Publications by authors named "Som Prasad"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phacoemulsification surgery in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

ISRN Ophthalmol 2014 22;2014:417603. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, Wirral University Teaching Hospital, Arrowe Park Road, Wirral, Merseyside CH49 5PE, UK.

Purpose. To evaluate the visual outcomes and effect of phacoemulsification surgery on the progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Thirty eyes from 29 subjects with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections who underwent phacoemulsification and had a postsurgery follow-up of 6 months were included. LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed preoperatively; 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively; and finally at the last visit. The frequency of anti-VEGF therapy, calculated as the number of intravitreal injections per month, and central macular thickness (CMT) before and after cataract surgery were determined. Results. Median (range) logMAR BCVA was 0.69 (0.16 to 1.32) preoperatively; 0.55 (-0.04 to 1.32) at 1 month, 0.52 (-0.1 to 1.32) at 3 months, and 0.50 (0.0 to 1.32) at 6 months postoperatively; and 0.6 (0.0 to 1.4) at final visit (P = 0.0011). There was no difference in the frequency of anti-VEGF injections between the immediate 6 months before and after phacoemulsification, which was equal to 0.1667 injections per month (P = 0.6377). Median CMT measured 203  μ m preoperatively, which temporarily increased to 238  μ m at 1 month after surgery (P = 0.0093) and then spontaneously returned to baseline, measuring 212.5  μ m at 3 months postoperatively (P = 0.3811). Conclusion. Phacoemulsification surgery significantly improved vision in patients with neovascular AMD, with no increased need for anti-VEGF injections to keep the macula dry postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/417603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3956411PMC
April 2014

A prospective and nationwide study investigating endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy: clinical presentation, microbiology, management and outcome.

Br J Ophthalmol 2014 Aug 31;98(8):1080-6. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Wirral University Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Arrowe Park Hospital, Wirral, UK.

Background/aims: This is the first prospective and nationwide study aiming to provide epidemiological data relating to presentation, microbiology, management and outcome of endophthalmitis following vitrectomy.

Methods: Two years of prospective and nationwide surveillance for cases of presumed infectious endophthalmitis within 6 weeks of pars plana vitrectomy was completed. The study obtained case reports via the established British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU) system.

Results: Thirty-seven cases were reported and 28 met the diagnostic criteria for presumed infectious endophthalmitis following vitrectomy. Mean age was 61 years and 67% were male. Nineteen cases were 23/25 gauge and 9 cases were 20 gauge. Mean time from surgery to endophthalmitis was 5 days. Blurred vision (85.2%), pain (77.8%) and a hypopyon (77.8%) were the commonest presenting symptoms and signs. Seventeen cases (60.7%) had a positive culture. Culture-positive endophthalmitis, relative to culture-negative endophthalmitis, was no different with respect to time to presentation, symptoms, signs or outcome. Outcome was poor, with 29.6% of eyes being eviscerated or having no perception of light or perception of light.

Conclusions: This study helps surgeons promptly identify cases of endophthalmitis following vitrectomy and informs them about the various management options currently used and the likely outcome of this devastating complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304486DOI Listing
August 2014

Bimanual intraocular lens rescue with transconjunctival scleral fixation.

Retina 2014 Apr;34(4):812-5

*Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; †Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, New York; ‡Department of Ophthalmology, Westbank Hospital, Howrah, West Bengal, India; §Department of Ophthalmology, Sunetra Family Eye Care Centre, Kolkata, India; ¶Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York; and **Department of Ophthalmology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000000101DOI Listing
April 2014

A prospective and nationwide study investigating endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy: incidence and risk factors.

Br J Ophthalmol 2014 Apr 13;98(4):529-33. Epub 2014 Jan 13.

West of England Eye Unit, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, , Exeter, Devon, UK.

Background/aims: This is the first nationwide prospective study to investigate the incidence and risk factors of endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV).

Methods: This was a prospective, nationwide case-control study. Cases of presumed infectious endophthalmitis within 6 weeks of PPV were reported via the established British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit. The surveillance period was 2 years. Controls (patients who had PPV but no endophthalmitis) were recruited from nine randomly selected UK centres.

Results: 37 reports were received and 28 cases met the diagnostic criteria for presumed infectious endophthalmitis following PPV. The incidence of endophthalmitis following PPV was 28 cases per 48 433 PPVs (1 in 1730 with a 95% CI of 1 in 1263 to 1 in 2747). 272 controls were randomly recruited from nine UK centres. Smaller gauge port sizes were not found to be a risk. Immunosuppression (OR 19.0, p=0.001) and preoperative topical steroids (OR 131.4, p<0.001) increased the endophthalmitis risk. Operating for retinal detachment was associated with a reduced risk of endophthalmitis (OR 0.10, p=0.005).

Conclusions: Endophthalmitis following PPV is rare. Operating with smaller gauge port sizes does not increase the risk of endophthalmitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304485DOI Listing
April 2014

An effective programme to systematic diabetic retinopathy screening in order to reduce diabetic retinopathy blindness.

Hell J Nucl Med 2014 Jan-Apr;17 Suppl 1:30-4

Eye Treatment Centre, Whipps Cross University Hospital, Whipps Cross Rd, London E11 1NR, United Kingdom.

The number of people identified with diabetes in England increased by nearly 5% during 2011-2012 to well over 2.5 million. During 2011-2012 the NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme screened more than 1.9 million people. In general, the UK is doing very well with its DR screening targets. It is a world leader in diabetic retinopathy screening, having offered 85.7% of eligible diabetic patients the screening programme. However, the target is 100% and efforts are still being made to improve screening locally. Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) (proliferative retinopathy or maculopathy), the number of patients needing laser treatment or vitrectomy and registered blind in the last 12 months in a defined population. We did a twelve-month retrospective database review at the Systematic Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service at Wirral University Hospital Trust, United Kingdom. The effectiveness of different screening modalities has been widely investigated. UK studies show sensitivity levels for the detection of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy of 41%-67% for general practitioners, 48%-82% for optometrists, 65% for ophthalmologists, and 27%-67% for diabetologists and hospital physicians using direct ophthalmoscopy. Sensitivity for the detection of referable retinopathy by optometrists have been found to be 77%-100%, with specificity of 94%-100%. Photographic methods currently use digital images with subsequent grading by trained individuals. Sensitivity for the detection of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy have been found 87%-100% for a variety of trained personnel reading mydriatic 45° retinal photographs, with specificities of 83%-96%. The British Diabetic Association (Diabetes UK) has established standard values for any diabetic retinopathy screening programme of at least 80% sensitivity and 95% specificity. We used descriptive analyses to characterise the study population and patterns of diabetic retinopathy, and used t tests and χ(2) tests to explore differences between patients without any retinopathy and those who developed any, background, or referable retinopathy. Parametric survival analysis with covariates identified those factors associated with the development of referable retinopathy. The presence of diabetic retinopathy was determined after each screening event during the study period. Although intended to occur annually, screening took place at variable times during the one year period. Of known diabetics in a total population 325.000, 84% accessed screening and 15.196 (4.7%) were screened. 748 were referred with referable retinopathy. 16% of the patients needed laser treatment for the first time, 30 patients needed vitrectomy, and 16 were registered blind. To evaluate the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) service we did a retrospective comparative analysis of 2 year DRS data in Wirral (2010-2012). An increase of 6.8% in the number of diabetics was noted over the last 12 months compared to the previous period. Referable retinopathy decreased from 5.6% for 2010-2011 to 4.94% during the same period in 2011-2012. In particular, the incidence of proliferative retinopathy (R3) has dropped from 0.7% last year to 0.52% this year. STDR has significant impact on ophthalmic services, but a well-implemented program provides timely treatment, reducing the need for vitrectomy and blind registration and serving as a benchmark to plan service delivery in a similar population.
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September 2013

Simultaneous correction of aniridia and aphakia.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2013 Oct;39(10):1625-6

Wirral, England.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2013.08.001DOI Listing
October 2013

Clinical outcomes of triamcinolone-assisted anterior vitrectomy after phacoemulsification complicated by posterior capsule rupture.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2013 Mar 18;39(3):414-8. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Arrowe Park Hospital, Wirral, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To compare the clinical outcomes in patients who had triamcinolone acetate-assisted anterior vitrectomy and patients who had anterior vitrectomy without triamcinolone acetate after phacoemulsification complicated by posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss.

Setting: Arrowe Park Hospital, Wirral, United Kingdom.

Design: Retrospective consecutive case note review.

Methods: Consecutive case notes of patients who had anterior vitrectomy assisted by triamcinolone acetonide (triamcinolone group) or without triamcinolone acetate (no-triamcinolone group) after posterior capsule rupture between January 2007 and January 2011 were identified and examined. Data recorded at the clinic visit preoperatively and 1 day and 3 months postoperatively were collated. Information recorded on the pro forma included visual acuity, ocular comorbidities, intraocular pressure (IOP), vitreous strands in the anterior chamber, and other adverse events.

Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the visual acuity or IOP between 17 patients in the triamcinolone group and 34 patients in the no-triamcinolone group at any time point. Vitreous strands in the anterior chamber were noted in 1 patient in the triamcinolone group and 7 patients in the no-triamcinolone group. Cystoid macular edema (CME) was present in 3 patients in the no-triamcinolone group, including 1 patient with vitreomacular traction.

Conclusions: There was no significant increase in IOP after triamcinolone acetate-assisted anterior vitrectomy. Higher rates of CME and residual anterior chamber vitreous strands in the no-triamcinolone acetate group support the clinical use of triamcinolone acetate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2012.10.042DOI Listing
March 2013

Medical image. Retinal macroaneurysm following a branch retinal vein occlusion.

N Z Med J 2011 Oct 14;124(1344):103-5. Epub 2011 Oct 14.

Arrowe Park Hospital, Arrowe Park Road, Upton, Wirral, Merseyside CH49 5PE, United Kingdom.

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October 2011

Visual perception of a dislocated intraocular lens.

Can J Ophthalmol 2011 Aug 7;46(4):371. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2011.06.019DOI Listing
August 2011

Choices in correction of aphakia during vitrectomy.

Ophthalmologica 2011 22;226 Suppl 1:46-52. Epub 2011 Jul 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, Wirral University Hospital, Upton, UK.

Phacoemulsification with an intraocular lens implant is a safe and effective means of correction of visual loss from cataract. The high frequency of this procedure world wide means inevitable direct surgical complications will be numerous even though infrequent. The approach to correcting aphakia following complicated cataract surgery is dependent on multiple factors including the degree to which the capsular bag is intact and the type of intraocular lens that has been inserted. We discuss several approaches and strategies for managing dropped intraocular lenses, the correction of aphakia and the safety and long-term results of anterior chamber intraocular lens placement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000328210DOI Listing
September 2011

Resolution of choroidal neovascularization secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents: a case series.

Semin Ophthalmol 2011 Jan;26(1):1-3

Wirral University Hospital Trust.

Case series of four patients with CNVM secondary to PIC treated solely with anti VEGF in three cases and in combination with PDT in the other. This series reveals long term follow up (3 months to 28 months) which is currently not described in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08820538.2010.541322DOI Listing
January 2011

Intermediate results of sutureless intrascleral posterior chamber intraocular lens fixation.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2010 Feb;36(2):254-9

Augenzentrum Recklinghausen, 45657 Recklinghausen Germany.

Purpose: To report the intermediate multicenter results of a technique of sutureless intrascleral fixation of a standard 3-piece posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) in the ciliary sulcus.

Setting: Four European ophthalmology centers.

Methods: A technique for sutureless intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a standard 3-piece PC IOL was retrospectively evaluated. The technique uses standardized maneuvers to fixate the PC IOL without need for special haptic architecture or preparation or haptic suturing. All patients having IOL implantation by the technique were evaluated for preoperative status (visual acuity, refractive error, preexisting ocular conditions, optical biometry), postoperative status, complications, and need for further surgery.

Results: The study evaluated 63 consecutive patients from 4 institutions (4 surgeons). The median follow-up was 7 months. Two dislocated PC IOLs (3.6%) were decentered; the other 61 IOLs (96.8%) were stable and well centered. There were no cases of recurrent dislocation, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, or glaucoma.

Conclusion: Fixation of PC IOL haptics in a limbus-parallel scleral tunnel provided exact centration and axial stability of the IOL and prevented distortion and subluxation in most cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2009.09.024DOI Listing
February 2010

Management of cataract caused by inadvertent capsule penetration during intravitreal injection of ranibizumab.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2009 Nov;35(11):1857-9

Department of Ophthalmology, Arrowe Park Hospital, Wirral, United Kingdom.

We describe an approach to phacoemulsification of complicated cataract with preexisting posterior capsule tear caused by an intravitreal injection. Careful preoperative planning and attention to fluidics, low bottle height, appropriate incisions, careful hydrodelineation without hydrodissection, avoidance of nuclear rotation, and use of a dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device to tamponade vitreous allows safe phacoemulsification with secure posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Biaxial microincision cataract surgery can achieve efficient removal of the lens matter without rotating the nucleus, reducing the chance of capsule tear extension and loss of nuclear fragments into the posterior pole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2009.05.050DOI Listing
November 2009

Vitreous management during complicated cataract surgery.

Authors:
Som Prasad

Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie) 2008 Fall-Winter;40(3-4):123-9

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March 2009

IOP after triamcinolone acetonide.

Ophthalmology 2006 Feb;113(2):358; author reply 358

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2005.11.010DOI Listing
February 2006