Publications by authors named "Somsri Charoenkiatkul"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Influence of Plant Origins and Seasonal Variations on Nutritive Values, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities of Craib., an Endangered Species from Thailand.

Foods 2021 Nov 14;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Craib. is an indigenous plant found in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam that has become threatened owing to lack of knowledge about its agricultural management. This plant is now rare in the wild and was registered in the Plant Genetic Conservation Project under the initiation of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn (RSPG) to promote sustainable conservation and optimally beneficial utilization. has a long history of utilization as a nutrient-rich source with medicinal properties but scientific evidence of the veracity of these claims is limited. Here, the nutritional compositions, phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of different plant parts (young shoots and old leaves) of were investigated using plants collected from four areas of Thailand as Kamphaeng Phet (KP), Muang Nakhon Ratchasima (MN), Pakchong Nakhon Ratchasima (PN) and Uthai Thani (UT) at different harvesting periods (March-April, May-June and July-August). Results indicated that young shoots provided higher energy, protein, fat, dietary fiber, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc than old leaves. By contrast, nutrients such as total sugar, vitamin C, carotenoids, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron contents were higher in old leaves that also exhibited higher phenolic contents and most antioxidant activities than young shoots. Generally, most nutrients, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities exhibited no clear trend among different plant origins. The harvesting period of July-August provided a suitable climate for biosynthesis of most nutrients, while high phenolics were mainly found in samples harvested in March-April. No clear trend was observed in the prevalence of antioxidant activities that varied according to assay techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623237PMC
November 2021

Phytochemicals and In Vitro Bioactivities of Aqueous Ethanolic Extracts from Common Vegetables in Thai Food.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the consumption of fruits and vegetables because they are rich in phytochemicals that sustainably ameliorate the occurrence of NCDs. Thai food contains many spices and vegetables with recognized health benefits. Quality control of plant samples encountered a bottleneck in the field and comparative studies of plant control origins including species or cultivar identification, growing area and appropriate harvesting time are limited. To address this issue, all plant samples used in this study were cultivated and controlled by the Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Thailand. The samples were phytochemically screened and determined their health-promoting bioactivities via antioxidant activities and inhibition of NCD-related enzymes including lipase (obesity), α-amylase and α-glucosidase (diabetes), angiotensin-converting enzyme (hypertension), as well as acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and β-secretase (Alzheimer's disease). The non-enzymatic reaction toward glycation was also evaluated. The results showed that subsp. (Lace) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, DC. and 'Kermit' extracts exhibited high antioxidant activities. Moreover, DC. extract was a potent inhibitor against lipase, angiotensin-converting enzyme and butyrylcholinesterase, while L. and (L.) DC. were potent anti-diabetic agents and subsp. (Lace) Maslin, and Seigler & Ebinger was a potent anti-glycation agent. Our data provide a comparative analysis of ten vegetables to encourage healthy food consumption and development to control NCDs in Thailand in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10081563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400534PMC
July 2021

Development of Chrysin Loaded Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion for Improving Bioaccessibility.

Foods 2021 Aug 18;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Nano Agricultural Chemistry and Processing Research Team, National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand.

Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a remarkable flavonoid exhibiting many health-promoting activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, chrysin has been addressed regarding its limited applications, due to low bioaccessibility. Therefore, to improve chrysin bioaccessibility, a colloidal delivery system involving nanoemulsion was developed as chrysin nanoemulsion (chrysin-NE) using an oil-in-water system. Our results show that chrysin can be loaded by approximately 174.21 µg/g nanoemulsion (100.29 ± 0.53% ) when medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil was used as an oil phase. The nanocolloidal size, polydispersity index, and surface charge of chrysin-NE were approximately 161 nm, 0.21, and -32 mV, respectively. These properties were stable for at least five weeks at room temperature. Furthermore, in vitro chrysin bioactivities regarding antioxidant and anti-AD were maintained as pure chrysin, suggesting that multistep formulation could not affect chrysin properties. Interestingly, the developed chrysin-NE was more tolerant of gastrointestinal digestion and significantly absorbed by the human intestinal cells (Caco-2) than pure chrysin. These findings demonstrate that the encapsulation of chrysin using oil-in-water nanoemulsion could enhance the bioaccessibility of chrysin, which might be subsequently applied to food and nutraceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392734PMC
August 2021

In Vitro Phytotherapeutic Properties of Aqueous Extracted Craib. towards Civilization Diseases.

Molecules 2021 Feb 18;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Craib. is an indigenous edible plant that became an endangered species due to limited consumption of the local population with unknown reproduction and growth conditions. The plant is used as a traditional herb; however, its health applications lack scientific-based evidence. Craib. plant parts (old leaves and young shoots) from four areas as Kamphaeng Phet (KP), Muang Nakhon Ratchasima (MN), Pakchong Nakhon Ratchasima (PN), and Uthai Thani (UT) origins were investigated for phenolic compositions and in vitro health properties through the inhibition of key enzymes relevant to obesity (lipase), diabetes (α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV), Alzheimer's disease (cholinesterases and β-secretase), and hypertension (angiotensin-converting enzyme). Phenolics including -coumaric acid, sinapic acid, naringenin, and apigenin were detected in old leaves and young shoots in all plant origins. Old leaves exhibited higher total phenolic contents (TPCs) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs), leading to higher enzyme inhibitory activities than young shoots. Besides, PN and MN with higher TPCs and TFCs tended to exhibit greater enzyme inhibitory activities than others. These results will be useful to promote this plant as a healthy food with valuable medicinal capacities to support its consumption and agricultural stimulation, leading to sustainable conservation of this endangered species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922288PMC
February 2021

Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant, and Inhibitory Activities of (Roxb.) Craib and (Lem.) A.C. Sm.

Foods 2020 Sep 2;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

spp. in the Schisandraceae family are woody vine plants, which produce edible red fruits that are rich in nutrients and antioxidant activities. Despite their valuable food applications, spp. are only able to grow naturally in the forest, and reproduction handled by botanists is still in progress with a very low growth rate. Subsequently, spp. were listed as endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in 2011. Two different spp., including (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and (Roxb.) Craib, are mostly found in northern Thailand. These rare, wild fruits are unrecognizable to outsiders, and there have only been limited investigations into its biological properties. This study, therefore, aimed to comparatively investigate the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory activities against the key enzymes involved in diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and Alzheimer's disease (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and beta-secretase 1 (BACE-1)) in different fruit parts (exocarp, mesocarp (edible part), seed, and core) of (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and (Roxb.) Craib. The results suggested that Kadsura spp. extracts were rich in flavonol (quercetin), flavanone (naringenin), anthocyanidins (cyanidin and delphinidin), and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3--glucoside (kuromanin), cyanidin 3--galactoside (ideain), cyanidin 3--rutinoside (keracyanin), and cyanidin 3,5-di--glucoside (cyanin)). These flavonoids were found to be responsible for the high antioxidant activities and key enzyme inhibitions detected in spp. extracts. The findings of the present study can support further development of spp. as a potential source of phenolics and anti-oxidative agents with health benefits against diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Besides, exocarp and the core of Kadsura spp. exhibited higher phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and key enzyme inhibitory activities compared to the mesocarp and seeds, respectively. This information can promote the use of fruit parts other than the edible mesocarp for future food applications using spp. rather than these being wasted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9091222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555767PMC
September 2020

Nutritional composition of conserved spp. plants in Northern Thailand.

Heliyon 2020 Jul 16;6(7):e04451. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand.

The genus comprises woody vine plants belonging to the family . Species are found mostly in Northern Thailand and widely consumed by the local population. Occurrences of these wild fruits are rare as they only grow naturally in forest areas. Nutritive values of spp. remain unclear, leading to improper management for food applications. Nutritional composition of spp. was evaluated to promote sustainable conservation. Nutritive values in different fruits parts (exocarp, mesocarp, seed and core) of two species as (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and (Roxb.) Craib, from Chiang Rai Province, Thailand were assessed. When comparing nutritional contents based on per 100 g dry weight, results suggested that exhibited higher carbohydrate (1-2 times), sugar (1-2 times) and vitamin C (3-4 times) contents than , while the latter possessed higher fat (1-2 times), protein (1.6-1.9 times), and dietary fiber (1.5-1.8 times) contents. Considering each fruit part, the mesocarp (the only edible fruit part) and exocarp of both species provided high dietary fiber (11.6-20.9% recommended dietary fiber) and vitamin C (as high as 73% recommended per day) but were low in energy (30-40 kcal/100 g fresh weight), protein (0.6-1.2% recommended per day), fat (0.5-1.8% recommended per day) and sugar (2.4-5.4% recommended per day). Interestingly, seed contained higher energy (1-2 times), protein (2-3 times) and fat (4-50 times) than the other fruit parts. Results support the potential consumption of spp. as a healthy fruit that can be used for future food applications. Seed and exocarp from spp. also showed potential for new product development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365980PMC
July 2020

Comparison of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant, and In Vitro Anti-Alzheimer Properties of Twenty-Seven spp. Cultivated in Thailand.

Molecules 2020 Jun 3;25(11). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. To fight the disease, natural products, including mulberry, with antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against key enzymes (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and beta-secretase 1 (BACE-1)) are of interest. However, even in the same cultivars, mulberry trees grown in different populated locations might possess disparate amounts of phytochemical profiles, leading to dissimilar health properties, which cause problems when comparing different cultivars of mulberry. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the phytochemicals, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory activities against AChE, BChE, and BACE-1, of twenty-seven spp. cultivated in the same planting area in Thailand. The results suggested that fruit samples were rich in phenolics, especially cyanidin, kuromanin, and keracyanin. Besides, the aqueous fruit extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, both in single electron transfer (SET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms, while strong inhibitory activities against AD key enzymes were observed. Interestingly, among the twenty-seven spp., sp. code SKSM 810191 with high phytochemicals, antioxidant activities and in vitro anti-AD properties is a promising cultivar for further developed as a potential mulberry resource with health benefits against AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321130PMC
June 2020

Mulberry Fruit Cultivar 'Chiang Mai' Prevents Beta-Amyloid Toxicity in PC12 Neuronal Cells and in a Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules 2020 Apr 16;25(8). Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuttamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by chronic neuron loss and cognitive problems. Aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, a product of cleaved amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta-secretase 1 (BACE-1), have been indicated for the progressive pathogenesis of AD. Currently, screening for anti-AD compounds in foodstuffs is increasing, with promising results. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extraction conditions, phytochemical contents, and anti-AD properties, targeting Aβ peptides of cf. 'Chiang Mai' (MNCM) both in vitro and in vivo. Data showed that the aqueous extract of MNCM contained high amounts of cyanidin, keracyanin, and kuromanin as anthocyanidin and anthocyanins. The extract also strongly inhibited cholinesterases and BACE-1 in vitro. Moreover, MNCM extract prevented Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and promoted neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells. Interestingly, MNCM extract reduced Aβ peptides and improved locomotory coordination of co-expressing human APP and BACE-1, specifically in the brain. These findings suggest that MNCM may be useful as an AD preventive agent by targeting Aβ formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221829PMC
April 2020

Nutrients and bioactive compounds in popular and indigenous durian (Durio zibethinus murr.).

Food Chem 2016 Feb 27;193:181-6. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Putthamonthon 4 Rd., Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Electronic address:

This study identified nutrients, fatty acids, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of two popular varieties (Mon-thong, Cha-ni) and two indigenous varieties (Kra-dum and Kob-ta-kam) of durian. Each of variety was collected from 3 gardens in Nonthaburi province, Thailand. At optimal ripeness, the edible part was separated, homogenised or freeze dried, as fresh or dry samples for further analysis using standard methods. All durian varieties contained a considerable amount of dietary fibre (7.5-9.1g/100g dry matter, DM) and high amounts of carbohydrate and sugar (62.9-70.7g and 47.9-56.4g/100g DM respectively). Cha-ni, Kra-dum and Kob-ta-kam varieties had monounsaturated (MUFA) (6.1-7.8g/100g DM)>saturated (SFA) (4.2-5.7g/100g DM)>polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (0.8-1.5g/100g DM), whereas the Mon-thong variety had SFA>MUFA>PUFA (5.1, 4.0, 1.1g/100g DM, respectively). The Kob-ta-kam variety showed greater potential for health benefits in terms of carotenoids and β-carotene (2248μg and 1202μg/100g DM respectively). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were not significantly different among each variety, though the Cha-ni variety had the lowest. This study provides data on nutrients, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of indigenous and popular durian varieties that could be used for consumer education as well as for incorporation into the food composition databases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.107DOI Listing
February 2016

Conventional steaming retains tocols and γ-oryzanol better than boiling and frying in the jasmine rice variety Khao dok mali 105.

Food Chem 2016 Jan 7;191:113-9. Epub 2015 May 7.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, Phuttamonton, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of various cooking methods on the white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and parboiled geminated brown rice (PGBR) of the same variety, focusing on γ-oryzanol and tocols. The methods used for analysis of γ-oryzanol and tocols included solvent extraction and HPLC. The results indicated that PGBR had a higher content of γ-oryzanol and tocols compared to BR and WR, when different cooking methods (raw, steamed, boiled and fried) were used. Steaming method retained the higher γ-oryzanol content (53.6-62.2mg/100g) in both PGBR and BR, in comparison with boiling (53.0-60.6mg/100g) and frying (23.4-31.5mg/100g) methods. Frying reduced the γ-oryzanol content significantly regardless of the rice type. Regarding tocols, a similar trend was noticed in all the methods studied. Tocotrienol was the most abundant tocol found in PGBR and BR. Therefore, steaming is the best cooking method to preserved most of the bioactive compounds; however, a slight increase in total tocols was observed after frying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.027DOI Listing
January 2016

Parboiled Germinated Brown Rice Protects Against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury in Rats.

J Med Food 2016 Jan 15;19(1):15-23. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University , Bangkok, Thailand .

Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) of Khao Dawk Mali 105 variety was produced by steaming germinated paddy rice, which is well-known for its nutrients and bioactive compounds. In this study we determined the in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of PGBR in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, (weight 200-250 g) were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) CCl(4), (3) white rice (WR)+CCl(4), (4) brown rice (BR)+CCl(4), and (5) PGBR+CCl(4) groups. PGBR, BR, and WR diets were produced by replacing corn starch in the AIN76A diet with cooked PGBR, BR, and WR powders, respectively. All rats except the control group were gavaged with 50% CCl4 in olive oil (v/v, 1 mL/kg) twice a week for 8 weeks. CCl(4)-treated rats exhibited significant liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as obvious changes to liver histopathology compared to control. In addition, CCl(4) treatment decreased the activities of CYP2E1 and antioxidant enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione (GSH) content. However, the PGBR+CCl(4) group exhibited less liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as better antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH content. Furthermore, PGBR inhibited degradation of CYP2E1 in CCl(4)-induced decrease of CYP2E1 activity. These data suggest that PGBR may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative stress and injury through enhancement of the antioxidant capacities, which may be due to complex actions of various bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, γ-oryzanol, tocotrienol, and GABA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2015.3460DOI Listing
January 2016

A bioaccessible fraction of parboiled germinated brown rice exhibits a higher anti-inflammatory activity than that of brown rice.

Food Funct 2015 May;6(5):1480-8

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand.

Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) has been suggested as a functional food because it is relatively rich in a number of nutrients and health promoting compounds. Here we compared the bioaccessibility of several of the bioactive compounds in cooked PGBR and brown rice (BR) by simulating oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion. The uptake and retention of bioactive compounds from a bioaccessible fraction also was determined using Caco-2 human intestinal cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the bioaccessible fraction from digested BR and PGBR was then assessed with Caco-2 cells that were activated with H2O2 + IL-1β. PGBR had a higher content of GABA, γ-oryzanol, γ-tocotrienol, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid than BR. The amounts of these compounds transferred to the aqueous fraction during digestion and the quantities accumulated by Caco-2 cells were proportional to those in cooked PGBR and BR. The anti-inflammatory activity of the bioaccessible fraction from digested BR and PGBR was then assessed for Caco-2 cells that were activated with H2O2 + IL-1β. Pre-treatment of the cells with the bioaccessible fractions from PGBR and BR suppressed the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 and the ROS content in activated cells. Inhibitory activities were attenuated to a greater extent after cells had been pre-exposed to the bioaccessible fraction from digested PGBR compared to BR. These results suggest that digested PGBR contains and delivers greater amounts of compounds with anti-inflammatory activity to absorptive epithelial cells than digested BR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4fo01194eDOI Listing
May 2015

Vitamin D Status Is Positively Associated with Calcium Absorption among Postmenopausal Thai Women with Low Calcium Intakes.

J Nutr 2015 May 25;145(5):990-5. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

Background: Few data exist on the ability of postmenopausal women to absorb calcium from diets habitually low in calcium.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate fractional calcium absorption from a green leafy vegetable vs. milk in relation to vitamin D status.

Methods: We measured fractional calcium absorption from both a dairy- and plant-based source in 19 postmenopausal Thai women (aged 52-63 y) with low calcium consumption (350 ± 207 mg/d) in relation to serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Fractional calcium absorption was measured using a triple stable calcium isotope method based on isotope recovery in a 28-h urine collection. Two extrinsically labeled test meals were ingested in random order: a green leafy vegetable (cassia) ingested along with ⁴³Ca or a glass of milk containing ⁴⁴Ca. Women received intravenous ⁴²Ca with the first test meal.

Results: In 19 postmenopausal women studied (mean age, 56.9 ± 3.4 y), ~95% were 25(OH)D sufficient (≥20 μg/L). Serum 25(OH)D status was positively correlated with fractional absorption from both cassia (P = 0.05, R² = 0.21) and milk (P = 0.03, R² = 0.26). Fractional calcium absorption from cassia was significantly lower than that measured from milk (42.6% ± 12.3% vs. 47.8% ± 12.8%, P = 0.03), but true calcium absorption did not significantly differ (120 ± 35 mg/d vs. 135 ± 36 mg/d). Serum PTH was significantly inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D (P = 0.006, R² = 0.37) even though PTH was not elevated (>65 pg/mL).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that vitamin D status is an important determinant of calcium absorption among Thai women with low calcium intakes, and cassia may be a readily available source of calcium in this population. Furthermore, these data indicate that serum 25(OH)D concentrations may affect PTH elevation in postmenopausal women with low calcium intakes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.207290DOI Listing
May 2015

Nutrients and bioactive compounds of Thai indigenous fruits.

Food Chem 2013 Oct 8;140(3):507-12. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Putthamonthon 4 Rd., Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

This study determined the nutritional potential of Thai indigenous fruits in terms of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activities. Three indigenous fruits were collected at two conservation areas in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. The results showed that Phyllanthus emblica L. exhibited the highest levels of vitamin C (575±452mg/100g), total phenolics (TP) (3703±1244mGAE/100g), and antioxidant activities, as measured by DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays. Compared to the other two fruits, Antidesma velutinosum Blume contained higher levels of most nutrients and dietary fibre (15.6±5.9g/100g), as well as carotenoids (335±98μg/100g) and phytosterols (22.1±3.9mg/100g). Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz was high in total phenolics (3178±887mGAE/100g) and antioxidant activity. Moreover, high correlations were found between TP and antioxidant activities (r>0.9). These Thai indigenous fruits are potentially good sources of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activities. Conservation and utilisation should be promoted for food security and consumption as part of a healthy diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.057DOI Listing
October 2013

Anti-inflammatory activities of red curry paste extract on lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophage cell line.

Nutrition 2011 Apr 13;27(4):479-87. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

Objective: This study investigated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of an ethanol extract from Thai red curry paste.

Methods: The RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line was incubated with the extract (65-260 μg/mL) with or without lipopolysaccharide. The anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were examined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclo-oxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 mRNA and protein level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Nitric oxide production and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation were determined by the Griess method and fluorescence intensity. The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and inhibitor κB were determined by western blot.

Results: Exposure of cells with the extract significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclo-oxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 expressions (P < 0.05) by dose-dependently without cytotoxic effect. Intracellular reactive oxygen species significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect was mediated partly by inhibiting activation of inhibitor κB-α and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Thai red curry paste stem from bioactive compounds present in the spice and herb constituents. The health benefits of Thai red curry paste warrant further investigations in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2010.04.009DOI Listing
April 2011

Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009 4;60 Suppl 1:43-55. Epub 2008 Jul 4.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

Spices and herbs are extensively used in indigenous diets in tropical regions where prevalence of iron deficiency is still high. They are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are expected to inhibit iron absorption by forming iron complexes in the intestine, making dietary iron less available for absorption. The effects of six spices and herbs (chili pepper, garlic, 'Pak kyheng' (Thai leafy vegetable), shallot, tamarind, turmeric) and one mixture of spices (curry paste) on iron availability were determined by measuring the percentage dialyzable iron after addition of spices and herbs to a rice meal after simulated digestion. All tested spices and herbs contained from 0.5 to 33 mg polyphenol per meal and were potent inhibitors of iron availability (20-90%), reducing iron availability in a dose-dependent manner--with the exception of tamarind, which at 11 mg polyphenol per meal enhanced iron availability. Our findings demonstrate that culinary spices and herbs can play an important role in iron nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480802084844DOI Listing
February 2012

The association of dietary calcium, bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers in rural Thai women.

J Med Assoc Thai 2008 Mar;91(3):295-302

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Objective: To investigate the relative contribution of dietary calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical bone turnover markers in rural Thai women.

Material And Method: A cross-sectional investigation was designed in 255 rural Thai women. Usual dietary calcium intake was determined by 3-day food records and quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. BMD was measured by DXA. The three markers for bone turnover event: serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum N-mid osteocalcin and type I collagen C-telopeptide, including serum calcium and were determined in 125 women in the present study.

Results: An average daily calcium intake in the present study was 265 mg/day. Two hundred and thirty three out of 255 women (87%) consumed dietary calcium less than half of the recommended value and only 3% of women (n = 7) had calcium intake > 800 mg/day. After controlling certain parameters: age and body mass index, women who consumed higher amount of dietary calcium had significantly higher BMD at all sites. Moreover highly increased bone turnover markers were observed in those with lowest quartile calcium intake. Women with osteopenia and osteoporosis were older, lower BMI, consumed less calcium and had significantly higher values of all biochemical bone turnover markers than those who had normal BMD.

Conclusion: The present study showed that a habitual diet of the rural Thai population might not provide enough calcium as needed for bone retention and for prevention of bone loss in the following years. Modification of eating pattern by promotion of increased consumption of locally available calcium rich food may be beneficial for prevention of osteoporosis among this population.
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March 2008

Protective effects of coenzyme q(10) on decreased oxidative stress resistance induced by simvastatin.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007 May;40(3):194-202

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Division of Health Sciences and Social Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586, Japan.

The effects of simvastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), on oxidative stress resistance and the protective effects of coenzyme Q (CoQ) were investigated. When simvastatin was administered orally to mice, the levels of oxidized and reduced CoQ(9) and CoQ(10) in serum, liver, and heart, decreased significantly when compared to those of control. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by Fe(2+)-ascorbate in liver and heart mitochondria also increased significantly with simvastatin. Furthermore, cultured cardiac myocytes treated with simvastatin exhibited less resistance to oxidative stress, decreased time to the cessation of spontaneous beating in response to H(2)O(2) addition, and decreased responsiveness to electrical field stimulation. These results suggested that oral administration of simvastatin suppresses the biosynthesis of CoQ, which shares the same biosynthesis pathway as cholesterol up to farnesyl pyrophosphate, thus compromising the physiological function of reduced CoQ, which possesses antioxidant activity. However, these undesirable effects induced by simvastatin were alleviated by coadministering CoQ(10) with simvastatin to mice. Simvastatin also reduced the activity of NADPH-CoQ reductase, a biological enzyme that converts oxidized CoQ to the corresponding reduced CoQ, while CoQ(10) administration improved it. These findings may also support the efficacy of coadministering CoQ(10) with statins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.40.194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2275764PMC
May 2007

Dietary calcium intake among rural Thais in Northeastern Thailand.

J Med Assoc Thai 2008 Feb;91(2):153-8

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Objectives: The present study examined the amount and relative contribution of calcium from the habitual diet among rural Thais.

Material And Method: Calcium intake was assessed using 3-day food records and interviewer-administered quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, containing 73 food items.

Results: The authors recruited 436 healthy participants (181 men and 255 women), between 20 and 85 years of age. Averaged daily calcium intake among men and women were 378.6 and 265.6 mg, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of men and eighty seven percent of women had less dietary calcium intake than half of the recommended level (< 400 mg/day) whereas only 6 and 3% had an intake more than 800 mg/day. The major food sources of dietary calcium was glutinous rice (32 percent) followed by small animals with edible bones (31 percent) and fresh and fermented fish (20 percent). Dairy products and vegetables constituted only 8 and 5% of dietary calcium, respectively.

Conclusion: The habitual diet among rural Northeast Thais does not meet the recommended calcium intake level. To promote more consumption of dairy products and locally-available calcium-rich foods would be beneficial to prevent osteoporosis among this population.
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February 2008

Chili, but not turmeric, inhibits iron absorption in young women from an iron-fortified composite meal.

J Nutr 2006 Dec;136(12):2970-4

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

Chili and turmeric are common spices in indigenous diets in tropical regions. Being rich in phenolic compounds, they would be expected to bind iron (Fe)(3) in the intestine and inhibit Fe absorption in humans. Three experiments were conducted in healthy young women (n = 10/study) to assess the effect of chili and turmeric on Fe absorption from a rice-based meal containing vegetables and iron fortified fish sauce in vivo. Iron absorption was determined by erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotope labels ((57)Fe/(58)Fe) using a randomized crossover design. Addition of freeze-dried chili (4.2 g dry powder, 25 mg polyphenols as gallic acid equivalents) reduced Fe absorption from the meal by 38% (6.0% with chili vs. 9.7% without chili, P = 0.0017). Turmeric (0.5 g dry powder, 50 mg polyphenols as gallic acid equivalents) did not inhibit iron absorption (P = 0.91). A possible effect of chili on gastric acid secretion was indirectly assessed by comparing Fe absorption from acid soluble [(57)Fe]-ferric pyrophosphate relative to water soluble [(58)Fe]-ferrous sulfate from the same meal in the presence and absence of chili. Chili did not enhance gastric acid secretion. Relative Fe bioavailability of ferric pyrophosphate was 5.4% in presence of chili and 6.4% in absence of chili (P = 0.47). Despite the much higher amount of phenolics in the turmeric meal, it did not affect iron absorption. We conclude that both phenol quality and quantity determine the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds on iron absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.12.2970DOI Listing
December 2006

Defining obesity by body mass index in the Thai population: an epidemiologic study.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006 ;15(3):293-9

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dept Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand 40002.

The objective of this study was to develop cut-off values and evaluate the accuracy of body mass index (BMI) in the definition of obesity in the Thai population. A cross-sectional, epidemiologic study in 340 men and 507 women aged 50 +/- 16 yr (mean +/- SD; range: 20-84 yr), were sampled by stratified clustering sampling method. Body composition, including percentage body fat (%BF), was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI). BMI was obtained by dividing weight (in kg) by height (in m2). The "golden standard "for defining obesity was %BF > or =25% in men and %BF > or =35% in women. The %BF-based prevalence of obesity in men and women was 18.8% and 39.5%, respectively. However, using the BMI cut-off of > or =30, only 2.9% of men and 8.9% of women were classified as obese. In the cubic regression model, BMI was a significant predictor of %BF, such that in men a BMI of 27 kg/m2 would predict a %BF of 25%, and in women a BMI of 25 kg/m2 would correspond to a %BF of 35%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for BMI was approximately 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.92) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.90) in men and women, respectively. In conclusion, for the Thai population, BMI is a reasonably useful indicator of obesity; however, the cut-off values of BMI for diagnosing obesity should be lowered to 27 kg/m2 in men and 25 kg/m2 in women.
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November 2006

Biochemical markers of bone formation in Thai children and adolescents.

Endocr Res 2005 ;31(3):159-69

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama 6th Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

The measurement of biochemical markers of bone turnover is essential in the study of skeletal metabolism in health and diseases. Due to variations in the rate of bone growth in different age groups and possible ethnic differences, age-specific reference ranges for biochemical markers should be established in a particular pediatric population. In this study, biochemical markers of bone formation, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and osteocalcin (OC) in healthy Thai children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years were evaluated in relation to their ages and pubertal development. Serum BAP levels in boys increased with age and peaked at about 12 to 13 years. In contrast, there was a progressive decline of serum BAP levels with advancing age in girls older than 9 years. Serum OC also increased with age and reached a peak at ages 12 and 13 years in girls and boys, respectively. In addition, both serum BAP and OC levels also varied with pubertal stages. The BAP levels in boys increased sharply at pubertal stage 3 and decreased at pubertal stage 5. In girls, the BAP levels showed a fairly constant high level up to stage 3, followed by a remarkable decrease thereafter. The OC levels in boys increased sharply at pubertal stage 4 and decreased thereafter. In girls, OC started to increase at pubertal stage 3 with no subsequent changes. The levels of serum BAP and OC were higher in boys than in girls at pubertal stages 3 to 5 and at stages 2, 4, and 5, respectively. Moreover, only serum BAP level showed significant positive correlation with height velocity in both genders. In multiple regression analyses, gender, age, and pubertal stage were consistently correlated with both serum BAP and OC levels. In summary, male and female adolescents have different patterns of changes in biochemical markers of bone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07435800500371607DOI Listing
January 2006

Prediction of percentage body fat in rural thai population using simple anthropometric measurements.

Obes Res 2005 Apr;13(4):729-38

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 Thailand.

Objective: To develop and validate sex-specific equations for predicting percentage body fat (%BF) in rural Thai population, based on BMI and anthropometric measurements.

Research Methods And Procedures: %BF (DXA; GE Lunar Corp., Madison, WI) was measured in 181 men and 255 women who were healthy and between 20 and 84 years old. Anthropometric measures such as weight (kilograms), height (centimeters), BMI (kilograms per meter squared), waist circumference (centimeters), hip circumference (centimeters), thickness at triceps skinfold (millimeters), biceps skinfold (millimeters), subscapular skinfold (millimeters), and suprailiac skinfold (millimeters) were also measured. The sample was randomly divided into a development group (98 men and 125 women) and a validation group (83 men and 130 women). Regression equations of %BF derived from the development group were then evaluated for accuracy in the validation group.

Results: The equation for estimating %BF in men was: %BF(men) = 0.42 x subscapular skinfold + 0.62 x BMI - 0.28 x biceps skinfold + 0.17 x waist circumference - 18.47, and in women: %BF(women) = 0.42 x hip circumference + 0.17 x suprailiac skinfold + 0.46 x BMI - 23.75. The coefficient of determination (R2) for both equations was 0.68. Without anthropometric variables, the predictive equation using BMI, age, and sex was: %BF = 1.65 x BMI + 0.06 x age - 15.3 x sex - 10.67 (where sex = 1 for men and sex = 0 for women), with R2 = 0.83. When these equations were applied to the validation sample, the difference between measured and predicted %BF ranged between +/-9%, and the positive predictive values were above 0.9.

Discussion: These results suggest that simple, noninvasive, and inexpensive anthropometric variables may provide an accurate estimate of %BF and could potentially aid the diagnosis of obesity in rural Thais.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2005.82DOI Listing
April 2005

Contribution of lean tissue mass to the urban-rural difference in bone mineral density.

Osteoporos Int 2005 Dec 12;16(12):1761-8. Epub 2005 May 12.

Department of Endocrinology, Khon Kaen University Medical School, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

While the urban-rural difference in bone mineral density (BMD) has been shown in some, but not all, Western populations, such a difference and the reason for the difference is largely unknown, particularly in developing countries. This cross-sectional, epidemiologic study was designed to examine the hypothesis that differences in measures of body composition such as lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) contribute to the urban-rural difference in BMD. Lean mass, fat mass, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were measured by DXA (GE Lunar Corp, Wis.) in 411 urban (Bangkok city) and 436 rural (Khon Kaen province) Thai subjects, aged 20-84 years. Rural men and women had significantly higher LM and lower FM than their urban counterparts. In multiple linear regression analysis, age, LM, menopausal status (in women) and residence were independent determinants of BMD. After adjusting for age, menopause and LM, rural subjects were found to have significantly higher femoral neck BMD, but not lumbar spine BMD, than urban subjects. Furthermore, to alleviate the potential effect of multicolinearity of LM and FM, each rural subject was matched with each urban subject for FM and age, which resulted in 46 pairs of men and 91 pairs of women. In this matched-pair analysis, the femoral necks in rural men and women were, respectively, 7.3+/-2.1% (mean+/-SE; P<0.01) and 6.3+/-2.8% (P<0.02) higher than in urban men and women. The urban-rural difference in LM accounted for approximately 23 and 5% of the urban-rural difference in femoral neck BMD in men and women, respectively. These data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that the urban-rural difference in BMD at a weight-bearing site is in part associated with the urban-rural difference in lean mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-005-1921-5DOI Listing
December 2005

Effect of urbanization on bone mineral density: a Thai epidemiological study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2005 Feb 4;6. Epub 2005 Feb 4.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Background: The incidence of fractures in rural populations is lower than in urban populations, although the reason for this difference is unclear. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the difference in bone mineral density (BMD), a primary predictor of fracture risk, between urban and rural Thai populations.

Methods: Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar, Madison, WI) in 411 urban and 436 rural subjects (340 men and 507 women), aged between 20 and 84 years. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from weight and height.

Results: After adjusting for age and body weight in an analysis of covariance model, femoral neck BMD in rural men and women was significantly higher than those in urban men and women (P < 0.001), but the difference was not observed at the lumbar spine. After stratifying by sex, age group, and BMI category, the urban-rural difference in femoral neck BMD became more pronounced in men and women aged <50 years and with BMI > or = 25 kg/m2.

Conclusions: These data suggest that femoral neck BMD in rural men and women was higher than their counterparts in urban areas. This difference could potentially explain part of the urban-rural difference in fracture incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-6-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC549192PMC
February 2005

Earlier onset of pubertal maturation in Thai girls.

J Med Assoc Thai 2002 Nov;85 Suppl 4:S1127-34

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Background: Recent studies in the USA and Hong Kong demonstrated the onset of puberty in girls has shifted toward a younger age. Based upon previous studies on variations of pubertal maturation in Thai girls, the secular trend has also moved toward an earlier age. The latest study in 1995 revealed the mean age of menarche was 12.3 years.

Objectives: To identify the onset of puberty, menarche and pubarche in female children and adolescents in 2 Bangkok schools.

Method: Three hundred school girls aged 9-19 years were enrolled in the study. Data were collected from January 1997 through December 1999. Assessment of pubertal staging by Tanner's criteria was performed by a trained pediatrician. All were in good physical health and had normal height and weight. The median ages of thelarche, menarche and pubarche were estimated by probit analysis. All other parameters were expressed as mean +/- SD.

Results: The median ages of thelarche and pubarche were 9.4 and 11.1 years, respectively. Two hundred and twenty one girls had experienced menstruation. The median age of menarche was 11.2 years, whereas, the mean age was 12.1 years. Most girls reached near final adult height after 14 years old.

Conclusion: The secular trend in decline of the ages of thelarche (or puberty) and menarche was observed in Bangkok girls. Further study in a larger population including a younger age group is required to define the current reference interval of onset of puberty.
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November 2002

Bone mineral density in rural Thai adults living in Khon Kaen province.

J Med Assoc Thai 2002 Feb;85(2):235-44

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Objectives: To define the bone status and pattern of bone loss in a normal adult population living in a rural area of Khon Kaen province.

Study Design: A descriptive study.

Settings: Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Subjects 436 subjects (181 men and 255 women), aged 20-80 years.

Main Outcome Measures: Bone parameter including total bone mineral density (BMD), the bone mineral density at different sites such as forearm, lumbar spine and hip, bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

Results: The result revealed that women had lower bone mass at various bone sites than men. The peak bone mass in women was observed between 30-39 years of age except at the distal radius which occurred between 20-29 years of age while the peak bone mass in men was observed between 20-29 years of age. It was also shown that bone loss occurred in both men and women with advancing age. The rate of decline at all sites in women was greater than men especially when they were over 60 years old. When comparisons were made between pre and post-menopausal women, the mean of bone mineral density in pre-menopausal women was 1.18 +/- 0.08, 0.69 +/- 0.06, 0.69 +/- 0.06, 1.0 +/- 0.13, 1.15 +/- 0.13 g/cm2 at total body, mid-shaft radius, ultra distal radius, femoral neck and lumbar spine, respectively while the mean of bone mineral density in post-menopausal women was 1.02 +/- 0.12, 0.54 +/- 0.11, 0.54 +/- 0.11, 0.75 +/- 0.16, 0.88 +/- 0.2 g/cm2 at total body, mid-shaft radius, ultra distal radius, femoral neck and lumbar spine, respectively which were lower than BMD in pre-menopausal women (p<0.05). The mean bone mineral content (BMC) in pre-menopausal women was 2401+318.3 g while in post-menopausal women it was 1915.4+421.7 g (p<0.05). The rate of bone loss correlated with the duration after menopause. In this study, using World Health Organization criteria for diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis and a reference value obtained from Khon Kaen young adults, the prevalence of osteopenia in Khon Kaen women subjects was 37.4 per cent at femoral neck, 30.2 per cent at lumbar spine, 44.5 per cent at ultra distal radius, 31.5 per cent at mid-shaft radius and the prevalence of was osteoporosis 19.3 per cent at femoral neck, 24.7 per cent at lumbar spine, 18.5 per cent at ultra distal radius and 26.4 per cent at mid-shaft radius.

Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated the bone parameters in rural Thai adults living in Khon Kaen province, the pattern of bone loss, the difference between men and women and finally the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis.
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February 2002
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