQI could sensitively and non-invasively evaluate the visual pathway in diabetes patients. The nerve fibers of the visual pathway were damaged before the onset of retinopathy, and this damage was aggravated after retinopathy onset, as a consequence of long exposure to hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2021.10.021DOI Listing
March 2022

Discovery of spiro amide SHR902275: A potent, selective, and efficacious RAF inhibitor targeting RAS mutant cancers.

Eur J Med Chem 2022 Jan 7;228:114040. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Shanghai Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 279 Wenjing Road, Shanghai, 200245, China.

The RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway plays a key role to regulate multiple cellular functions. Acquired resistance to the first-generation RAF inhibitors that only targeted the bRAF mutation prompted the need for a new generation of RAF inhibitors to target cancers bearing mutant RAS and wild type RAF activity by inhibition of paradoxical activation. Starting from the company's previously reported RAF inhibitor 1, extensive drug potency and drug-like properties optimizations led to the discovery of molecule 33 (SHR902275) with greatly improved in vitro potency and solubility. Molecule 33 exhibited good DMPK (Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics) properties, excellent permeability, and outstanding mouse/rat oral PK. It was further evaluated in an in vivo RAS mutant Calu6 xenograft mouse model and demonstrated dose dependent efficacy. To achieve high exposure in a toxicity study, pro-drug 48 was also explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.114040DOI Listing
January 2022

The final fate of food: On the establishment of in vitro colon models.

Food Res Int 2021 12 12;150(Pt A):110743. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science - Soochow University, China. Electronic address:

The search for life/health quality has driven the search for a better understanding of food components on the overall individual health, which turns to be intrinsically related to the digestive system. In vitro digestion models are considered an alternative for the in vivo studies for a variety of practical reasons, but further research is still needed concerning the colon model establishment. An effective in vitro colon model should consider all unit operations and transport phenomena, together with chemical and biochemical reactions, material handling and reactor design. Due to the different techniques and dependence on the donor microbiota, it is difficult to obtain a standard protocol with results reproductible in time and space. Furthermore, the colon model should be fed with a representative substrate, thus what happens in upper digestion tract and absorption prior to colon is also of crucial importance. Essentially, there are two ways to think about how to achieve a good and useful in vitro colon model: a complex biomimetic system that provides results comparable with the in vivo studies or a simple system, that despite the fact it could not give physiologically relevant data, it is sufficient to understand the fate of some specific components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110743DOI Listing
December 2021

Mutation of a prenyltransferase results in accumulation of subglutinols and destruxins and enhanced virulence in the insect pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae.

Environ Microbiol 2022 03 27;24(3):1362-1379. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

College of Plant Protection, South China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Bio-Pesticide Creation and Application of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China.

The insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae is a commercialized microbial agent used in biological control efforts targeting a diverse range of agricultural and other insect pests. The second step in the synthesis of a group of M. anisopliae α-pyrone diterpenoids (termed subglutinols) involves the activity of a prenyltransferase family geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (product of the subD/MaGGPPS5 gene). Here, we show that targeted gene disruption of MaGGPPS5 results in earlier conidial germination and faster greater vegetative growth compared to the wild type (WT) parent and complemented strains. In addition, insect bioassays revealed that the ΔMaGGPPS5 mutant strain displayed significantly increased virulence, with a ~50% decrease in the mean lethal time (LT , from 6 to 3 days) to kill (50% of) target insects, and an ~15-40-fold decrease in the mean lethal dose (LC ). Metabolite profiling indicated increased accumulation in the ΔMaGGPPS5 mutant of select subglutinols (A, B and C) and destruxins (A, A2, B and B2), the latter a set of fungal secondary metabolites that act as insect toxins, with a concomitant loss of production of subglutinol 'analogue 45'. These data suggest that the increased virulence phenotype seen for the ΔMaGGPPS5 strain can, at least in part, be attributed to a combination of faster growth and increased insect toxin production, linking the production of two different secondary metabolite pathways, and represent a novel approach for the screening of isolates with enhanced virulence via modulation of terpenoid secondary metabolite biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15859DOI Listing
March 2022

A new species of the Genus Pelodiscus Fitzinger, 1835 (Testudines: Trionychidae) from Huangshan, Anhui, China.

Zootaxa 2021 Oct 28;5060(1):137-145. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of the Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resource, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, 241000, China.

A new species of the soft-shelled turtle genus Pelodiscus is described based on seven specimens from Huangshan, southern Anhui Province, China. The new species, Pelodiscus huangshanensis sp. nov., is distinguished from other species in the genus Pelodiscus by the following characteristics: (1) Small size (maximum carapace length of 101.16 mm and maximum body length of 190 mm); (2) keel high; (3) tiny yellowish-white spots on the throat; (4) no black pinstripes around the eyes; (5) white longitudinal bands on both sides of the neck in juveniles, absent in adults; (6) plastron yellowish-white, and only a dark patch on each side of the armpit; (7) many tubercles on the dorsal surface, but indistinct in the center; and (8) entoplastron ⌒ shaped. The phylogenetic relationships of the species in Pelodiscus were reconstructed using the sequences of cytochrome b (cyt b) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes. The new species formed a monophyletic clade with strong support. The uncorrected pairwise distances between the new species and other representatives of Pelodiscus ranged from 5.4% to 9.2% for cyt b and 4.1% to 7.6% for ND4. The new species brings the number of species of the genus Pelodiscus to six; five species are distributed in China, with three species endemic to China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5060.1.7DOI Listing
October 2021

Morphological description of a new specimen of Herpetoreas burbrinki Guo et al 2014 (Serpentes: Colubridae).

Zootaxa 2021 Sep 16;5039(3):433-439. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Ecology and Environment, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China.

The original description of Burbrinks Keelback, Herpetoreas burbrinki was based on a sole damaged specimen collected from Zayu County, Xizang Autonomous Region, China in September 2007. On 16 August 2019, we collected a second live adult female specimen from the type locality. The identity of the species is established based on morphological and molecular comparison with the holotype. One mitochondrial gene (Cytb) and three nuclear genes (C-mos, Rag1, NT3) of the new specimen were sequenced. The four sequences all share the same haplotypes with the holotype. We describe the coloration in life, variation with the type and expand the morphological description of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5039.3.8DOI Listing
September 2021

Ultrahigh Rate and Ultralong Life Span Sodium Storage of FePS Enabled by the Space Confinement Effect of Layered Expanded Graphite.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 14;13(46):55254-55262. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Metal phosphorus trichalcogenides have been regarded as promising high-capacity anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) owing to their high reversible capacity. Nevertheless, their practical application is plagued by poor diffusion kinetics and dramatic volume fluctuations during the charge-discharge process, resulting in no satisfactory rate and life span so far. Herein, we propose a space-confinement strategy to remarkably promote the cycling stability and rate capacity by embedding FePS particles in the interlayer of expanded graphite (EG), which are derived from transformation of graphite intercalation compounds. The layered EG not only greatly alleviates the volume fluctuations of FePS by the space confinement effect so as to maintain the stability of the electrode microstructure, but it also ensures rapid Na and electron transfer during cycling. When acting as an anode for SIBs, the hybrid electrode delivers a highly reversible capacity of 312.5 mAh g at an ultrahigh rate of 50 A g while retaining an ultralong life span of 1300 cycles with a retention of 82.4% at 10 A g. Moreover, the excellent performance of the assembled full battery indicates the practical application potential of FPS/EG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c18755DOI Listing
November 2021

Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Characterization of the Trans-Isopentenyl Diphosphate Synthases Gene Family in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 13;12:708697. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Trans-isopentenyl diphosphate synthases (TIDSs) genes are known to be important determinants for terpene diversity and the accumulation of terpenoids. The essential oil of , which is rich in monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other aromatic compounds, has a wide range of pharmacological activities and has therefore attracted considerable interest. However, the gene family, and its relationship to the camphor tree ( L. Presl.), has not yet been characterized. In this study, we identified 10 genes in the genome of the borneol chemotype that were unevenly distributed on chromosomes. Synteny analysis revealed that the gene family in this species likely expanded through segmental duplication events. Furthermore, cis-element analyses demonstrated that TIDS (CcTIDS) genes can respond to multiple abiotic stresses. Finally, functional characterization of eight putative short-chain TIDS proteins revealed that CcTIDS3 and CcTIDS9 exhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) activity, while CcTIDS1 and CcTIDS2 encode geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS). Although, CcTIDS8 and CcTIDS10 were found to be catalytically inactive alone, they were able to bind to each other to form a heterodimeric functional geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS) , and this interaction was confirmed using a yeast two-hybrid assay. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that the , , , and genes were found to be more active in roots as compared to stems and leaves, which were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These novel results provide a foundation for further exploration of the role of the gene family in camphor trees, and also provide a potential mechanism by which the production of camphor tree essential oil could be increased for pharmacological purposes through metabolic engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.708697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475955PMC
September 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Scincidae; Sauria) and its phylogenetic position within Scincidae.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 22;6(10):3031-3032. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology, Lhasa, China.

The complete mitochondrial genome of , has been determined for the first time by sanger sequencing. The overall length of the mitogenome is 17,304 bp and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a putative control region. The total base composition is 31.2% for A, 27.0% for T, 14.4% for G, and 27.4% for C. The phylogenetic tree with the whole mitochondrial genome sequence of . together with 10 other related species belonging to the family Scincidae was reconstructed, in order to prove the validity of the mitogenome of . Phylogenetic analysis indicated that was not nested within , and further corroborated this species does not belong to the genus of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1979430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462832PMC
September 2021

Is Electroacupuncture an Effective and Safe Treatment for Poststroke Depression? An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 24;2021:8661162. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Departments of Neurology, Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To observe and compare the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture and antidepressants in the treatment of poststroke depression (PSD) using a meta-analysis method.

Methods: The VIP, CNKI, Wanfang, CMB, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were searched. All randomized controlled trials (RCT) on electroacupuncture treatment of PSD were searched and further screened. Meta-analysis was performed on electroacupuncture and western medicine for PSD to explore the difference in efficacy between electroacupuncture and western medicine for PSD.

Results: Nineteen RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the Western medicine group, the meta-analysis showed no significant changes in Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores between the electroacupuncture group and the antidepressant group ( > 0.05). The number of adverse events in the electroacupuncture group was less than that in the antidepressant group.

Conclusion: Compared with antidepressants, electroacupuncture is not less effective in improving depression symptoms in PSD patients with greater safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8661162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410412PMC
October 2021

sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the faeces of .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Aug;71(8)

Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, School of Life Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, PR China.

A novel Gram-stain-negative strain, WQ 117, isolated from the faeces of collected at Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey National Park, Yunnan province, PR China, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate represented a member of the genus , sharing 97.64 % sequence similarity with the type strain YIM 102668. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of WQ117 was 30.5 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The major cellular fatty acids was iso-C. The whole genome average nucleotide identity (gANI) values and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between WQ 117 and YIM 102668 were 79.66 % and 22.20 %, respectively. Growth occurred at 0-50 °C (optimally at 28-35 °C), pH 7.0-9.0 (optimally at pH 8.0) and with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally without NaCl). On the basis of the taxonomic evidence, a novel species, sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is WQ 117 (=KCTC 82394=CCTCC AA 2020027).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004932DOI Listing
August 2021

Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale ameliorate colitis-induced lung injury via inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Sep 5;347:109615. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

It has been reported that Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides (DOPS) could alleviate colitis in animal model and suppress the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and β-arrestin1 in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether DOPS has effect on protecting against colitis-induced pulmonary injury. The purpose of this study was to explore the protective effect and mechanism of DOPS on colitis-induced lung injury. A dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mice colitis model and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BEAS-2B cells model were applied in this study. The results showed that DOPS treatment restored histopathological changes, reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and MDA generation, and increased anti-oxidative enzymes activities including SOD and GSH-Px in colitis mice. Further investigation showed that DOPS significantly inhibited the protein expression of TLR4, and apparently up-regulated proteins expressions of nuclear-Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO-1 in lung tissues of colitis mice and in BEAS-2B cells. These results indicated that DOPS significantly inhibited inflammation and oxidative stress to alleviate colitis-induced secondary lung injury, and its mechanisms are closely related to the inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathway and the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway. DOPS may be a promising drug for alleviating colitis-induced lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109615DOI Listing
September 2021

Phloridzin Ameliorates Lipid Deposition in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Inhibiting the mTORC1/SREBP-1c Pathway.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 3;69(31):8671-8683. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China.

We aimed to investigate whether phloridzin could alleviate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, which was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD). We initially analyzed the effect of phloridzin on alleviating HFD-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice and oleic acid (OA)-stimulated human normal liver L-02 cells (L02). Then, we investigated the mechanism of phloridzin on the mTORC1/sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) signaling pathway by siRNA analysis, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis and . The results revealed that phloridzin significantly inhibited the increase in body weight, alleviated abnormal lipid metabolism, and decreased lipid biosynthesis and insulin resistance. Moreover, phloridzin augmented the number of CD8CD122PD-1 Tregs and CD4FoxP3 Tregs in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice and HFD-fed aP2-SREBF1c mice and downregulated the mTORC1/SREBP-1c signaling pathway-related protein expressions and . Furthermore, phloridzin reduced the expression of SREBP-1c in SREBP-1c-RNAi-lentivirus-transfected L02 cells and reversed the SREBP-1c expression in HFD-fed aP2-SREBF1c transgenic mice. Phloridzin ameliorates lipid accumulation and insulin resistance inhibiting the mTORC1/SREBP-1c pathways. These results indicated that phloridzin may actively ameliorate NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01645DOI Listing
August 2021

Citizen science and online data: Opportunities and challenges for snake ecology and action against snakebite.

Toxicon X 2021 Jul 22;9-10:100071. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Global Biology, Birr, Switzerland.

The secretive behavior and life history of snakes makes studying their biology, distribution, and the epidemiology of venomous snakebite challenging. One of the most useful, most versatile, and easiest to collect types of biological data are photographs, particularly those that are connected with geographic location and date-time metadata. Photos verify occurrence records, provide data on phenotypes and ecology, and are often used to illustrate new species descriptions, field guides and identification keys, as well as in training humans and computer vision algorithms to identify snakes. We scoured eleven online and two offline sources of snake photos in an attempt to collect as many photos of as many snake species as possible, and attempt to explain some of the inter-species variation in photograph quantity among global regions and taxonomic groups, and with regard to medical importance, human population density, and range size. We collected a total of 725,565 photos-between 1 and 48,696 photos of 3098 of the world's 3879 snake species (79.9%), leaving 781 "most wanted" species with no photos (20.1% of all currently-described species as of the December 2020 release of The Reptile Database). We provide a list of most wanted species sortable by family, continent, authority, and medical importance, and encourage snake photographers worldwide to submit photos and associated metadata, particularly of "missing" species, to the most permanent and useful online archives: The Reptile Database, iNaturalist, and HerpMapper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2021.100071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264216PMC
July 2021

Metabolism and transcriptome profiling provides insight into the genes and transcription factors involved in monoterpene biosynthesis of borneol chemotype of induced by mechanical damage.

PeerJ 2021 1;9:e11465. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

School of Pharmacy, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: The borneol chemotype of (), a monoterpene-rich woody plant species, is the sole source prescribed by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the production of natural D-borneol, a major monoterpene in used for millennia as a topical analgesic in China. Nevertheless, the possible gene-regulatory roles of transcription factors (TFs) in 's monoterpenoid biosynthesis remained unknown. Here, a joint analysis of the transcriptome and terpenoid metabolome of induced by mechanical damage (MD) was used to comprehensively explore the interaction between TFs and terpene synthase (TPS) unigenes that might participate in monoterpene biosynthesis in .

Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis detected 14 monoterpenes and seven sesquiterpenes. All but two monoterpenes underwent a significantly increased accumulation after the MD treatment. RNA sequencing data revealed that 10 TPS, 82 MYB, 70 AP2/ERF, 38 BHLH, 31 WRKY, and 29 bZIP unigenes responded to the MD treatment. A correlation analysis revealed that three monoterpene synthase genes (CcTPS1, CcTPS3, CcTPS4) highly correlated with multiple monoterpenes, namely D-borneol, camphor, and bornyl acetate, which could be responsible for monoterpenoid biosynthesis in . Furthermore, five WRKY, 15 MYB, 10 ERF/AP2, five bZIP, and two BHLH genes had strong, positive correlations with or , judging by their high coefficient values (R > 0.8). The bioinformatics results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR.

Conclusion: This study provides insight into the genes involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of monoterpene in and thus provides a pool of candidate genes for future mechanistic analyses of how monoterpenes accumulate in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255067PMC
July 2021

Effects and mechanism of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) leaves on proliferation, migration, and tube formation of hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 7;279:114394. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Chinese Materia Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong Province, China.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) leaves (PL) are widely used for treating avascular necrosis of the femoral head. PL has an ideal effect on bone angiogenesis in patients with hormone-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head and could promote the repair of blood vessels in the necrotic femoral head. Angiogenesis is beneficial to the treatment of myocardial ischemia. PL can be used to treat ischemic heart disease; however, no studies have examined whether it could protect the myocardium against ischemia injury via promoting angiogenesis.

Aim: The present study aimed to investigate whether PL could encourage angiogenesis on hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and whether estrogen receptor (ER-α), protein kinase B (Akt), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (the ischemia injury salvage kinase pathway, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)) are involved in this effect.

Methods: A hypoxic HUVEC model was established by culture in the hypoxia incubator. The proliferation ability of HUVECs was determined by the 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) method, the migration rate of HUVECs was inspected by the Transwell method, the tube formation was evaluated by the Matrigel method, and the expression of PI3K, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and VEGF was detected by Western blotting.

Results: The proliferation, migration, and tube formation were promoted by the PL extract on hypoxic HUVECs, and the hypoxia-induced downstream signaling was counteracted, leading to increased expression of PI3K, p-Akt, and VEGF in HUVECs.

Conclusions: The current findings showed that the PL extracts encourage angiogenesis. In addition, the above effects could be mediated via ER-α and PI3K/Akt/VEGF pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114394DOI Listing
October 2021

A new snake species of the genus Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Hainan Island, China.

Zool Res 2021 07;42(4):487-491

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158, China.

A new species of the genus Wagler, 1828 is described herein based on six specimens from the Diaoluoshan Mountains, Hainan Island, Hainan Province, China. The new species, , is most similar to its continental sister species, (Mocquard, 1897). Both taxa have a scaled protrusion on the anterior portion of the rostrum, distinct from other congeners. However, can be distinguished from . by two significant morphological characters: (1) black orbital stripe absent in adults (vs. present in . ); and (2) two loreals (vs. one loreal in ). The new species is also genetically divergent and forms a unique clade from its sister species and all other congeners based on sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome (cyt ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317179PMC
July 2021
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