Publications by authors named "Soma Roy"

29 Publications

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Theoretical Insight into the Library Screening Approach for Binding of Intermolecular G-Quadruplex RNA and Small Molecules through Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies.

J Phys Chem B 2021 06 24;125(21):5489-5501. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka 560012, India.

The interactions of intermolecular G-quadruplex RNA and small molecules have been investigated by computational studies. Various anthraquinone, bisbenzimidazole, and carbazole-benzimidazole based ligands have shown a distinct preference to G-quadruplex structures as opposed to the corresponding duplex forms of DNA that were docked with telomeric G-quadruplex RNA. The comparative binding study of such ligands with G-quadruplex (G4) RNA showed higher binding affinities toward carbazole-benzimidazole ligands than those of the anthraquinone and bisbenzimidazole based ligands. A molecular dynamics simulation study was used to examine quadruplex-ligand interactions. Analysis of the binding free energy indicated the formation of the thermodynamically favorable RNA-ligand complex. The formation of several H-bonding interactions and the change of the solvent accessible surface area (SASA) also support the effective binding of the carbazole-benzimidazole ligands with G4 RNA structures. Thus, the library screening approach has assisted in getting a structure-activity relationship for the selected small molecules toward the G-quadruplex RNA binding, which can be applied in the targeting of G-quadruplex RNA medicated anticancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c10991DOI Listing
June 2021

Successful integration of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis into a community-based HIV prevention program for female sex workers in Kolkata, India.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Jun 18;32(7):638-647. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Institute for Global Public Health, 8664University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

We assessed the impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the context of a community-based HIV program among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kolkata, India. This was an open-label, uncontrolled demonstration trial. HIV seronegative FSWs over 18 years were eligible. Participants were administered daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) with follow-up visits at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Drug adherence was monitored by self-report, and a random subset of participants underwent plasma TDF testing. 843 women were screened and 678 enrolled and started on PrEP. Seventy-nine women (11%) did not complete all scheduled visits: four women died of reasons unrelated to PrEP and 75 withdrew, for a 15-month retention rate of 89%. Self-reported daily adherence was over 70%. Among those tested for TDF, the percentage of women whose level reached ≥40 ng/mL was 65% by their final visit. There were no HIV seroconversions, and no evidence of significant changes in sexual behavior. This study demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of PrEP for FSWs in Kolkata, with very high levels of adherence to PrEP and no HIV seroconversions. The integration of PrEP into an existing community-based HIV prevention program ensured community support and facilitated adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462420983992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091404PMC
June 2021

A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of daily versus weekly interactive voice response calls to support adherence among antiretroviral treatment patients in India.

Mhealth 2020 5;6:35. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Sonagachi Research & Training Institute, Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee, 12/5 Nilmoni Mitra Street, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Background: There are more than two million people living with HIV (PLH) in India, with more than 30% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) estimated to be non-adherent. This study aimed to (I) document adherence rates and related factors among ART patients in a large ART clinic in India, and (II) pilot test daily and weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls to improve ART adherence and related outcomes.

Methods: ART patients reporting missing at least one dose in prior 6 months (N=362) were enrolled and assessed via self-report and medical record review. Participants were randomized to one of two conditions: (I) twice-daily IVR call reminders with self-management support messaging, plus a weekly IVR adherence assessment; or (II) an attention control, with only weekly IVR adherence assessment. Participants completed study assessments at baseline, 2-, 4-, and 6-months with high retention (88% to 96%).

Results: Intention-to-treat analyses found limited support for intervention effects for improving or maintaining ART adherence or CD4 counts between the two study arms over 6-months follow-up. Adherence increased significantly in the six months prior to baseline from about 65% to >95% with perfect adherence based on pill counts from medical records and consistent with patient self-report measures, which presented ceiling effects for detecting improvements in ART adherence in response to IVR intervention exposure. There was also limited support for intervention effects on secondary, self-management outcomes.

Conclusions: High levels of adherence were sustained throughout the 6-month RCT. IVR regulation changes in India delayed study launch for 6 months, which likely allowed mobilization of improved adherence at the clinic, provider and patient levels in anticipation of the study launch. Therefore, ceiling effects limited inferences on intervention effects to improve adherence. Results suggest that clinic-level adherence monitoring may be sufficient to mobilize adherence improvements by providers and patients.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration #NCT02118454.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/mhealth-19-248aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793015PMC
October 2020

Primary Conjunctival Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma with Increased Numbers of Intra-Tumour Melanocytes, Mimicking Melanoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2020 May 29;6(3):168-173. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Orbit and Oculoplastic Department, Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex (CEITC), Chittagong, Bangladesh.

A 60-year-old, South-Asian male patient presented with a dark brown lesion on his left conjunctiva surface near the limbus for 2 years. Examination showed a globular, dark brown-coloured mass near the temporal limbus at 4 to 5 o'clock position, measuring 3 × 3 × 2 mm. There were a few scattered flat pigmented lesions near the mass and also a few prominent vessels. The mass underwent wide local excision, with a clear margin, followed by double freeze cryotherapy of the conjunctival margins along with the application of Mitomycin C. The bare sclera was covered by amniotic membrane. Histology surprisingly revealed a nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) containing melanin. The melanin was present in the tumour cell cytoplasm, within melanophages and within dendritic, Melan A-positive melanocytes. The BCC was immunohistochemically positive for BerEP4 and negative for EMA. The clinically observed smaller nodules flanking the main pigmented BCC corresponded histologically to pigmented superficial growth pattern BCC connected to the under surface of the conjunctival epithelium. This is the first report of a pigmented BCC of the conjunctiva, mimicking a conjunctival melanoma. Pigmented BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented tumours of the conjunctiva.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250331PMC
May 2020

Specific stabilization of promoter G-Quadruplex DNA by 2,6-disubstituted amidoanthracene-9,10-dione based dimeric distamycin analogues and their selective cancer cell cytotoxicity.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Jun 16;195:112202. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India; School of Applied & Interdisciplinary Sciences, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, 700032, India. Electronic address:

We have designed and synthesized anthraquinone containing compounds which have oligopyrrole side chains of varying lengths. These compounds stabilized the G-quadruplex DNA formed in the promoter regions of c-MYC oncogenes selectively over the duplex DNA. These observations were recorded using UV-vis spectroscopic titrations, fluorescence measurements and circular dichroism (CD) spectral titrations. The potency of the compounds to stabilize the G4 DNA has been shown from the thermal denaturation experiments. The compound interacts with c-MYC G-quadruplex DNA through stacking mode as obtained from ethidium bromide displacement assay, cyclic voltammetric titration, and docking experiments. Molecular modeling studies suggested that the stacking of the anthraquinone moiety over the G-tetrad of the G4 structures are responsible for the stability of such quadruplex secondary structure. Furthermore, polymerase stop assay also supported the formation of stable G4 structures in the presence of the above-mentioned compounds. The compounds have shown selective cancer cell (HeLa and HEK293T) cytotoxicity over normal cells (NIH3T3 and HDFa) under in vitro conditions as determined from MTT based cell viability assay. Apoptosis was found to be the mechanistic pathway underlying the cancer cell cytotoxicity as obtained from Annexin V-FITC and PI dual staining assay which was further substantiated by nuclear morphological changes as observed by AO/EB dual staining assay. Cellular morphological changes, as well as nuclear condensation and fragmentation upon treatment with these compounds, were observed under bright field and confocal microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112202DOI Listing
June 2020

Global Retinoblastoma Presentation and Analysis by National Income Level.

JAMA Oncol 2020 05;6(5):685-695

Imam Hussein Cancer Center, Karbala, Iraq.

Importance: Early diagnosis of retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer, can save both a child's life and vision. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that many children across the world are diagnosed late. To our knowledge, the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma has never been assessed on a global scale.

Objectives: To report the retinoblastoma stage at diagnosis in patients across the world during a single year, to investigate associations between clinical variables and national income level, and to investigate risk factors for advanced disease at diagnosis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 278 retinoblastoma treatment centers were recruited from June 2017 through December 2018 to participate in a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed in 2017.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Age at presentation, proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, and tumor stage and metastasis.

Results: The cohort included 4351 new patients from 153 countries; the median age at diagnosis was 30.5 (interquartile range, 18.3-45.9) months, and 1976 patients (45.4%) were female. Most patients (n = 3685 [84.7%]) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, the most common indication for referral was leukocoria (n = 2638 [62.8%]), followed by strabismus (n = 429 [10.2%]) and proptosis (n = 309 [7.4%]). Patients from high-income countries (HICs) were diagnosed at a median age of 14.1 months, with 656 of 666 (98.5%) patients having intraocular retinoblastoma and 2 (0.3%) having metastasis. Patients from low-income countries were diagnosed at a median age of 30.5 months, with 256 of 521 (49.1%) having extraocular retinoblastoma and 94 of 498 (18.9%) having metastasis. Lower national income level was associated with older presentation age, higher proportion of locally advanced disease and distant metastasis, and smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma. Advanced disease at diagnosis was more common in LMICs even after adjusting for age (odds ratio for low-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 17.92 [95% CI, 12.94-24.80], and for lower-middle-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 5.74 [95% CI, 4.30-7.68]).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study is estimated to have included more than half of all new retinoblastoma cases worldwide in 2017. Children from LMICs, where the main global retinoblastoma burden lies, presented at an older age with more advanced disease and demonstrated a smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, likely because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is curable, these data are concerning and mandate intervention at national and international levels. Further studies are needed to investigate factors, other than age at presentation, that may be associated with advanced disease in LMICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047856PMC
May 2020

Geometry of the Poincaré plot can segregate the two arms of autonomic nervous system - A hypothesis.

Med Hypotheses 2020 May 20;138:109574. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Dept. of Physiology, Calcutta Medical College, 88, College Street, Calcutta 700073, India. Electronic address:

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) operates to achieve the optimum physiological functioning and maintains homeostasis in a tonic and continuous manner. Evaluation of ANS profile is crucial in assessing autonomic dysfunction. Conventional ANS evaluation procedures fail to capture minute dynamic alterations of ANS activities. The ANS output pattern is appropriately reflected in the fine alteration of the resting heart rate (HR). HR is a non-stationary variable, results from the dynamic interplay between the multiple physiologic mechanisms. The control of cardiac rate or the chronotropic regulation of heart is considered as a coupled network of oscillators, each representing a specific facet of the cardiovascular reflex. The slower vasomotor oscillation via sympathetic system is combined with rapid respiratory oscillation by parasympathetic system to modulate the intrinsic oscillation pattern of the SA Node. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is used to understand the autonomic influence on cardiovascular system in health and disease. Fourier decomposition of HRV offers us mainly two different frequency components. High frequency (HF) variation indicates parasympathetic variability due to respiration and Low frequency (LF) mainly implicates tonic sympathetic influence, due to slower vasomotor modulation of heart rate. However, different studies show conflicting results and direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity also failed to correlate with LF power in either healthy subjects or in patients with increased cardiac sympathetic drive. A scatter-plot where each R-R interval is plotted against the preceding R-R interval forms a distributed elliptic point cloud in two dimensional plane. The phase space realization of this plot with dimension two and delay one is referred to as Poincaré plot analysis, an emerging quantitative-visual technique where the shape of the plot is categorized into different functional classes. The plot provides summary as well as detailed beat-to-beat information of the heart. This plot can be extended to three dimensions and with multi-lag, offering more insight and information. A mathematical expression was developed by an interventional study by Toichi et al., using pharmacological blockers during different physiological variables that calculated the lengths of transverse and longitudinal axes of the Poincaré plot to derive two quantitative expressions of sympathetic and vagal influence on HRV: 'cardiac sympathetic index' (CSI)) and 'cardiac vagal index' (CVI). In the present study, we emulate Poincaré plot patterns seen in normal range of sympatho-vagal balances and also in Diabetes Mellitus (DM), known to cause autonomic dysfunction. The emerging pattern of R-R interval time series would provide valuable insight into the altered temporal dynamics and also extract crucial features embedded within. DM is a major public health crisis globally and particularly in Indian population. We hypothesize that, CSI and CVI will effectively segregate the two arms of ANS and can be utilized as an effective evaluation tool to explore the disease status in patients of Diabetes Mellitus. We also propose that, the dynamics of fluctuations in physiological rhythms that exhibit long-term correlation and memory, can also be explored and expressed quantitatively by incorporating various degrees of 'lag' in these recurrence plots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109574DOI Listing
May 2020

Results of Intralesional Bleomycin Sclerotherapy for Treatment of Orbital Lymphangiomas at a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in Bangladesh.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2019 10 12;5(6):412-417. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Histopathology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of intralesional bleomycin injection for the treatment of orbital lymphangiomas.

Methods: This was a prospective interventional case study. Twelve patients diagnosed with orbital lymphangiomas received intralesional bleomycin injection at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (maximum 15 mg) along with lignocaine 2%. Those who required retreatment were injected at intervals of 4 weeks. The outcome was reviewed radiologically and using serial photographic comparison.

Result: Proptosis and lid swelling were the most frequent presentations. The number of injections ranged from 1 to 3. Fifty percent of our patients showed complete resolution, and the other 50% showed more than 70% resolution as evidenced radiologically and on digital photography.

Conclusion: No significant ophthalmic or systemic side effect was noticed in our study group. Therefore, intralesional bleomycin injection can be considered as first-line therapy for treatment of orbital lymphangiomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873038PMC
October 2019

Gender disparities in depression severity and coping among people living with HIV/AIDS in Kolkata, India.

PLoS One 2018 21;13(11):e0207055. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Sonagachi Research & Training Institute, Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee, Kolkata, India.

People living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) experience high rates of depression and related psychosocial risk factors that vary by gender. This study examines gender differences in depression severity among antiretroviral therapy (ART) patients (n = 362) from a large government ART clinic in Kolkata, India. Hypotheses for multiple linear regression models were guided by an integrated gendered stress process model focusing on variables reflecting social status (age, partner status), stressors (stigma), and resources (income, social support). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); 22% of the sample reached the cutoff for severe depression, 56% moderate, and 13% mild depression. Compared to men, women reported lower income, education (50% no formal education vs. 20% men), availability of emotional and instrumental support, and were less likely to be married or cohabiting (53% women vs. 72% of men). However, more women had partners who were HIV-positive (78% women vs. 46% men). Overall, depression severity was negatively associated with availability of emotional support and self-distraction coping, and positively associated with internalized HIV/AIDS stigma, availability of instrumental support, and behavioral disengagement coping. Interactions for instrumental support by income and partner status by age varied significantly by gender. Analyses stratified by gender indicated that: 1) Frequently seeking instrumental support from others was protective for men at all income levels, but only for high-income women; and 2) having a partner was protective for men as they aged, but not for women. These results suggest that gender disparities in depression severity are created and maintained by women's lower social status and limited access to resources. The effect of stigma on depression severity did not vary by gender. These findings may inform the tailoring of future interventions to address mental health needs of PLH in India, particularly gender disparities in access to material and social resources for coping with HIV. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration #NCT02118454, registered April 2014.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207055PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248946PMC
April 2019

Enhanced G-Quadruplex DNA Stabilization and Telomerase Inhibition by Novel Fluorescein Derived Salen and Salphen Based Ni(II) and Pd(II) Complexes.

Bioconjug Chem 2017 02 6;28(2):341-352. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Director's Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science , Kolkata 700 032, India.

Metal based salen complexes have been considered as an important scaffold toward targeting of DNA structures. In the present work, we have synthesized nickel(II) and palladium(II) salen and salphen complexes by using readily available fluorescein as the backbone to provide an extended aromatic surface. The metal complexes exhibit affinity toward the human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA with promising inhibition of telomerase activity. This has been ascertained by their efficiency in the long term cell proliferation assay which showed significant cancer cell toxicity in the presence of the metal complexes. Confocal microscopy showed cellular internalization followed by localization in the nucleus and mitochondria. Considerable population at the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle showed cell death via apoptotic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00433DOI Listing
February 2017

Primary Orbital Cystic Pilocytic Astrocytoma.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016 Oct 20;2(4):280-284. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Purpose: To describe the clinical, radiological and histopathological features of a highly unusual primary orbital glioma.

Procedures: A 6-year-old female presented with right-sided proptosis that revealed a well-defined intraconal mass on CT imaging with intact orbital bony walls. During the removal of the lesion, it dissected away freely from the muscles and was separated from the optic nerve and globe. There was no communication with the brain.

Results: Histology showed histological features highly favouring a pilocytic astrocytoma enveloped by meninges. No non-neoplastic brain tissue was identified.

Conclusion: This is the first documentation of a primary orbital pilocytic astrocytoma not anatomically connected with the brain. We speculate that the tumour had arisen from developmental brain heterotopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000448006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5091200PMC
October 2016

Novel Oligopyrrole Carboxamide based Nickel(II) and Palladium(II) Salens, Their Targeting of Human G-Quadruplex DNA, and Selective Cancer Cell Toxicity.

Chem Asian J 2016 Sep 8;11(18):2542-54. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560 012, India.

DNA targeting by various metal complexes is a key strategy toward the restriction of cancer cell proliferation. Toward this end, we designed and synthesized novel salen-based Ni(II) and Pd(II) metal complexes with positively charged flanking side chains comprising N-methylpyrrole carboxamides of varying lengths. The compounds showed high specificity toward G-quadruplex DNA over duplex DNA. Sufficient inhibition of the telomerase activity was observed, which was ascertained by the prominent restriction of cancer cell proliferation in the long-term cell viability and telomerase inhibition assays. The compounds exhibited selective cancer cell death following an apoptotic pathway. Analysis of the binding mode showed partial stacking of the salen moiety over the G-tetrads and association of the pendant oligopyrrole carboxamide units with the grooves. The conjugation of the tetrad-binding metal salen core with groove-oriented flexible oligopyrrole moieties resulted in the high selectivity and stabilization of the human G-quadruplex DNA structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.201600655DOI Listing
September 2016

Vigorous Physical Work and Obesity?-the Paradox of the Californian Farmworker Population.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2017 08 17;4(4):696-705. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA.

A good understanding of underlying causes of obesity prevalence in the farmworker population is critical in finding effective strategies to fight obesity and related chronic diseases. There is growing evidence that the population of farmworkers fares poorly with regard to health status, but available data on obesity levels and related chronic diseases is scarce or missing. This study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among a sample of farmworker population in California. Results of the regression model indicate that along with demographic variables such as age and gender, several lifestyle and behavioral risk factors are associated with obesity of the farmworkers. Results from this study will inform the design of intervention efforts and policies to help improve the health status of the farmworker population at the community level and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-016-0273-5DOI Listing
August 2017

Mn-Doping in NiO Nanoparticles: Defects-Modifications and Associated Effects Investigated Through Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016 Apr;16(4):4153-63

Manganese-doped nickel oxide (Ni1-xMnxO) nanoparticulate samples with x in the range 0 (undoped sample) to 0.35 were synthesized by sol-gel method involving chemical reactions between the solutions of nickel nitrate hexahydrate and manganese acetate tetrahydrate. The nanocrystallites obtained after annealing of the precipitates for different durations were characterized by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The samples showed high degree of purity with no secondary phase up to 35 at.% (x = 0.35) of Mn-doping. At the initial doping concentrations, the crystallite sizes increased due to vacancy type defects being recombined with some of the doped Mn2+ ions. However, substitution-induced strain soon overtook the crystallite dynamics and the sizes rapidly started reducing again as an indirect consequence of the necessity to accommodate majority of the doped cations on the surfaces of the nanocrystallites. There was conspicuous changes in the lattice parameter too which could again be attributed to the strain and charge effects. The average sizes of the crystallites were obtained in the range 5.5 nm to 13.1 nm for the different samples. UV-Vis absorption studies indicated the formation of excitonic states in NiO on Mn-doping. The band gap energy (Eg) derived from the optical absorption spectra showed a continuous increase with increase of Mn-doping of the samples. Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening spectroscopic studies were carried out on those samples to characterize the vacancy type defects and defect clusters/complexes. There were also indications to suggest positron annihilation at the crystallite surfaces owing to their sizes of nanometer order. Positron lifetimes decreased upon increase of Mn-doping. The coincidence Doppler broadened ratio curves indicated definite shifts of the prominent oxygen-electron-annihilation peak and the variation of the lineshape parameter S also indicated clearly the effects of Mn-doping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2016.10963DOI Listing
April 2016

Eyelid Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016 Apr 19;2(3):156-9. Epub 2015 Dec 19.

Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to report the clinical and histopathological features of an eyelid metastasis in a 70-year-old male with no prior medical history.

Methods: A 70-year-male presented with a painless, hard, red nodular growth in his left lower medial eyelid of 6 months duration, involving the canaliculus and punctum. He did not complain of any other ocular or systemic abnormality. The clinical differential diagnosis included lymphoma or a primary adnexal tumour. The lesion was excised under local anaesthetic cover and sent for routine histopathological analysis.

Results: The histology revealed a carcinoma involving the posterior and anterior lamella of the lower lid. It was composed of papillary and follicular areas. The tumour nuclei were optically clear, overlapping, had nuclear grooves and were associated with eosinophilic colloid material. The tumour cells were strongly positive for nuclear thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin (which also stained some of the eosinophilic colloid material). The histological and immunohistochemical features were those of metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Unfortunately, the patient's thyroid has yet to be examined because of loss to follow-up.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of thyroid papillary carcinoma metastasizing to the eyelid as the presenting feature of the disease. A review of the literature of metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the eyelids is presented, to place the findings of this case report in context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000442987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4881260PMC
April 2016

Physicochemical properties of skim milk powders prepared with the addition of mineral chelators.

J Dairy Sci 2016 Jun 31;99(6):4146-4153. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Statistics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo 93407.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mineral chelator addition during skim milk powder (SMP) manufacture on the solubility, turbidity, soluble protein, and heat stability (HS). Three chelators (sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium polyphosphate, and disodium EDTA) at 3 different concentrations (5, 15, and 25mM) were added to skim milk concentrate (30% total solids), and the pH was adjusted to 6.65 before spray drying to produce SMP. Spray-dried SMP samples were tested for solubility index (SI). Additionally, samples were reconstituted to contain 9% total solids, adjusted to pH 7.0, and tested for turbidity, protein content from supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples, and HS. Lower SI values were observed for samples treated with 5mM disodium EDTA and sodium polyphosphate than control samples or samples with 5mM sodium citrate dihydrate. Furthermore, lower SI values were observed with an increased level of chelating agents regardless of chelator type. A decreased turbidity value was found with increasing levels of mineral chelating salt treatment. Low turbidity with increasing levels of added chelators may be associated with the dissociation of caseins from micelles. Furthermore, higher protein content was observed in supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples treated with increased level of chelators as compared with the control sample. Higher HS was observed in samples treated with 5mM compared with samples treated with 25mM mineral chelator. The results suggest improved solubility and HS upon addition of mineral chelators to SMP during its manufacture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10243DOI Listing
June 2016

Lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis: clinical profile and surgical management by modified dacryocystorhinostomy.

Orbit 2014 Feb 6;33(1):29-32. Epub 2013 Nov 6.

Consultant, Orbit and Oculoplastic Clinic, Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex , Chittagong , Bangladesh .

Purpose: To describe the clinical profile and surgical management of patients with lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis.

Methods: This is a retrospective interventional case series. Eighteen patients, who were clinically diagnosed as isolated lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis between October 2009 to January 2012, were included in the study. Detailed history, including whether there was exposure to stagnant bathing water, was noted. All patients underwent modified dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) under general anaesthesia.

Result: Out of 18 patients, 14 were male and 4 were female. Rhinosporidiosis was more prevalent in the 25 to 34 years age group. The most common clinical presentation was a doughy swelling over the lacrimal sac area, present in all cases. Twelve patients (66.67%) had a history of bathing in stagnant water. After modified DCR operation, all patients were followed for one year and only two patients had recurrence of their disease.

Conclusion: Patients with lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis usually present with a soft, doughy swelling in the lacrimal sac area. Bathing in stagnant water is a common risk factor. A modified DCR yields excellent outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01676830.2013.844170DOI Listing
February 2014

Antileukemic activity of the leaf extract of Bischofia javanica blume on human leukemic cell lines.

Indian J Pharmacol 2011 Apr;43(2):143-9

Department of Pharmacology, Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Majhitar, Sikkim - 737 136, India.

Objective: Leaves of Bichofia javanica (BJ) have been traditionally used for many ailments including cancer. In the present study, antileukemic activity of the leaf extract was evaluated on human leukemic cell lines.

Materials And Methods: Human leukemic cell lines U937, K562, and HL60 were purchased from National Facility for Animal Tissue and Cell Culture, Pune, India. The cells were routinely maintained in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% heat inactivated fetal calf serum. Cultures were maintained at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO(2) in air. The methanol extract of BJ (MEBJ) was dissolved in PBS and used at the concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 μg/ml for cell viability and cytotoxicity studies (MTT assay). Cell counts were made in quadruplicate samples at the interval of 24, 48, and 72 h and cytarabine (20 μg/ml) served as standard drug. The apoptotic pathway of cytotoxicity was assessed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis technique and confirmed by fluorescence and confocal microscopic methods at the concentration of 10 μg/ml.

Results: MEBJ showed significant cytotoxicity (P<0.001) in leukemic cell lines in the in-vitro cell proliferation assay. IC(50) of MEBJ was very low (3.5 μg/ml) at 72 h in the HL60 cell line. The apoptotic pathway of cytotoxicity was observed at 10 μg/ml of MEBJ by the fragmented DNA pattern in the apoptosis assay, chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation as revealed in the fluorescence and confocal microscopic studies.

Conclusion: The present findings support the ethno-medicinal use of BJ for cancer by mediating through the apoptosis pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.77348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081451PMC
April 2011

HIV infection rates among persons attending an ICTC of a Delhi hospital.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2009 Jul;30(2):121-2

Department of Microbiology, Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital, Rohini, Government of NCT of Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7184.62773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168057PMC
July 2009

Allele frequency distribution for 15 autosomal STR loci in two Muslim populations of Tamilnadu, India.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2007 Nov 5;9(6):332-5. Epub 2007 Jul 5.

National DNA Analysis Center, Directorate of Forensic Science, Central Forensic Science Laboratory, 30, Gorachand Road, Kolkata 700 014, India.

Allele frequencies of the 15 autosomal STR loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D5S818, and FGA were determined in two endogamous Muslim populations (Dawoodi Bohra Muslims from Shiite Muslims and Sunni Muslims) residing in Tamilnadu, India. The Loci D7S820, CSF1PO, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D13S317, D16S539, D5S818, and FGA in Dawoodi Bohra Muslims from Shiite Muslims, and CSF1PO, D19S433, TPOX, and D16S539 in Sunni Muslims were found to deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The power of discrimination of the analyzed markers was found to be high for the populations, thereby facilitating the validation and efficiency of these STR markers in human identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.05.004DOI Listing
November 2007

Production and purification of a bioactive substance inhibiting multiple drug resistant bacteria and human leukemia cells from a salt-tolerant marine Actinobacterium sp. isolated from the Bay of Bengal.

Biotechnol Lett 2006 Jul 21;28(14):1083-8. Epub 2006 Jun 21.

Environmental Science Programme and Department of Life Science & Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

Four marine actinobacteria tolerant to 200 g NaCl l(-1) were screened for antibacterial activity against eight patient-derived multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The active compound (MW 300.2, predicted molecular formula C(20)H(28)O(2)) from an actinobacterium, was inhibitory to three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative MDR bacteria, seven non-clinical Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and five fungi (MIC: 3.5-4.0 microg ml(-1)). Also, 54% of human leukemia (HL-60) cells were killed by the compound at 0.05 microg ml(-1). Bioreactor production demonstrated unusual primary metabolite kinetics. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed this typical intertidal inhabitant to be a member of the Streptomyces genus and distinct from other salt-tolerant actinobacteria. As no compound was found to match the properties in several electronic databases, our screening strategy should increase the possibility of discovering bioactive molecules from rare actinobacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-006-9054-2DOI Listing
July 2006

Embolization of intracranial aneurysms with hydrogel-coated coils versus inert platinum coils: effects on packing density, coil length and quantity, procedure performance, cost, length of hospital stay, and durability of therapy.

Stroke 2006 Jun 4;37(6):1443-50. Epub 2006 May 4.

Department of Radiology, University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Background And Purpose: The durability of aneurysm coil embolization is thought to depend on packing density. The expansile property of hydrogel coating on coils increases volumetric packing per coil length. We describe our experience using hydrogel-coated coils (HydroCoils) compared with inert platinum coils in intracranial aneurysm embolization.

Methods: Fifty aneurysms embolized primarily using HydroCoils from 2003 to 2004 were compared with 57 volume- and shape-matched aneurysms treated with standard platinum coils from 2000 to 2003. Outcome measures included volumetric percentage occlusion (VPO), length and number of coils used, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, contrast volume, coil cost, length of hospital stay, and durability of therapy.

Results: Seventeen/26/5 small/medium/large aneurysms treated with HydroCoils were matched with 29/24/4 small/medium/large aneurysms treated with inert platinum. HydroCoil embolization yielded significantly greater VPO (84.8% versus 29.8%; P<0.001), decreased average total coil length used per aneurysm (33.2 versus 44.3 cm), reduced fluoroscopy time (53.2 versus 65.2 minutes; P=0.016), but increased contrast volume used (174.8 versus 112.9 cc; P<0.001). There were no differences in length of hospital stay. Procedure-related morbidity and mortality rates in the HydroCoil cohort were 4% and 0%, respectively. Follow-up angiography at mean 12.3 months revealed lower aneurysm recurrence rates (17% versus 24%; number-needed-to-treat [NNT] 14.3). Initial costs associated with HydroCoil embolization were higher ($5835 versus $4017; P=0.004) but countered by lower retreatment rates (10% versus 17%; NNT 14.3).

Conclusions: HydroCoil embolization achieves greater aneurysm packing density with decreased coil length. Initial durability data favor HydroCoils, with lower recurrence and retreatment rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000221314.55144.0bDOI Listing
June 2006

Endovascular management of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2005 Jul;7(3):197-209

Department of Neurosurgery (MC 799), University of Illinois-Chicago, 912 South Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Significant advances in neuroendovascular devices and techniques are changing the approach to the management of acute hemorrhagic stroke. Greater numbers of aneurysms can now be treated using a wide array of platinum coils. Intracranial stents and balloon remodeling have made possible the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms. Microcatheters have been developed with better tractability to traverse tortuous vessels and access vascular lesions. With more than an estimated 100,000 patients with aneurysms treated worldwide, coil embolization has an excellent safety profile and level of outcome, with similar or better results compared with surgical clipping in select patient populations. Arteriovenous malformations and fistulae may also benefit from endovascular treatment by embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate or coils. In this article, we describe the endovascular role for the most common causes of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages, with special attention toward ruptured aneurysms and vascular malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11936-005-0048-5DOI Listing
July 2005

Glossal angiomyoma: imaging findings and endovascular treatment.

Head Neck 2004 Dec;26(12):1084-8

Department of Radiology, University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

Background: An angiomyoma is an uncommon, benign tumor characterized by numerous vascular channels intermixed with bundles of smooth muscle cells. Oral manifestations are quite rare. We describe for the first time the CT, MRI, and angiographic imaging features and successful preoperative endovascular embolization of an angiomyoma of the tongue. The pathologic findings before and after embolization are also described.

Methods And Results: A 25-year-old man was seen with a rapidly enlarging tongue mass. Imaging studies revealed the extent and hypervascular nature of this tumor. The diagnosis of angiomyoma was confirmed by histologic examination. Preoperative embolization proved to be helpful in the surgical management of this lesion.

Conclusions: Angiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any well-circumscribed, hypervascular, soft tissue tumor in the mouth. In addition, endovascular embolization may be a useful adjunct that facilitates resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.20124DOI Listing
December 2004

Radiation dose to the operator during vertebroplasty: prospective comparison of the use of 1-cc syringes versus an injection device.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2003 Jun-Jul;24(6):1257-60

Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Background And Purpose: Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures require relatively long durations of fluoroscopic guidance, which might lead to substantial radiation dose to operators. Specialized injection devices have been proposed to limit operator exposure. Our purpose was to compare the radiation dose to the operator's hands during vertebroplasty when using 1-cc syringes versus that when using an injection device.

Methods: Radiation dosimeters were worn on the left wrist during 39 vertebroplasty injection procedures in 25 patients. Cases were alternated between the use of 1-cc syringes (19 procedures) and the use of an injection device (20 procedures). For each procedure, one dosimeter was worn throughout the procedure, both during needle placement and injection, and a second dosimeter was worn during the injection phase only. Mean doses for the whole case and mean doses for the injection procedure alone were compared between groups.

Results: Mean whole case dose was 128 +/- 161 mrem (range, 0-660 mrem) for the 1-cc syringe group versus 98 +/- 90 mrem (range, 0-340 mrem) for the injection device group (P =.23). Mean dose during injection was 100 +/- 145 mrem (range, 0-660 mrem) for the 1-cc syringe group versus 55 +/- 43 mrem (range, 0-130 mrem) for the injection device group (P =.09). Three of 19 1-cc syringe cases yielded zero dose, compared with four of 20 injection device cases. Duration of injection was markedly different between groups, with mean injection times of 4.2 and 7.5 min for 1-cc syringe and injection device cases, respectively (P <.00002). Mean injection dose per minute of lateral fluoroscopy was 23.6 and 7.3 mrem for the 1-cc syringe and injection device groups, respectively (P =.002).

Conclusion: The use of an injection device significantly decreased the radiation dose to the operator's extremity per unit time of injection. However, total dose per injection was equivalent between groups because of significantly longer injection duration for the injection device cohort.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149000PMC
October 2003

Methicillin resistance among isolates of Staphylococcus aureus: antibiotic sensitivity pattern & phage typing.

Indian J Med Sci 2002 Jul;56(7):330-4

Department of Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Nagpur-440 018

Out of 3988 clinical specimens from hospital admitted patients 230 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated, 45 strains (19.56%) were Methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All MRSA strains were beta lactamase producers. Multidrug resistance was observed among MRSA strains more commonly than in methicillin sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Maximum strains were resistant to penicillin (100%), co-trimoxa zole (97%) & chloramphenicol (93.33%). As least resistant to gentamicin & ciprofloxacin shown by MRSA, these drugs can be used in few situations after susceptibility test. All strains of MRSA were sensitive to vancomicin (100%). Majority of strains (34 out of 45) showed MIC values of 4 ug/ml. Twenty eight out of 44 strains were non typable using routine phages. Study revealed that MRSA with associated multidrug resistance is common in this region. There is need to develop local set of MRSA phages for improvement of typability.
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July 2002