Publications by authors named "Solomon Sisay"

13 Publications

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The yield of Auramine O staining using led microscopy with bleach treated sputum samples for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis at St. Peter tuberculosis specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2020 Feb 12;18:100140. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

Background: Smear microscopy is the mainstay for diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in Ethiopia. This technique; however, is insensitive to detect Mycobacteria from most clinical specimens. Currently, light emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscope is advocated to be used in high Tuberculosis (TB) burden settings by World Health Organization (WHO). However, the utility of this method is not evaluated for bleach treated sputum samples in Ethiopia.

Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic importance of Auramine O (AO) staining in direct and concentrated sputum against conventional Zehil-Neelsen (ZN) and culture from the sputum samples of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 346 adult new pulmonary TB suspected patients at St. Peter's Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Three sputum samples (spot-morning-spot) were collected in sterile cups for direct Zehil-Neelsen and AO staining. Morning sputum samples were used for Mycobacterial culture on Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were evaluated against the gold standard culture method. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13.0. All statistical tests were considered as statistically significant if the two sided P-value was < 0.05.

Results: Bleach treated sputum samples with AO staining yielded more cases as compared to direct ZN and direct AO by 6.3% and 11.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of concentrated AO and direct AO were remarkably high as compared to conventional ZN (71.8% vs. 44.5% and 62.7% vs. 44.5%). The concentrated sputum with staining of AO had a high rate (18.6%) of detecting scanty graded smears as compared to conventional ZN method.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the concentrated sputum with AO staining yielded high rate of sensitivity (71.8%) as compared to the conventional ZN method (44.5%). Moreover, the concentrated sputum with AO staining had superior ability in detecting scanty graded smears compared to the conventional ZN method. Therefore, it is recommended to utilize AO staining with LED microscopy for better diagnosis of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) from TB suspected cases and patients with pauci-bacillary TB in Ethiopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jctube.2019.100140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939099PMC
February 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

An evaluation of collaboration in the TB and HIV control programme in Oromia Region, Ethiopia: Seven years of retrospective data.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 15;77:74-81. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Arsi University, College of Health Science, Department of Public Health, Asella, Ethiopia. Electronic address:

Background: Globally, HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are a leading cause of death if they occur as co-morbidities in affected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the collaboration between TB and HIV control activities by determining the co-morbidity rate in Oromia Region, Ethiopia, during the period 2009-2015.

Methods: A retrospective health facility-based study was conducted. Data were collected from health facilities implementing the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) strategy in the region. A structured World Health Organization (WHO) reporting format was used as the data collection tool. Pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART)/voluntary counselling and testing for HIV (VCT) and TB unit registers were considered as the data sources. Data were collected quarterly and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. The odds ratio was used to assess statistical differences among variables.

Results: A total of 115268 TB patients were counselled and tested for HIV during the study period. Among the patients tested, 60086 (52.1%) were male, of whom 13680 (11.8%) were found to have an HIV infection. Among TB patients who were co-infected with HIV, there were slightly higher odds of HIV infection in females than in males (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.17). Between 2009 and 2013, about 56% of TB and HIV co-morbid patients were put on co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) and 35% on ART. HIV infection occurred predominantly within the age group of 25-34 years (31%). On the other hand, 197152 HIV-infected patients were screened for TB symptoms and 8.4% were found to have active TB. The odds of having TB among males who were initially infected with HIV were higher as compared to females (odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.27-1.37).

Conclusions: The prevalence of TB and HIV co-morbidity was 11.8% at TB clinics in the region. Low proportions of co-infected patients were put on CPT and ART. Therefore, it is essential to strengthen the WHO recommended TB and HIV collaborative activities in the region to reduce the burden of co-morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.10.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Factors which contributed for low quality sputum smears for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) at selected health centers in Ethiopia: A quality control perspective.

PLoS One 2018 20;13(6):e0198947. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Objectives: Quality of tuberculosis (TB) microscopy diagnosis is not a guarantee despite implementation of External Quality Assurance (EQA) service in all laboratories of health facilities. Hence, we aimed at evaluating the technical quality and the findings of sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB) at health centers in Hararge Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between July 8, 2014 and July 7, 2015.A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method was put into practice for collecting all necessary sample slides. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 20 software. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Of the total55 health center laboratories which had been assessed during the study period, 20 (36.4%) had major technical errors; 13 (23.6%) had 15 false negative results and 17 (30.9%) had 22 false positive results. Moreover, poor specimen quality, smear size, smear thickness, staining and evenness were indicated in 40 (72.7%), 39 (70.9%), 37 (67.3%), 27(49.1%) and 37 (67.3%) of the collected samples, respectively. False negative AFB findings were significantly associated with lack of Internal Quality Control (IQC) measures (AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio): 2.90 (95% CI (Confidence Interval): 1.25,6.75) and poor staining procedures (AOR: 2.16(95% CI: 1.01, 5.11).

Conclusions: The qualities of AFB smear microscopy reading and smearing were low in most of the laboratories of the health centers. Therefore, it is essential to strength EQA program through building the capacity of laboratory professionals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198947PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6010281PMC
December 2018

Treatment Outcomes of Tuberculosis at Asella Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia: Ten Years' Retrospective Aggregated Data.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 21;5:38. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Background: Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has been one of the major strategies to combat the epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) globally. This study aimed to evaluate TB treatment outcomes between September 2004 and July 2014 under the DOTS program at one of the largest public hospitals in Ethiopia.

Methods: A retrospective data of TB patients registered at Asella Teaching Hospital between September 2004 and July 2014 were obtained from hospital registry. Treatment outcomes and types of TB cases were categorized according to the national TB control program guideline. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between treatment outcomes and potential predictor variables.

Results: A total of 1,755 TB patients' records were included in the study. Of these, 945 (53.8%) were male, 480 (27.4%) smear-positive TB, 287 (16.4%) HIV positive, and 1,549 (88.3%) new cases. Among 480 smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, 377 (78.5%) patients were cured, 21 (4.40) completed the treatment, 35 (7.3%) transferred out, 19 (4.0%) died, 24 (5.0%) defaulted, and 4 (0.8%) failure. Overall, 398 (82.9%) smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were successfully treated. For smear-negative TB ( = 641) and extrapulmonary TB cases ( = 634), 1,036 (81.3%) completed the treatment and demonstrated favorable response. Taking all TB types into account, 1,434 (81.7%) were considered as successfully treated. In the multivariate binary logistic model, patients in older age group (AOR = 0.386, 95% CI: 0.250-0.596) and retreatment cases (AOR = 0.422, 95% CI: 0.226-0.790) were less likely to be successfully treated compared to younger and new cases, respectively. In multinomial logistic regression, age increment by 1 year increased the risk of death and default of TB patients by 0.05 (adjusted β = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.06) and 0.02 (adjusted β = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04). The odds of TB patients who died during treatment were higher among HIV-infected TB patients (adjusted β = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.50).

Conclusion: The treatment success rate of TB patients was low as compared to the national target. TB control needs to be strengthened for the enhancement of treatment outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826330PMC
February 2018

The prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factors among women of reproductive age in Ziway Dugda district, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

Public Health 2017 Nov 14;152:1-8. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Federal Ministry of Health, P. O. Box 1234, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Adequate nutrition is an important factor to determine the health and well-being of women, children and society as a whole. Although various nutritional policies were formulated and aimed at reducing malnutrition at the global level, the magnitude of malnutrition (body mass index [BMI] <18.5 kg/m) among women remained between 10% and 40% in most low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify the associated risk factors among women of reproductive age.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ziway Dugda district in Ethiopia among 430 women of reproductive age between September 20 and November 21, 2015.

Methods: A systematic sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify associated independent risk factors such as women's age, housing conditions, drinking water sources, habits of hand washing, dietary intake and food insecurity.

Results: The mean values of weight, height and BMI of the study participants were 51 kg, 157 cm and 18.1 kg/m, respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5 kg/m) among women of reproductive age was found to be 48.6%. Being in the age group of 26-35 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26-0.84), thatched housing conditions (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.16-2.89), unprotected sources of drinking water (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.06-2.57), lack of habit of hand wash after using the toilet (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.06-2.47), consumption of fish (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.12-3.99), consumption of dairy products (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.42-4.03) and food insecurity (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.50-3.95) were considered as independent predictors of risk for having malnutrition among women of the same age group compared to women from food secured households.

Conclusions: A high prevalence of malnutrition (48.6%) was observed among women of reproductive age. Although nutrient-rich foods were available, their consumption appears insufficient. Hence, it is strongly recommended to have behavioural change communication for enhancing adequate intake of a diversified diet and to promote environmental and hygienic conditions of women through improving their socio-economic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2017.06.011DOI Listing
November 2017

Risky HIV sexual behavior and utilization of voluntary counseling and HIV testing and associated factors among undergraduate students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

BMC Public Health 2017 01 25;17(1):121. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Of the total 602 students selected, an overall response rate of 557 (92.6%) were registered. Among the participants 361 (60%) were males. The student ages' were ranged from 17 up to 25 years with mean age of 20.3 ± 1.6. Around 385 (64%) of them were in the age group of 17 up to 20 years. Among the study participants, 161 (26.8%) had sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3) years. About 443 (76%) of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Among sexually active students, 74 (46%) had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4%) had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80)] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI) = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06)] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments.

Conclusions: Some students were engaged in risky sexual behaviour even though they had heard about HIV/AIDS. The perception of risk for acquisition of HIV infection and utilization of VCT were low. HIV prevention and control strategies including education in the areas of HIV/AIDS as part of university programs curriculum, specially non-health students, and strengthening health institutions to provide youth-friendly VCT services for HIV with "know your HIV status" campaigns are strongly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4060-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5267391PMC
January 2017

Ten years' experience of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia: An evaluation of tuberculosis control program.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 22;5 Suppl 1:S117-S118. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, P.O. Box 16417, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended DOTS as a standard strategy for controlling the disease. TB is one of the major causes of infectious diseases in the world, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. About a third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tubercle bacilli, and hence at risk of developing active disease. The objective of the study was, therefore, to evaluate the impact of DOTS strategy on smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis case finding and their treatment outcomes in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia.

Methods: A retrospective health facility-based descriptive study was employed. Quarterly data were collected by using WHO structured reporting format for TB case finding and treatment outcome from all DOTS implementing health facilities in the region.

Results: A total of 10,024 TB cases (all forms) were registered and reported between the periods from 2003 up to 2012. Out of these, 4100 (40.9%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 3164 (31.6%) were smear-negative pulmonary TB and 2760 (27.5%) had extra-pulmonary TB. An average case detection rate (CDR) of 40.9% (SD=0.1) and treatment success rate (TSR) of 55.7% (SD=0.28) for smear-positive pulmonary TB including other forms of TB were reported for the specified years period. Additionally, the average mean values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rates were 4.2% and 0.3%, respectively.

Conclusions: The recommended TSR set by WHO was achieved as it was already been fulfilled more than 85% from 2009 up to 2011 in the region and the reported CDR was far below (40.9%) for smear-positive pulmonary TB including other forms of TB from the target. Therefore, extensive efforts should be established to maintain the achieved TSR and to increase the low level of CDR for all forms of TB cases through implementing alternative case finding strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.11.003DOI Listing
December 2016

Determining treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Afar Regional State, Ethiopia: A retrospective facility based study.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 06 5;5(2):164-9. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Objective/background: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) as a standard strategy to control the disease. In Ethiopia the strategy was started in 1992 as a pilot in the Arsi and Bale zone, Oromia Region. The DOTS strategy has been subsequently scaled up in the country and implemented at a national level reaching better coverage, although there are recognizable variations from region to region and district to district. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the DOTS strategy on smear-positive pulmonary TB case findings and their treatment outcomes in the Afar Regional State, Ethiopia, from 2003 to 2012 and from 2002 to 2011, respectively.

Methods: A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted. Data were collected and reported on a quarterly basis using the WHO reporting format for TB case findings and their treatment outcomes from all DOTS-implementing health facilities in all zones of the region to the Federal Ministry of Health.

Results: A total of 34,894 of TB cases had been registered in the period from 2003 to 2012. Out of these, 11,595 (33.2%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 13,859 (39.7%) smear-negative pulmonary TB, and 9838 (28.2%) extrapulmonary TB. The case detection rate (CDR) of smear-positive pulmonary TB had increased from 18.3% to 37.2%, with the average value being 32% (standard deviation=6.8) from the total TB cases to its peak of 39% in 2008. The treatment success rate (TSR) had an average value of 86.2% from 2002 to 2011 with its peak value being 96.5% in 2007. Moreover, the average values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rate were 2.9% and 2.7%, respectively.

Conclusion: The implementation for the DOTS strategy in the area improved the CDR of smear-positive TB, although it is unacceptably lower than the recommended WHO target of 70%. Additionally, the WHO target of 85% for TSR had already been achieved in the region. However, continued efforts should be in place to increase the CDR and maintain the high TSR registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.02.003DOI Listing
June 2016

Directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) for treatment of new tuberculosis cases in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia: ten years retrospective study.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Aug 19;8:357. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O.Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: A third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacilli. TB accounts for 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. The objective of the study was to assess impact of directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) strategy on new tuberculosis case finding and treatment outcomes in Somali Regional State, Ethiopia from 2003 up to 2012 and from 2004 up to 2013, respectively.

Methods: A health facility based retrospective study was employed. Quarterly reports were collected using World Health Organization (WHO) reporting format for TB case finding and treatment outcome from all zones in the region to the Federal Ministry of Health.

Results: A total of 31, 198 all types of new TB cases were registered and reported during the period from 2003 up to 2012, in the region. Out of these, smear positive pulmonary TB cases were 12,466 (40%), and 10,537 (33.8%) and 8195 (26.2%) for smear negative pulmonary TB and extra-pulmonary TB cases, respectively. An average case detection rate (CDR) of 19.1% (SD 3.6) and treatment success rate (TSR) of 85.5% (SD 5.0) for smear positive pulmonary TB were reported for the specified years period. For the overall study period, trend chi-squire analysis for CDR was X(2) = 2.1; P > 0.05 and X(2) = 5.64; P < 0.05 for TSR.

Conclusions: The recommended TSR set by WHO was achieved (85.5%) and the CDR reported was far below (19.1%) from the recommended target. Extensive efforts should be established to maintain the achieved TSR and to increase the low CDR for the smear positive pulmonary TB cases through implementing alternative case finding strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1325-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539707PMC
August 2015

Perception of high school students on risk for acquiring HIV and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) service for HIV in Debre-berhan Town, Ethiopia: a quantitative cross-sectional study.

BMC Res Notes 2014 Aug 12;7:518. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, P,O, Box 16417, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic among youth is largely ignored and remains invisible to both young people themselves and to the society as a whole. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the extent of perception risk of HIV and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) service among high school students at Debre-berhan Town, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to January 2011 among secondary school students at Debre-berhan Town. Perception risk and VCT use were considered as dependant variables. A stratified random sampling technique was used to recruit study participants by taking schools as strata. Semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the necessary data. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: A total of 339 students were consented to participate in the study and the response rate was 96.3%. The student ages' were ranged from 15 up to 24 years. Among the study participants, 30 (8.8%) had sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 16.4 (SD =2.05) years. Of sexually active students, 12 (40%) had sex with different persons within the last 6 months, 13 (43.3%) had ever used condom and 15 (50%) had used VCT service. There was no statistically significant association between risk perception towards HIV infection and ever use of VCT service (AOR (95% CI) = 1.0(0.30, 4.02).

Conclusions: Some students were engaged in risky sexual behavior even though they had heard about HIV/AIDS. The perception of risk for acquisition of HIV infection and utilization of VCT were low. Thus, education on topic of HIV/AIDS through integrating as part of school curriculum and encouraging the existing health institutions to provide youth-friendly sexual counseling services including VCT for HIV are strongly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266969PMC
August 2014

Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) for tuberculosis control program in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia: ten years experience.

BMC Res Notes 2014 Jan 20;7:44. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, P,O, Box 16417, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Tuberculosis is still the leading cause of illness in the world which accounted for 2.5% of the global burden of disease, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. The aim of study was to assess impact of DOTS strategy on tuberculosis case finding and treatment outcome in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia from 2003 up to 2012 and from 2002 up to 2011, respectively.

Methods: Health facility-based retrospective study was conducted. Data were collected and reported in quarterly basis using WHO reporting format for TB case finding and treatment outcome from all DOTS implementing health facilities in all zones of the region to Federal Ministry of Health.

Results: A total of 10024 all form of TB cases had been registered between the periods from 2003 up to 2012. Of them, 4100 (40.9%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 3164 (31.6%) were smear-negative pulmonary TB and 2760(27.5%) had extra-pulmonary TB. Case detection rate of smear-positive pulmonary TB had increased from 31.7% to 46.5% from the total TB cases and treatment success rate increased from 13% to 92% with average mean value of being 40.9% (SD = 0.1) and 55.7% (SD = 0.28), respectively for the specified year periods. Moreover, the average values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rates were 4.2% and 0.3%, respectively.

Conclusion: It is possible to achieve the recommended WHO target which is 70% of CDR for smear-positive pulmonary TB, and 85% of TSR as it was already been fulfilled the targets for treatments more than 85% from 2009 up to 2011 in the region. However, it requires strong efforts to enhance case detection rate of 40.9% for smear-positive pulmonary TB through implementing alternative case finding strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-44DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3905666PMC
January 2014