Publications by authors named "Song Guo"

321 Publications

Polystyrene nanoplastics change the functional traits of biofilm communities in freshwater environment revealed by GeoChip 5.0.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 6;423(Pt B):127117. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Xikang Road 1st, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China,. Electronic address:

There is an increasing concern regarding the potential effects of nanoplastics (NPs) on freshwater ecosystems. Considering the functional values of biofilms in freshwater, knowledge on whether and to what extent NPs can influence the ecosystem processes of biofilms were still limited. Herein, the freshwater biofilms cultured in lab were exposed to 100 nm polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs) of different dosages (1 and 10 mg/L) for 14 days. Confocal laser scanning microscope observation indicated that biofilms were dominated by filamentous, and spiral algae species and the intensity of extracellular polymeric substances increased under PS-NPs exposure. GeoChip 5.0 analysis revealed that PS-NPs exposure triggered a significant increase in functional genes α diversity (p < 0.05) and altered biofilms' functional structure. Furthermore, the abundance of genes involved in the total carbon and nitrogen cycling were increased under PS-NPs exposure. The abundance of nitrogen fixation genes experienced the most pronounced increase (24.4%) under 1 mg/L PS-NPs treatment, consistent with the increase of ammonium in overlying water. Whereas antibiotic resistance genes and those related to photosynthetic pigments production were suppressed. These results provided direct evidence for PS-NPs' effects on the biofilm functions in terms of biogeochemical cycling, improving our understanding of the potentials of NPs on freshwater ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127117DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficacy and safety of berberine in preventing recurrence of colorectal adenomas: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 9:114617. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders Diagnosis and Treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wangjing Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100102, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Berberine(BBR) is a kind of isoquinoline alkaloids extracted from the rhizomes of Coptis chinensis Franch., which was the main active ingredient. Accumulating evidence has shown that it has potential pharmacological effects in preventing the recurrence of colorectal adenomas.

Aim Of The Study: The roles of BBR in the overall recurrence of colorectal adenoma have still not been assessed because of the limitations of the available data and the restriction of a single study. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness and safety of BBR in preventing the recurrence of colorectal adenomas through a systematic review and meta-analysis of available data.

Materials And Methods: We searched four English databases (PubMed (MEDLINE), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase and Web of Science) and four Chinese language databases (Chinese Biomedicine (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP) and the WanFang Database) from their inception through October 2020. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan5.3 software after data extraction and the quality of studies assessment.

Results: Three randomized controlled clinical trials were included with 1076 patients. Our results illustrated that 1-year and 2-year supplementation with BBR was associated with lower recurrence rate of colorectal adenoma (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.84, p=0.0001; RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.88, p=0.0004). The relative risk of oral BBR for 1 year and 2 years is not comparable, for 2-year efficacy outcomes were assessed in all participants who had at least one colonoscopy with pathological evaluation after baseline (lots of participants completed the first colonoscopy but discontinued during the second follow-up interval.). Moreover, the results also suggest that BBR had more adverse events than placebo (RR 2.91, 95% CI 1.24 to 6.85, p=0.01). Through the full-text reading, no serious adverse events were observed, and constipation was the most common event which disappears once the drug is discontinued.

Conclusion: Generally, the present study indicated that BBR has a comparable therapeutic effect on the prevention of colorectal adenomas recurrence. Adverse reactions are worthy of attention which requires additional studies to obtain a precise conclusion.

Prospero Registration No: CRD42020209135.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114617DOI Listing
September 2021

LINC00882 plays a tumor-promoter role in colorectal cancer by targeting miR-3619-5p to up-regulate CTNNB1.

Arch Med Res 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Gastroenterology &Endoscopy, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, 256603, Shandong, China.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor in gastrointestinal tract around the world. Emerging evidence has confirmed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are closely connected to cell progression in cancers, including CRC.

Methods: RT-qPCR assays were applied to detect the expression of LINC00882, miR-3619-5p and CTNNB1. Western blot assays were performed to measure the protein level of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and CTNNB1. Transwell assay was conducted to test the cell migration. Immunofluorescence (IF) assay was performed to measure the connected protein of EMT process.

Results: LINC00882 was highly expressed in CRC tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of LINC00882 hindered the process of CRC. Studies on gain-of-function and loss-of-function further testified that knockdown of LINC00882 or up-regulation of miR-3619-5p hindered cell migration and EMT process in CRC cells. Moreover, rescue assay proved that the inhibition of migration ability and EMT process resulted from LINC00882 silencing could be rescued when miR-3619-5p inhibitor or pcDNA3.1/CTNNB1 was transfected into CRC cells.

Conclusion: Our data suggested that LINC00882 promoted the progression of CRC as a ceRNA to regulate CTNNB1 via sponging miR-3619-5p. This finding would supply a novel insight for CRC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.06.001DOI Listing
August 2021

The changing epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Southeastern China during 1963-2020: A retrospective analysis of surveillance data.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Aug 6;15(8):e0009673. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Key Laboratory of Vaccine, Prevention and Control of Infectious Disease of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by hantavirus which was endemic Zhejiang Province, China. In this study, we aim to explore the changing epidemiology of HFRS in Zhejiang, identify high-risk areas and populations, and evaluate relevant policies and interventions to better improve HFRS control and prevention.

Methods: Surveillance data on HFRS during 1963-2020 in Zhejiang Province were extracted from Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention archives and the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System. The changing epidemiological characteristics of HFRS including seasonal distribution, geographical distribution, and demographic features, were analyzed using joinpoint regression, autoregressive integrated moving average model, descriptive statistical methods, and Spatio-temporal cluster analysis.

Results: From 1963 to 2020, 114 071 HFRS cases and 1269 deaths were reported in Zhejiang Province. The incidence increased sharply from 1973 and peaked in 1986, then decreased steadily and maintained a stable incidence from 2004. HFRS cases were reported in all 11 prefecture-level cities of Zhejiang Province from 1963 to 2020. The joint region (Shengzhou, Xinchang, Tiantai, and surrounding areas), and Kaihua County are the most seriously affected regions throughout time. After 1990, the first HFRS incidence peak was in May-June, with another one from November to January. Most HFRS cases occurred in 21- (26.48%) and 30- years group (24.25%) from 1991 to 2004, but 41- (25.75%) and 51-years (23.30%) had the highest proportion from 2005 to 2020. Farmers accounted for most cases (78.10%), and cases are predominantly males with a male-to-female ratio of 2.6:1. It was found that the median time from onset to diagnosis was 6.5 days (IQR 3.75-10.42), and the time from diagnosis to disease report was significantly shortened after 2011.

Conclusions: We observed dynamic changes in the seasonal distribution, geographical distribution, and demographic features of HFRS, which should be well considered in the development of control and prevention strategies in future. Additional researches are warranted to elucidate the environmental, meteorological, and social factors associated with HFRS incidence in different decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372920PMC
August 2021

Charge Transfer from Donor to Acceptor in Conjugated Microporous Polymer for Enhanced Photosensitization.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

MOE International Joint Laboratory of Materials Microstructure, Institute for New Energy Materials and Low Carbon Technologies, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384, China.

Photosensitization associated with light absorption and energy/electron-transfer represents the central processes for photosynthesis. However, it's still a challenge to develop a heavy-atom-free (HAF) strategy to improve the sensitizing ability of polymeric photosensitizers. Herein, we propose a new protocol to significantly improve the photosensitization by decorating mother conjugated microporous polymer (CMP-1) with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting in a series of CMPs (CMP-2-4). Systematic study reveals that covalent modification with PAHs can transfer charge to Bodipy in CMP to further facilitate both intersystem crossing and electron-hole separation, which can dramatically boost energy-/electron-transfer reactions. Remarkably, CMP-2 as a representative CMP can efficiently drive the photosynthesis of methyl phenyl sulfoxide with 92 % yield, substantially higher than that of CMP-1 (32 %). Experiments and theory calculations demonstrate the structure-property-activity relationship of these CMPs, opening a new horizon for developing HAF heterogeneous photosensitizers with highly efficient sensitizing activity by rational structure regulation at a molecular level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202109968DOI Listing
August 2021

Conservative Novelty Synthesizing Network for Malware Recognition in an Open-Set Scenario.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Aug 2;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

We study the challenging task of malware recognition on both known and novel unknown malware families, called malware open-set recognition (MOSR). Previous works usually assume the malware families are known to the classifier in a close-set scenario, i.e., testing families are the subset or at most identical to training families. However, novel unknown malware families frequently emerge in real-world applications, and as such, require recognizing malware instances in an open-set scenario, i.e., some unknown families are also included in the test set, which has been rarely and nonthoroughly investigated in the cyber-security domain. One practical solution for MOSR may consider jointly classifying known and detecting unknown malware families by a single classifier (e.g., neural network) from the variance of the predicted probability distribution on known families. However, conventional well-trained classifiers usually tend to obtain overly high recognition probabilities in the outputs, especially when the instance feature distributions are similar to each other, e.g., unknown versus known malware families, and thus, dramatically degrade the recognition on novel unknown malware families. To address the problem and construct an applicable MOSR system, we propose a novel model that can conservatively synthesize malware instances to mimic unknown malware families and support a more robust training of the classifier. More specifically, we build upon the generative adversarial networks to explore and obtain marginal malware instances that are close to known families while falling into mimical unknown ones to guide the classifier to lower and flatten the recognition probabilities of unknown families and relatively raise that of known ones to rectify the performance of classification and detection. A cooperative training scheme involving the classification, synthesizing and rectification are further constructed to facilitate the training and jointly improve the model performance. Moreover, we also build a new large-scale malware dataset, named MAL-100, to fill the gap of lacking a large open-set malware benchmark dataset. Experimental results on two widely used malware datasets and our MAL-100 demonstrate the effectiveness of our model compared with other representative methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3099122DOI Listing
August 2021

Secondary aerosol formation from a Chinese gasoline vehicle: Impacts of fuel (E10, gasoline) and driving conditions (idling, cruising).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 6;795:148809. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, International Joint Laboratory for Regional Pollution Control, Ministry of Education (IJRC), College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, PR China.

Chassis dynamometer experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of vehicle speed and usage of ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) on formation and evolution of gasoline vehicular secondary organic aerosol (SOA) using a Gothenburg Potential Aerosol Mass (Go: PAM) reactor. The SOA forms rapidly, and its concentration exceeds that of primary organic aerosol (POA) at an equivalent photochemical age (EPA) of ~1 day. The particle effective densities grow from 0.62 ± 0.02 g cm to 1.43 ± 0.07 g cm with increased hydroxyl radical (OH) exposure. The maximum SOA production under idling conditions (4259-7394 mg kg-fuel) is ~20 times greater than under cruising conditions. There was no statistical difference between SOA formation from pure gasoline and its formation from E10. The slopes in Van Krevelen diagram indicate that the formation pathways of bulk SOA includes the addition of both alcohol/peroxide functional groups and carboxylic acid formation from fragmentation. A closure estimation of SOA based on bottom-up and top-down methods shows that only 16%-38% of the measured SOA can be explained by the oxidation of measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), suggesting the existence of missing precursors, e.g. unmeasured VOCs and probably semivolatile or intermediate volatile organic compounds (S/IVOCs). Our results suggest that applying parameters obtained from unified driving cycles to model SOA concentrations may lead to large discrepancies between modeled and ambient vehicular SOA. No reduction in vehicular `SOA production is realized by replacing normal gasoline with E10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148809DOI Listing
November 2021

Serum apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio in relation to intervertebral disk herniation: a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Jul 29;20(1):79. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Spinal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 150 JiMo Road, Shanghai, 200120, People's Republic of China.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study.

Background And Aim: The serum lipid profile of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] level and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio (Apo B/Apo A1) ratio were found to be more representative for serum lipid level and were recognized as the independent risk factors for various diseases. Although the blood levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disk herniation (IDH), no studies to date have evaluated the association of Apo AI, Apo B, Lp(a), and Apo B/Apo AI levels with symptomatic IDH. This study aimed to assess the link between blood lipid levels and symptomatic IDH.

Method: The study included 1839 Chinese patients. Of these, 918 patients were diagnosed with IDH and enrolled in the experimental group. A control group of 921 patients underwent a physical examination during the same period. The serum lipid levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, Lp(a), Apo B, and Apo B/Apo AI were examined and analyzed. The control group comprised randomly selected patients who met the baseline levels of the aforementioned lipid molecules.

Results: Patients with IDH exhibited significantly higher TC, TG, LDL, Apo B, and Lp(a) levels than controls. The percentage of high TC, high TG, high LDL, high Apo B, and high Lp(a) were obviously higher in the IDH group than in the control group. However, hyperlipidemia had no relationship with the degenerated segment of the IDH (P = 0.201). The odds ratio (OR) for the incidence of IDH with elevated levels of LDL-C, TC, TG, Lp(a), Apo B, and Apo B/Apo AI was 1.583, 1.74, 1.62, 1.58, 1.49, and 1.39, respectively. The correlation analysis revealed the correlation between elevated LDL-C, TC, TG, Apo B, Lp(a), and incidence of IDH was significant (R = 0.017; R = 0.004; R = 0.015; R = 0.004; R = 0.021) (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study suggested that elevated levels of serum TC, TG, LDL, Apo B, Lp(a), and Apo B/Apo AI were associated with a higher risk of IDH. This study provided useful information to identify a population that might be at risk of developing IDH based on elevated lipid levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-021-01502-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320064PMC
July 2021

Reopening International Borders without Quarantine: Contact Tracing Integrated Policy against COVID-19.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 14;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

With the COVID-19 vaccination widely implemented in most countries, propelled by the need to revive the tourism economy, there is a growing prospect for relieving the social distancing regulation and reopening borders in tourism-oriented countries and regions. This need incentivizes stakeholders to develop border control strategies that fully evaluate health risks if mandatory quarantines are lifted. In this study, we have employed a computational approach to investigate the contact tracing integrated policy in different border-reopening scenarios in Hong Kong, China. Explicitly, by reconstructing the COVID-19 transmission from historical data, specific scenarios with joint effects of digital contact tracing and other concurrent measures (i.e., controlling arrival population and community nonpharmacological interventions) are applied to forecast the future development of the pandemic. Built on a modified SEIR epidemic model with a 30% vaccination coverage, the results suggest that scenarios with digital contact tracing and quick isolation intervention can reduce the infectious population by 92.11% compared to those without contact tracing. By further restricting the inbound population with a 10,000 daily quota and applying moderate-to-strong community nonpharmacological interventions (NPIs), the average daily confirmed cases in the forecast period of 60 days can be well controlled at around 9 per day (95% CI: 7-12). Two main policy recommendations are drawn from the study. First, digital contact tracing would be an effective countermeasure for reducing local virus spread, especially when it is applied along with a moderate level of vaccination coverage. Second, implementing a daily quota on inbound travelers and restrictive community NPIs would further keep the local infection under control. This study offers scientific evidence and prospective guidance for developing and instituting plans to lift mandatory border control policies in preparing for the global economic recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303901PMC
July 2021

Direct Targeting of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus via 3 T Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.

Front Neurosci 2021 5;15:685050. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a potentially effective, minimally invasive, and reversible method for treating epilepsy. The goal of this study was to explore whether 3 T quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) could delineate the ANT from surrounding structures, which is important for the direct targeting of DBS surgery. We obtained 3 T QSM, T1-weighted (T1w), and T2-weighted (T2w) images from 11 patients with Parkinson's disease or dystonia who received subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS surgery in our center. The ANT and its surrounding white matter structures on QSM were compared with available atlases. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of ANT relative to the external medullary lamina (eml) were compared across the three imaging modalities. Additionally, the morphology and location of the ANT were depicted in the anterior commissure (AC)-posterior commissure (PC)-based system. ANT can be clearly distinguished from the surrounding white matter laminas and appeared hyperintense on QSM. The CNRs of the ANT-eml on QSM, T1w, and T2w images were 10.20 ± 4.23, 1.71 ± 1.03, and 1.35 ± 0.70, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences in CNRs among QSM, T1w, and T2w imaging modalities [(2) = 85.28, < 0.0001]. In addition, both the morphology and location of the ANT were highly variable between patients in the AC-PC-based system. The potential utility of QSM for the visualization of ANTs in clinical imaging is promising and may be suitable for targeting the ANT for DBS to treat epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.685050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287058PMC
July 2021

Characteristics of Three Person-to-Person Transmission Clusters of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Southeastern China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Key Laboratory of Vaccine, Prevention and Control of Infectious Disease of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease worldwide. It can be transmitted from person to person, and the fatality rate is very high. During this study, three SFTS clusters including 12 associated cases were identified in three counties in Zhejiang Province from 2018 to 2020. The median age of the three index patients was 70 years, and that of secondary case patients was 59 years. Of note, the mortality rate of the index patients was 100%. The mortality rate of secondary case patients was 11%. The total secondary attack rate (SAR) was 30% (9/30). The SARs of cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C were 38% (3/8), 21% (3/14), and 38% (3/8), respectively. Additionally, the interval from onset to diagnosis was 4 days. The intervals from disease onset to confirmation of the index cases and secondary cases were 7 days and 4 days, respectively. All secondary case patients had a history of close contact with blood or body fluids of the index patients. These results indicate that SFTS patients should not be discharged until recovery. When SFTS patients die, the corpses should be transferred directly from the hospital to the crematorium for cremation by persons wearing proper protective equipment to prevent virus transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.21-0366DOI Listing
July 2021

Aldosterone signaling defect in young infants: single-center report and review.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jul 9;21(1):149. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Pediatrics, The First affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan II Rd, Guangzhou, 510080, P. R. China.

Background: Aldosterone (Ald) is a crucial factor in maintaining electrolyte and water homeostasis. Defect in either its synthesis or function causes salt wasting (SW) manifestation. This disease group is rare, while most reported cases are sporadic. This study aimed to obtain an overview of the etiology and clinical picture of patients with the above condition and report our rare cases.

Methods: A combination of retrospective review and case studies was conducted at the Pediatric Endocrine unit of The First Affiliated Hospital Sun Yat Sen University from September 1989 to June 2020.

Results: A total of 187 patients with SW were enrolled, of which 90.4% (n = 169) were diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). SW type 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounted for 98.8% (n = 167) of CAH diagnosis, while 1.2% (n = 2) was of lipoid CAH. Non-CAH comprised 9.6% (n = 18) of the total patients whose etiologies included SF-1 gene mutation (n = 1), X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (n = 9), aldosterone synthase deficiency (ASD, n = 4), and pseudo-hypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1, n = 1). Etiologies were not identified in three patients. All of patients with ASD and PHA1 exhibited SW syndrome in their early neonatal period. DNA sequencing showed mutations of CYP11B2 for P1-P4 and NR3C2 for P5. P1 and P2 were sibling brothers affected by compound heterozygous mutations of c.1121G > A (p.R374Q) and c.1486delC p.(L496fs); likewise, P4 was identified with compound heterozygous mutations of c.1200 + 1G > A and c.240-1 G > T; meanwhile P3 demonstrated c.1303G > A p.(G435S) homozygous mutation in CYP11B2 gene. Lastly, P5 showed c.1768 C > T p.(R590*) heterozygous mutation in the NR3C2 gene.

Conclusion: Etiology of infant with aldosterone defect was mostly congenital. Renal and adrenal imaging are recommended to exclude renal causes. If clinical picture is suggestive, normal plasma Ald in early infancy cannot rule out aldosterone insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00811-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272273PMC
July 2021

Whole-Exome Sequencing to Identify Potential Genetic Risk in Substance Use Disorders: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 25;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 138673, Singapore.

Genetics intersects with environmental, cultural, and social factors in the development of addictive disorders. This study reports the feasibility of whole-exome sequencing of trios (subject and two family members) to discover potential genetic variants in the development of substance use disorders (SUD). Family trios were recruited from the National Addictions Management Service in Singapore during the 2016-2018 period. Recruited subjects had severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) or opioid use disorder (OUD), with nicotine dependence (ND) and a family history of addictive disorders. Demographic characteristics and severity of addiction were captured. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and analysis were performed on salivary samples collected from the trios. WES revealed variants in several genes in each individual and disruptive protein mutations in most. Variants were identified in genes previously associated with SUDs, such as Pleckstrin homology domain-containing family M member 3 (PLEKHM3), coiled-coil serine-rich protein 1 (CCSER1), LIM and calponin homology domains-containing protein 1 (LIMCH1), dynein axonemal heavy chain 8 (DNAH8), and the taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38) involved in the perception of bitterness. The feasibility study suggests that subjects with a severe addiction profile, polysubstance use, and family history of addiction may often harbor gene variants that may predispose them to SUDs. This study could serve as a model for future precision medicine-based personalized interventional strategies for behavioral addictions and SUDs and for the discovery of potentially pathogenic genetic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269170PMC
June 2021

Autophagy in Gastric Mucosa: The Dual Role and Potential Therapeutic Target.

Biomed Res Int 2021 11;2021:2648065. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of General Surgery, The 306th Hospital of PLA-Peking University Teaching Hospital, Beijing 100101, China.

The incidence of stomach diseases is very high, which has a significant impact on human health. Damaged gastric mucosa is more vulnerable to injury, leading to bleeding and perforation, which eventually aggravates the primary disease. Therefore, the protection of gastric mucosa is crucial. However, existing drugs that protect gastric mucosa can cause nonnegligible side effects, such as hepatic inflammation, nephritis, hypoacidity, impotence, osteoporotic bone fracture, and hypergastrinemia. Autophagy, as a major intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation process, plays a key role in maintaining intracellular homeostasis and resisting environmental pressure, which may be a potential therapeutic target for protecting gastric mucosa. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy played a dual role when gastric mucosa exposed to biological and chemical factors. More indepth studies are needed on the protective effect of autophagy in gastric mucosa. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms and the dual role of various biological and chemical factors regulating autophagy, such as , virus, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. And we summarize the pathophysiological properties and pharmacological strategies for the protection of gastric mucosa through autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2648065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214476PMC
June 2021

Impacts of chlorine chemistry and anthropogenic emissions on secondary pollutants in the Yangtze river delta region.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 23;287:117624. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China.

Multiphase chemistry of chlorine is coupled into a 3D regional air quality model (CMAQv5.0.1) to investigate the impacts on the atmospheric oxidation capacity, ozone (O), as well as fine particulate matter (PM) and its major components over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. The developed model has significantly improved the simulated hydrochloric acid (HCl), particulate chloride (PCl), and hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO) radicals. O is enhanced in the high chlorine emission regions by up to 4% and depleted in the rest of the region. PM is enhanced by 2-6%, mostly due to the increases in PCl, ammonium, organic aerosols, and sulfate. Nitrate exhibits inhomogeneous variations, by up to 8% increase in Shanghai and 2-5% decrease in most of the domain. Radicals show different responses to the inclusion of the multiphase chlorine chemistry during the daytime and nighttime. Both OH and HO are increased throughout the day, while nitrate radicals (NO) and organic peroxy radicals (RO) show an opposite pattern during the daytime and nighttime. Higher HCl and PCl emissions can further enhance the atmospheric oxidation capacity, O, and PM. Therefore, the anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory must be carefully evaluated and constrained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117624DOI Listing
October 2021

The particle phase state during the biomass burning events.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 1;792:148035. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The phase state of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) remains largely unclear, impeding our understanding of their effects on air quality, climate and human health, due to its profound roles in mass transfer between gaseous and particulate phase. In this study, the phase state of BBA was investigated by measuring the particle rebound fraction ƒ combining field observations and laboratory experiments. We found that both ambient and laboratory-generated BBA had unexpectedly lower rebound fraction ƒ (<0.6) under the dry conditions (RH = 20-50%), indicating that BBA were in non-solid state at such low RH. This was obviously different from the secondary organic aerosols (SOA) derived from the oxidation of both anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds, typically with a rebound fraction ƒ larger than 0.8 at RH below 50%. Therefore, we proposed that the diffusion coefficient of gaseous molecular in the bulk of BBA might be much higher than SOA under the dry conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148035DOI Listing
October 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Maxim (Moraceae) from Guangzhou, China.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 7;6(7):1895-1896. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crops Genetics and Improvement, Crops Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Maxim is an economically valuable plant that is traditionally used in Chinese medicine. Here, we assembled the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. The cp genome size is 160,606 bp, with 35.90% GC content, including a large single copy region (LSC) of 88,668 bp, a small single copy region (SSC) of 20,140 bp and a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRs) of 25,899 bp. It encodes 86 protein-coding, 37 tRNA and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis fully resolved on a branch with within the genus . The complete cp genome sequence of will provide valuable information for species identification and phylogenetic evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1934170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189076PMC
June 2021

More Significant Impacts From New Particle Formation on Haze Formation During COVID-19 Lockdown.

Geophys Res Lett 2021 Apr;48(8):e2020GL091591

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control International Joint Laboratory for Regional Pollution Control Ministry of Education (IJRC) College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering Peking University Beijing China.

During the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020, large-scale industrial and transportation emissions were reduced, but high PM concentration still occurred. This study investigated the variation of particle number size distribution during the lockdown, and analyzed the characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) events and its potential impact on haze formation. Through measurement conducted in urban Beijing during the first 3 months of 2020, and comparison with year-over-year data, the decrease of primary Aitken-mode particles was observed. However, frequencies, formation rates and growth rates of NPF events remained stable between 2020 and 2019 in the same period. As a result, >25 nm particles produced by NPF events, would play a more important role in serving as the haze formation "seeds" compared to those produced by primary emissions. This finding emphasizes the significance on the understanding of NPF mechanisms when making pollution mitigation policy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2020GL091591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206662PMC
April 2021

Topical delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs using nano-hybrid hydrogels to inhibit post-surgical tumour recurrence.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jun;9(12):4356-4363

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.

Residual microtumours after surgical resection leading to tumour relapse is one of the major challenges for cancer therapy. Herein, we developed a nano-hybrid oligopeptide hydrogel for topical delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug, docetaxel (DTX), to inhibit the post-surgical tumour recurrence. This nano-hybrid hydrogel (DTX-CTs/Gel) was prepared by encapsulating DTX in cell-penetrating peptide-modified transfersomes followed by embedment in an oligopeptide hydrogel. The obtained DTX-CTs/Gel showed paintable and injectable properties, and could support prolonged retention at the administrated sites after topical administration. DTX-CTs released from the hydrogel presented high skin and tumour penetration capabilities, and increased the accumulation of DTX in the cancer cells leading to enhanced cell death. We showed that the topical delivery of DTX using DTX-CTs/Gel efficiently slowed down the tumour relapse in post-surgical mouse melanoma and breast tumour models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm01766cDOI Listing
June 2021

Possible overestimation of isomer depletion due to contamination.

Nature 2021 Jun 2;594(7861):E1-E2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03333-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantifying the impacts of inter-city transport on air quality in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, China: Implications for regional cooperative controls of PM and O.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 19;779:146619. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China. Electronic address:

The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) urban agglomeration is one of the most developed regions in China. During recent decades, this region has experienced severe regional haze and photochemical smog pollution problems. In this study, we used a source-oriented chemical transport model to quantitatively estimate the effects of inter-city transport on fine particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O) among the 41 cities in the YRD urban agglomeration during the EXPLORE-YRD (EXPeriment on the eLucidation of the atmospheric Oxidation capacity and aerosol foRmation, and their Effects in the Yangtze River Delta) campaign (May 17 to June 17, 2018). The results show that inter-city transport is very significant in the YRD region. On average, the emissions from the local city, the other YRD cities, and the regions outside of the YRD contribute 25.3%, 49.9%, and 24.8% to the PM, respectively, and they contribute 33.7%, 46.8%, and 19.5% of the non-background O, respectively. On PM or O pollution days, the transport contribution from the non-local YRD cities becomes much more important, while the local emissions and the transport from non-YRD emissions become less important. The results also suggest that the cities within a distance of 184 km and 94 km contribute 60% of the PM and O, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that regional cooperative control programs in the YRD consider emission controls over cities within these ranges. The range for primary PM (92 km) is very different from that for secondary PM (515 km) Cooperative emission controls of SO and NO on a much larger regional scale are required to reduce the secondary PM in the YRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146619DOI Listing
July 2021

Links between the optical properties and chemical compositions of brown carbon chromophores in different environments: Contributions and formation of functionalized aromatic compounds.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 4;786:147418. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Links between the optical properties and chemical compositions of brown carbon (BrC) are poorly understood because of the complexity of BrC chromophores. We conducted field studies simultaneously at both vehicle-influenced site and biomass burning-affected site in China in polluted winter. The chemical compositions and light absorption values of functionalized aromatic compounds, including phenyl aldehyde, phenyl acid, and nitroaromatic compounds, were measured. P-phthalic acid, nitrophenols and nitrocatechols were dominant BrC species, accounting for over 50% of the concentration of identified chromophores. Nitrophenols and nitrocatechols contributed more than 50% of the identified BrC absorbance between 300 and 400 nm. Oxidation of biomass burning-related products (e.g., pyrocatechol and methylcatechols) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene and toluene) generated similar BrC chromophores, implying that these functionalized aromatic compounds play an important role in both environments. Compared with the biomass burning-affected site (22%), functionalized aromatic compounds at vehicle-influenced site accounted for a higher percentage of BrC absorption (25%). This research improves our understanding of the links between optical properties and composition of BrC, and the difference between BrC chromophores from BB-influenced area and vehicle-affected area under polluted atmospheric conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147418DOI Listing
September 2021

[Chemical Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Organic Aerosols in Atmospheric PM in Winter in Beijing].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 May;42(5):2101-2109

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, International Joint Laboratory for Regional Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

To explore the concentrations, characteristics, and sources of organic aerosols in winter in Beijing, atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from November 10, 2016 to December 10, 2016. One hundred and twenty-nine particulate organic matters (POM) were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, accounting for approximately 9.3%±1.2% of the total concentration of organic matter. The most abundant class was sugar, among which levoglucosan alone accounted for 18% of the quantified organic matter mass. The next most abundant classes were alkanoic acids, normal alkanes, dicarboxylic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The influence of winter heating and biomass burning emissions on organic aerosols in winter in Beijing was analyzed by the characteristics of the molecular markers in the POM. Compared with those during the non-heating period, the concentrations and proportions of hopane species, which are tracers for fossil fuels, increased in the organic matters during the heating period. Moreover, the influence of coal burning emissions on the distribution of hopane species was enhanced. The species with the maximum concentration and carbon predominance index in -alkanes also reflected the influence of enhanced fossil fuel emissions. The results of the concentration-weighted trajectory model for levoglucosan, a tracer for biomass combustion, suggested that straw burning pollution in the surrounding areas of Beijing would affect the composition of organic aerosols in Beijing via airmass transport. A molecular marker-based chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the sources of organic carbon in the winter of 2016 in Beijing, and the results were compared with those of research in 2006 to quantify the changes in the source contributions over 10 years. The contribution of motor vehicles increased significantly in 2016 compared with that in 2006, whereas the contribution of coal burning and wood burning decreased to a large extent. The contribution of cooking emissions could not be ignored. Therefore, the control of motor vehicle and cooking emissions is of great importance to reduce the problem of PM pollution in winter in Beijing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202009241DOI Listing
May 2021

Variation of microRNA expression in the human placenta driven by population identity and sex of the newborn.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 20;22(1):286. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 121205, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Analysis of lymphocyte cell lines revealed substantial differences in the expression of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) among human populations. The extent of such population-associated differences in actual human tissues remains largely unexplored. The placenta is one of the few solid human tissues that can be collected in substantial numbers in a controlled manner, enabling quantitative analysis of transient biomolecules such as RNA transcripts. Here, we analyzed microRNA (miRNA) expression in human placental samples derived from 36 individuals representing four genetically distinct human populations: African Americans, European Americans, South Asians, and East Asians. All samples were collected at the same hospital following a unified protocol, thus minimizing potential biases that might influence the results.

Results: Sequence analysis of the miRNA fraction yielded 938 annotated and 70 novel miRNA transcripts expressed in the placenta. Of them, 82 (9%) of annotated and 11 (16%) of novel miRNAs displayed quantitative expression differences among populations, generally reflecting reported genetic and mRNA-expression-based distances. Several co-expressed miRNA clusters stood out from the rest of the population-associated differences in terms of miRNA evolutionary age, tissue-specificity, and disease-association characteristics. Among three non-environmental influenced demographic parameters, the second largest contributor to miRNA expression variation after population was the sex of the newborn, with 32 miRNAs (3% of detected) exhibiting significant expression differences depending on whether the newborn was male or female. Male-associated miRNAs were evolutionarily younger and correlated inversely with the expression of target mRNA involved in neuron-related functions. In contrast, both male and female-associated miRNAs appeared to mediate different types of hormonal responses. Demographic factors further affected reported imprinted expression of 66 placental miRNAs: the imprinting strength correlated with the mother's weight, but not height.

Conclusions: Our results showed that among 12 assessed demographic variables, population affiliation and fetal sex had a substantial influence on miRNA expression variation among human placental samples. The effect of newborn-sex-associated miRNA differences further led to expression inhibition of the target genes clustering in specific functional pathways. By contrast, population-driven miRNA differences might mainly represent neutral changes with minimal functional impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07542-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059241PMC
April 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Benth.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 11;6(3):736-737. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Food and Biochemical Engineering, Guangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Guangxi Laibin, PR China.

Benth. is an important medicinal and edible plant. The complete chloroplast genome of Benth. was assembled and annotated. In this study, the chloroplast genome of Benth. was a circular form of 161,880 bp in length. The genome presented a typical quadripartite structure consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) of 26,357 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 90,056 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 19,129 bp. The genome contained a set of 127 genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Benth. closely related to , which beyond to Rhamnaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1861559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954415PMC
March 2021

Larger than expected variation range in the real part of the refractive index for ambient aerosols in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 14;779:146443. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The real part of the refractive index (RRI) of ambient aerosol, which is widely used in remote sensing and atmospheric models, is one of the key factors determining its particles' optical properties. The characteristics of ambient aerosol RRI in China have not yet been well studied owing to a lack of observations. For the first time, the properties of aerosol RRI were studied based on field measurements in China at four sites with different atmospheres. The results revealed that the measured ambient aerosol RRI varied significantly between 1.36 and 1.78, increasing with the mass ratio of organic components. The scattering coefficient and direct radiative effects of the aerosols were estimated to increase by factors of 2 and 3, respectively, when RRI increased from 1.36 to 1.78. Our results indicate that variation in ambient aerosol RRI should be considered in aerosol and climate models to achieve an accurate estimation of aerosol's radiative impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146443DOI Listing
July 2021

Seasonal variation of aerosol compositions in Shanghai, China: Insights from particle aerosol mass spectrometer observations.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 29;771:144948. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, International Joint Laboratory for Regional Pollution Control (IJRC), Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

The variations of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM) were characterized using an high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and other online instruments measurements sampled at an urban site in Shanghai from 2016 to 2017. Spring (from 18 May to 4 June 2017), summer (from 23 August to 10 September 2017) and winter (from 28 November 2016 to 23 January 2017) seasons were chosen for detail investigating the seasonal variations in the aerosol chemical characteristics. The average PM (NR-PM + BC) mass concentration showed little difference in the three seasons in Shanghai. The average mass concentrations of total PM during spring, summer, and winter observations in Shanghai were 23.9 ± 20.7 μg/m, 28.5 ± 17.6 μg/m, and 31.9 ± 22.7 μg/m, respectively. The seasonal difference on chemical compositions was more significant between them. Organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate were dominant contributor of PM in summer, whereas OA and nitrate primarily contribution to the increase of PM mass loading in spring and winter. As an abundant component in PM (accounting for 39%-49%), OA were resolved into two primary organic aerosol (POA) factors and two secondary aerosol (SOA) factors by using positive matrix factorization (PMF), of which OA was overwhelmingly dominated by the SOA (50-60%) across the three seasons in Shanghai. Correlation analysis with relative humidity and odd oxygen indicated that aqueous-phase processing and played an important role in more aged SOA formation in summer and winter. In spring, both aqueous-phase and photochemical processing contributed significantly to fresh SOA formation. Our results suggest the significant role of secondary particles in PM pollution in Shanghai and highlight the importance of control measures for reducing emissions of gaseous precursors, especially need to consider seasonal characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.144948DOI Listing
June 2021

S100A9 induces nucleus pulposus cell degeneration through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 05 18;25(10):4709-4720. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Oxidative stress in the lumbar disc leads to the degeneration of nucleus pulposus (NP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. In this study, we delineated a key calcium-binding protein, S100A9, which was induced by oxidative stress and was highly expressed in the degenerative NP. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting revealed that S100A9 induced NP cell apoptosis in vitro by up-regulating the expression of pro-apoptotic markers, including cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and Bax. Moreover, RT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression of S100A9 caused NP matrix degradation by up-regulating the expression of matrix degradation enzymes and increased the inflammatory response by up-regulating cytokine expression. Therefore, S100A9 induced NP cell degeneration by exerting pro-apoptotic, pro-degradation and pro-inflammatory effects. The detailed mechanism underlying S100A9-induced NP degeneration was explored by administering SC75741, a specific NF-κB inhibitor in vitro. We concluded that S100A9 induced NP cell apoptosis, caused matrix degradation and amplified the inflammatory response through the activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway. Inhibition of these pro-apoptotic, pro-degradation and pro-inflammatory effects induced by S100A9 in NP may be a favourable therapeutic strategy to slow lumbar disc degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107097PMC
May 2021

Direct visualization of deep brain stimulation targets in patients with Parkinson's disease via 3-T quantitative susceptibility mapping.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 05 11;163(5):1335-1345. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China.

Background: The direct visualization of brain nuclei on magnetic resonance (MR) images is important for target localization during deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We demonstrated the superiority of 3-T high-resolution submillimeter voxel size quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for delineating the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi).

Methods: Preoperative 3-T QSM and T2 weighted (T2w) images were obtained from ten patients with PD. Qualitative visualization scores were analyzed by two neurosurgeons on both images using a 4-point and 5-point scale, respectively. Images were also compared with regard to contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and edge detection power for the STN and GPi. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the signed-rank test were used to compare measurements between the two images.

Results: Visualization scores for the STN and GPi, the mean CNR of the STN relative to the zona incerta (ZI) and the substantia nigra, and the mean CNR of the GPi relative to the internal capsule (IC) and the globus pallidum externum, were significantly higher on QSM images than on T2w images (P < 0.01). The edge detection powers of the STN-ZI and GPi-IC on QSM were significantly larger (by 2.6- and 3.8-fold, respectively) than those on T2w images (P < 0.01). QSM detected asymmetry of the STN in two patients.

Conclusions: QSM images provided improved delineation ability for the STN and GPi when compared to T2w images. Our findings are important for patients with PD who undergo DBS surgery, particularly those with asymmetric bilateral nuclei.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-021-04715-4DOI Listing
May 2021

[Screening and identification of potential targets of carthamin against sepsis].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Jan;33(1):23-27

College of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian 116600, Liaoning, China. Corresponding author: Chen Guirong, Email:

Objective: To screen and identify the potential targets of carthamin against sepsis by studying the characteristics of carthamin.

Methods: The pharmacological parameters and molecular characteristics of carthamin were analyzed with the aid of Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP). The targets of carthamin were screened by SwissTargetprediction (a website providing compound target prediction) and Drug Repositioning and Adverse drug Reaction via Chemical-Protein Interactome (DRAR-CPI). The anti-sepsis targets were selected from the three databases of Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and Therapeutic Targets Database (TTD). The targets of carthamin screened by the two websites and disease targets selected from the three databases were matched to screen the targets of carthamin against sepsis. The anti-sepsis potential targets of carthamin were identified by molecular docking software.

Results: The oral bioavailability of carthamin was 41.15%, the drug-likeness was 0.24, and the rotational bond number was 1, which indicated that carthamin was well absorbed by oral administration and showed good drug formation. A total of 115 potential targets of carthamin were screened by SwissTargetprediction and DRAR-CPI; 149 disease targets were found from OMIM, CTD and TTD databases; 115 target proteins of carthamin screened by the two websites were matched with the disease targets , and 10 target proteins were found to be both molecular targets and disease targets. The 10 target proteins were coagulation factor IX (F9), adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA1), nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), mitogen activity protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), cathepsin G (CTSG), neutrophil elastase (ELANE), protein C (PROC), lipocalin 2 (LCN2), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and prostaglandin endoperoxidase 2 (PTGS2). Molecular docking software analysis showed that carthamin had the ability to bind to the above 10 target proteins, which were potential targets of carthamin against sepsis. Carthamin could interact with the key amino acid residues of the targeted proteins, so as to play the corresponding efficacy.

Conclusions: Carthamin combines with the targets could reduce the tissues and organs damage of sepsis by regulating CTSG, ELANE and LCN2, reduce inflammatory response of sepsis by regulating ADORA1, PTGS2, NOS2, MAPK1 and mediating PROC and F9 to inhibit clotting, and improve oxidative stress, reduce the incidence of sepsis by regulating G6PD, finally, prevented and treated sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200508-00368DOI Listing
January 2021
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