Publications by authors named "Soleiman Mahjoub"

31 Publications

Pre and post chemotherapy evaluation of breast cancer patients: Biochemical approach of serum selenium and antioxidant enzymes.

Caspian J Intern Med 2020 ;11(4):403-409

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Chemotherapy for treatment of breast cancer uses some drugs to target and destroy the cancer cells. However, most of antineoplastic treatments are non-specific and the innate cells will be damaged. In this study, the effect of adriamycin/cytoxan (AC) chemotherapy on the status of antioxidant enzymes and Se levels in breast cancer patients was evaluated.

Methods: A prospective study, includes 50 breast cancer patients treated with AC chemotherapy (adriamycin 60 mg/m, cytoxan 600 mg/m) from July 2016 until March 2017. First sampling was obtained before chemotherapy and the second, after 3 cycles of the intervention. Antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and selenium (Se) levels in serum were measured by spectrophotometry and atomic absorption methods, respectively. Age, BMI, familial history, stage and grade of cancer, tumor site, type of surgery, estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors, were recorded from each patient. Paired-t test was employed for comparing the data before and after chemotherapy. Age and disease stages were compared by independent t-test.

Results: After 3 courses of chemotherapy, a significant decrease was observed in antioxidant enzymes and also Se (p<0.001). These studied indices were not significant in different age groups (≤48, >48) and stages of disease (early, advanced).

Conclusion: Our findings show that the AC chemotherapy in the breast cancer patients result in drastic changes in oxidant/antioxidant system of the body, especially reduction of Se levels and antioxidant enzymes activities. However, it seems that these changes are not necessarily dependent on the age and disease stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.11.4.403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911771PMC
January 2020

The Effects of Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment of Thymol against tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide (t-BHP) Cytotoxicity in MCF-7 Cell Line and Fibroblast Derived Foreskin.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Oct;9(3):338-347

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I. R. Iran.

Background: Some recent studies have reported anti-tumor activity for Thymol, but the findings are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate and compare Thymol's effects on MCF-7 cancer cells and fibroblasts while treated with tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP).

Methods: In the pre-treatment, MCF-7 and fibroblast cells were treated with various Thymol concentrations and incubated for 24 h. Then, t-BHP was added to a final concentration of 50 μM, and the cells were incubated for one h. In the post-treatment, cells were incubated first with 50 μM t-BHP for one h and then treated with Thymol. Cell viability was tested by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thymol's antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, and lipid peroxidation levels were determined by the TBARS method.

Results: The thymol effects were dose-dependent, and despite their antioxidant properties, at concentrations of 100 µg/ml or more, increased t-BHP toxicity and reduced cancer cell viability. MTT assay result showed that pre-treatment and post-treatment with Thymol for 24 hours effectively reduced MCF-7 and fibroblast cell viability compared with the untreated control group. Both pre- and post-treatment of Thymol, normal fibroblast cell viability was significantly greater than that of the MCF-7 cells.

Conclusion: Our finding showed that Thymol appears to be toxic to MCF-7 cells at lower concentrations than fibroblasts after 24 hours of incubation. Pre-treatment with Thymol neutralized the oxidative effect of t-BHP in fibroblasts but was toxic for MCF-7 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/rbmb.9.3.338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816789PMC
October 2020

Mechanisms of COVID-19 Entry into the Cell: Potential Therapeutic Approaches Based on Virus Entry Inhibition in COVID-19 Patients with Underlying Diseases.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Feb 11;20(1):11-23. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran AND Cellular, and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran AND Department of Pathology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus spread from Wuhan, China, in 2019 and is spreading rapidly around the world. COVID-19 victims are almost associated with cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other underlying diseases. Concerning the high prevalence of these disorders, widespread mortality threatens global society, and its fatality rate may increase with increasing COVID-19 prevalence in countries with older populations. Therefore, evaluating patients' clinical status with severe COVID-19 infection and their medical history can help manage treatment. Currently, one of the considered treatments is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibition. This study investigated virus entry mechanisms through membrane receptors, their role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and underlying diseases, and treatment methods based on the viral entrance inhibition. According to existing studies, inhibition of ACE2 can increase oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis and ultimately exacerbate underlying diseases such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension in individuals with COVID-19. The ACE2 inhibition is not suitable for patients with COVID-19 with underlying diseases, but it seems that the recombinant ACE2 solution is more appropriate for inhibiting the virus in these patients if hypotension would be monitored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v20i1.5409DOI Listing
February 2021

Fabrication and evaluation of aptamer-conjugated paclitaxel-loaded magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapy on breast cancer cells.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Chemistry and Physics, Louisiana State University in Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, 71115, USA.

Targeted drug delivery vehicles make it possible to deliver anti-cancer drugs to the cells or tissues of interest. Aptamers are peptide or oligonucleotide molecules that can serve as targeting elements of drug carriers. In the current study, we evaluated the capacity of an aptamer-based drug carrier to deliver Paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. After being synthesized, SPIONs@PTX-SYL3C aptamer was characterized using different methods, including differential light scattering (DLS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading efficiency (LE) were also evaluated. The carrier was applied on 4T1, MCF 7, and MCF-10A breast cell lines to evaluate its drug delivery potency and specificity. EE and LE were calculated to be 77.6% and 7.76%, respectively. MTT results revealed that aptameric SPIONs@PTX was more toxic than non-aptameric SPIONs@PTX. Flowcytometry analysis and DAPI staining confirmed that SPIONs@PTX-Aptamer had higher cell internalization rate when compared to non-targeted SPIONs@PTX. Our results indicate that aptamer-conjugated SPIONs@PTX has a good capacity in recognizing its target cells and inhibiting their growth and division.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06199-yDOI Listing
February 2021

The benefits of Vitamin D in the COVID-19 pandemic: biochemical and immunological mechanisms.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Oct 8:1-9. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

In December 2019, a new infectious complication called CoronaVirus Infectious Disease-19, briefly COVID-19, caused by SARS-COV-2, is identified in Wuhan, China. It spread all over the world and became a pandemic. In many individuals who had suffered SARS-COV-2 infection, cytokine storm starts through cytokine overproduction and leads to Acute Respiratory Syndrome (ARS), organ failure, and death. According to the obtained evidence, Vitamin D (VitD) enhances the ACE2/Ang(1-7)/MasR pathway activity, and it also reduces cytokine storms and the ARS risk. Therefore, VitD intake may be beneficial for patients with SARS-COV-2 infection exposed to cytokine storm but do not suffer hypotension. In the present review, we have explained the effects of VitD on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) function and angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) expression. Furthermore, we have reviewed the biochemical and immunological effects of VitD on immune function in the underlying diseases and its role in the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1826530DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparison of the Effect of Ceratonia siliqua L. (Carob) Syrup and Vitamin E on Sperm Parameters, Oxidative Stress Index, and Sex Hormones in Infertile Men: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 21;28(3):766-774. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center. Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Herbal products with an antioxidant capacity can boost male reproductive functions. The empiric use of Ceratonia siliqua (carob) for its antioxidant properties is common among infertile men in Iran and Turkey. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of C. siliqua (carob) on semen parameters, oxidative stress markers, and pregnancy rate in a parallel randomized, controlled study. A total of 60 infertile men with oligozoospermia, asthenospermia, and teratospermia were recruited from April 2018 to March 2019. Participants were divided randomly into the following two groups: carob syrup twice a day or vitamin E 100 mg twice a day for 3 months. Semen analysis was performed and hormonal levels and stress oxidative markers were measured in each treatment arm after 3 months. The quality of semen parameters improved in the carob group compared with Vit E semen count (p = 0.04 Cohen's d = .51), morphology (p = 0.001 Cohen's d = .93) and motility parameters (p = 0.002 Cohen's d = .90) were significantly higher in the carob group. No significant difference can be detected in post-treatment hormonal parameters and oxidative markers between groups, except for total antioxidant capacity(TAC) which was higher after post-treatment in carob group. A significantly higher pregnancy rate was found among the carob group. The administration of carob may be an effective agent for the improvement of semen parameters, probably related both to its involvement in the changing of testosterone level and to its antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, additional studies to evaluate the optimal dose and duration of treatment are needed. The trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Registration number: IRCT20171209037794N1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00314-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Application of Nanocellulose Derivatives as Drug Carriers; A Novel Approach in Drug Delivery.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 ;21(6):692-702

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: The production of nanocellulose for drug delivery systems has achieved increased attention in the past decade. High capacity for swelling and absorption of the liquid phase, high flexibility in creating different derivatives, economical cost, and ease of access to the primary source, all of these properties have encouraged researchers to use nanocellulose and its derivatives as a high-performance drug carrier.

Objective: The recent progress summary of cellulose-based nanocarriers designing and practical approaches in drug delivery.

Methods: We conducted a literature review on the development of the nanocellulose and its derivatives as a high-performance drug carrier.

Results: In this review, we have attempted to present the latest advances in cellulose modifications for the design of pharmaceutical nanocarriers. At first, cellulose properties and structural classification of nanocellulose were introduced. Then, focusing on medical applications, some efforts and laboratory trials in cellulose-based nano designing were also discussed. The findings demonstrate the benefits of nanocellulose in drug delivery and its potential for modifying by adding functional groups to enhance drug delivery efficiency. Due to the physical and chemical properties of cellulose and its high flexibility to interact with other compounds, a broad perspective can be imagined in the diverse research and novel forms of nanocarriers.

Conclusion: The cellulose nanocarriers can be considered as an attractive platform for researchers to design new structures of pharmaceutical carriers and increase the efficiency of these nanocarriers in drug delivery for the treatment of diseases such as cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520620666200811111547DOI Listing
January 2021

Green synthesis, formulation and biological evaluation of a novel ZnO nanocarrier loaded with paclitaxel as drug delivery system on MCF-7 cell line.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2020 Feb 30;186:110686. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

In this study we design green synthesis of a novel ZnO nanocarrier loaded with paclitaxel as a drug delivery system with high cytotoxicity against breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and low side effects on the normal cell line (fibroblast). Paclitaxel is formulated in high concentration in Cremophor EL because of its low solubility. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were prepared by the ethanolic extract of Camellia sinensis L., then coated with chitosan (Ch) and loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) to improve drug delivery. The physicochemical properties were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Drug loading on ZnO-Ch NPs was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro apoptosis assay was assessed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxic effect of the nanocarrier drug was investigated using MTT assay in cancerous and normal cell lines. The PTX-loaded ZnO-Ch NPs showed cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cells, with minimal detrimental effects on normal fibroblasts. The results of apoptosis assay were compliant with MTT findings. Generally, ZnO-Ch NPs could be used as a promising drug delivery platform for PTX with low side effect on normal cell line and high cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.110686DOI Listing
February 2020

Status of Serum Copper, Magnesium, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Jan 2;193(1):111-117. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

This study evaluates serum copper and magnesium and total antioxidant capacity levels in PCOS patients. In this regard, the probable association of copper and magnesium with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was investigated. In total, 150 women (60 PCOS patients and 90 healthy subjects) participated in this case-control study. PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria (2003). Serum Cu, Mg, Ca, TAC, insulin levels, and insulin resistance indices were determined. Insulin was measured using ELISA methods. Serum Cu and Mg levels were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the Xylidyl Blue method respectively. The correlations between the parameters were analyzed using the Spearman correlation test. Serum Cu level was significantly higher while TAC was significantly lower in the PCOS patients than those in the controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.002 respectively). No significant difference was detected between the two groups in terms of serum Mg and Ca levels and Ca/Mg ratio. In insulin-resistant PCOS subjects, there was a negative correlation between Mg levels and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (r = - 0.449, p = 0.006) but a positive correlation between Mg levels and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (r = 0.480, p = 0.003). A negative correlation also existed between Mg levels and TAC in non-insulin-resistant PCOS patients (r = - 0.407, p = 0.04). According to the results, copper and magnesium seem to contribute to oxidative stress and insulin resistance in PCOS patients. Therefore, to prevent long-term metabolic complications in PCOS women, it is recommended that these elements be routinely monitored. Also, significantly lower levels of serum TAC in PCOS patients than in normal women may suggest increased oxidative stress in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01705-7DOI Listing
January 2020

The effect of Spirulina platensis meal on antioxidant gene expression, total antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2019 Jun 16;45(3):977-986. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Clinical Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% S. platensis meal on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation, as well as the expression of two antioxidant enzyme genes (SOD and CAT) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). One hundred and eighty fish, with an average initial weight of 101 ± 8 g, were cultured for 10 weeks. At the end of experiment, lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in serum of fish fed with S. platensis and fish fed with 5, 7.5, and 10% microalgae showed a significantly lower value compared to control and 2.5%. Inclusion of 7.5 and 10% S. platensis in diet also decreased lipid peroxidation in liver. TAC significantly increased with increasing level of S. platensis. Expression level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes significantly increased in the fish liver after administration of microalgae and fish fed with 10% S. platensis in diet showed the highest level compared to the other treatments. The present study reveals that inclusion of 10% S. platensis in diet can decrease oxidative stress in rainbow trout. Therefore, S. platensis can be used as potential antioxidant for fish farming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-019-0608-3DOI Listing
June 2019

High-fat diet leads to adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation: the effect of whey protein supplementation and aerobic exercise training.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 Mar 14;44(3):255-262. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

b Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Science, Babol, Iran.

There is little understanding about dietary proteins and their potential contribution to obesity-induced inflammation. This study investigates the effect of 10 weeks of aerobic training and whey protein (WP) supplementation on visceral adipose tissue inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In the first phase, which lasted 9 weeks, 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: (1) normal diet (n = 8), and (2) HFD (n = 32). In the second phase, rats fed an HFD were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 8/group): (1) sedentary, (2) WP, (3) aerobic training, and (4) WP + aerobic training. The aerobic training was performed for 10 weeks, 5 days/week at 21 m/min, 15% incline, for 60 min/day. HFD significantly increased body weight, adiposity index, fat pads weight, glucose levels, and insulin resistance index compared with the normal diet. Also, levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in adipose tissue and serum levels of TNF-α were increased in the HFD group. Glucose levels, insulin resistance index, and triglycerides were reduced only by WP, independently of aerobic training. Both the aerobic training and WP reduced the fat pads weight and levels of TNF-α, HIF-1α, and VEGF-A in adipose tissue. Nevertheless, the levels of MCP-1 in adipose tissue and serum levels of TNF-α and MCP-1 were not reduced significantly by WP or aerobic training. These findings suggest that both aerobic training and WP supplementation lead to a reduction in adiposity and ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation in visceral adipose tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0307DOI Listing
March 2019

Immunomodulatory effects of Thymol through modulation of redox status and trace element content in experimental model of asthma.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Sep 18;105:856-861. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R. Iran. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis of asthma. The objective of this study was to investigate the thymol effects on oxidative parameters along with trace elements in asthma experimental model. The Balb/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin and thymol (8, 16 and 32 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (DEX) (2 mg/kg) were orally administered to sensitized mice. Oxidative stress parameters including protein carbonyl content, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) besides trace element levels were evaluated. The protein carbonyl content, MDA and 8-OHdG in treated mice with 32 mg/kg of thymol significantly decreased compared to asthmatic mice (P < 0.01). Also, TAC significantly increased (P < 0.001) as well as zinc and selenium levels while copper level decreased. 16 mg/kg of thymol reduced the protein carbonyl content, MDA and 8-OHdG compared to asthmatic mice (P < 0.05). In addition, thymol improved the most prominent inflammation characteristics of asthma. The obtained results suggest that thymol has a protective effect against oxidative stress and it was also able to partially restore the defective trace element levels in asthma. Based on our observations, thymol may be used for alternative / complementary therapy in asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.154DOI Listing
September 2018

Alterations in serum levels of trace element in patients with breast cancer before and after chemotherapy.

Caspian J Intern Med 2018 ;9(2):134-139

Cancer Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Breast cancer is the most common serious disease around the world. The trace elements have a vital role in the metabolism and chemotherapy may change the level of metal ions. Due to the ambiguity of the existence in this regard, the study examined the trace element serum levels in women with breast cancer before and after chemotherapy .

Methods: Sixty patients were studied undergoing specialist. First sampling was taken before chemotherapy (after 4 weeks of surgery) and second sampling was taken after the completion of 3 courses of chemotherapy, approximately 9 weeks after the first chemotherapy. The patients took Adriamycin 60mg/m Cytoxan 600mg/m. Serum zinc and iron levels were measured using standard spectrophotometric method. Measurement of serum copper was done by atomic absorption spectroscopy

Results: Serum zinc and iron levels in women after chemotherapy significantly decreased (p<0.001), however, the serum level of copper increased but was not significant (P=0.676).

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate significant decrease in zinc and iron levels in breast cancer patients after 3 courses of Adriamycin and Cytoxan chemotherapy. Prescribing zinc supplements can be useful after chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.9.2.134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912220PMC
January 2018

The combination of exercise training and supplementation increase serum irisin levels in postmenopausal women.

Integr Med Res 2018 Mar 31;7(1):44-52. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia.

Background: We examined the effect of antioxidant supplementation and exercise on irisin within postmenopausal women.

Methods: Forty-eight participants (age: 55.7 ± 4.9 years; weight: 68.0 ± 6.3 kg; BMI 27.0 ± 2.7; mean ± SD) were randomized into four groups for the eight week intervention: control group (CG;  = 12), resistance training group (RTG;  = 12), supplementation with group (ZG;  = 12), or supplementation with and resistance training group (ZRTG;  = 12). RTG and ZRTG performed circuit resistance training, and both ZG and ZRTG consumed 500 mg of every day during the intervention. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before and after the intervention.

Results: There was a significant difference in irisin at post-training, with greater levels in ZRTG compared to CG. A significant increase was noted for irisin at post-training compared to pre-training for ZG, RTG, and ZRTG. Moreover, we identified a significant decrease in malondialdehyde in the RTG and ZRTG groups and increase in glutathione in the ZG, RTG, and ZRTG groups when compared to CG.

Conclusion: These findings showed that exercise, supplementation or their combination led to an increase in irisin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2018.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5884011PMC
March 2018

Evaluation of vitamin D status and its correlation with oxidative stress markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2017 Jun;15(6):345-350

Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: There is little evidence about antioxidant properties of vitamin D. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress may play a major role in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the association of vitamin D with oxidative stress is still not known in PCOS.

Objective: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and oxidative stress markers in PCOS group compared to control group.

Materials And Methods: 60 PCOS women (20-40 yr old) and 90 healthy women as control group were participated in this case-control study. Fasting serum level of 25(OH) D, glucose, insulin, calcium, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), also homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting glucose to insulin ratio (FGIR) were measured.

Results: It was found that the mean of serum 25(OH)D was lower in the PCOS group (10.76±4.17) than in the control group (12.07±6.26) but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.125). Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and MDA were significantly higher in the PCOS patients as compared to the controls, whereas PC level did not differ for the two groups (p=0.156). No significant correlations were found between 25(OH)D levels and oxidative stress markers (MDA and PC).

Conclusion: The findings indicated no significant differences in the serum 25(OH)D levels between the PCOS patients and the matched controls. Also, no correlation was found between the serum vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in both groups.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5605855PMC
June 2017

Three cycles of AC chemotherapy regimen increased oxidative stress in breast cancer patients: A clinical hint.

Caspian J Intern Med 2017 ;8(4):264-268

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Recent studies have suggested the importance of oxidant/antioxidant status in initiation and progression of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress markers in breast cancer patients before and after 3 cycles of chemotherapy with adriamycin and cytoxan (AC). Also, in this study the effect of age and the stage of disease on oxidative stress markers were compared and evaluated.

Methods: This study included 60 women with newly diagnosed stage II-III breast cancer who underwent chemotherapy with AC as the therapy-first strategy after surgery. Serum samples were obtained before treatment and after the third chemotherapy. Then, serum total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation marker were analyzed. Moreover, the effects of the subject's age and clinical disease stage were investigated.

Results: A concurrent significant increase in MDA (p<0.001) and a significant decrease in TAS (p<0.001) were also observed after 3 cycles of AC chemotherapy. In addition, some changes were found in the status of oxidative stress markers which were associated with age and clinical disease stage.

Conclusion: Our data indicated that chemotherapy with AC increase the oxidative stress in breast cancer patients. The present study indicated that higher stages of the breast cancer are associated with significant increases of oxidative stress markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.8.4.264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5686304PMC
January 2017

Determining Serum Zinc and Magnesium Levels in Hemodialysis Patients Could be Helpful for Clinicians.

Indian J Clin Biochem 2017 Oct 27;32(4):464-467. Epub 2016 Aug 27.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, PO.BOX: 14115-331, Tehran, Iran.

Trace element determination is requested rarely for critically ill patients in Iran, due to the underestimation of the trace element determination by Iranian physicians. The aim was to compare the levels of Zn and Mg in a group of hemodialysis patients and normal individuals. This study shows that trace element determination is helpful for management of hemodialysis patients. Fifty-three hemodialysis patients and 51 control individuals were randomly analyzed for Zn and Mg serum levels. Comparison of before or after dialysis and with normal individuals was done and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were plotted to evaluate the analytical sensitivity and specificity of Zn and Mg determination. Confidence interval for all statistical methods was 95 %. Zinc serum levels were decreased after hemodialysis insignificantly ( = 0.201) but Mg levels were decreased significantly ( = 0.000). Both Zn and Mg levels, before and after hemodialysis were meaningfully lower than normal controls ( < 0.05). ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve was high for Zn levels both before and after hemodialysis but it was high for Mg only before hemodialysis. Current study shows that serum Zn and Mg measurements can have clinical importance. Both before and after hemodialysis, serum Zn = 297.5 µg/L and Mg = 2.295 µg/L are proposed as cut-off values with about 90 % specificity, for monitoring of these two element in hemodialysis patients. It is suggested that clinicians consider the measurement of these trace elements for hemodialysis patients routinely or periodically as clinical chemistry tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12291-016-0604-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634969PMC
October 2017

The effect of green tea consumption on oxidative stress markers and cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease: A prospective intervention study.

Caspian J Intern Med 2016 ;7(3):188-194

Department of Neurology, Mehr-Avaran-Shomal Nursing Home, Sari, Iran.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent degenerative disorder of the brain among elderly individuals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor which involves oxidizing macromolecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins in AD. Green tea is a rich source of antioxidant compounds that can remove radical oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of green tea consumption on markers of oxidative stress in AD.

Methods: In this prospective intervention study, 30 patients with severe AD were recruited. The diagnosis of AD was made based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS/ADRDA) criteria. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan as well as Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were performed for all participants in which four green tea pills were administered daily for 2 months (2 g/day in 2 divided doses). The plasma total antioxidant capacity, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl content, and MMSE scores were measured at baseline and at the end of the study period.

Results: The levels of MDA, 8-OHdG and carbonyl decreased significantly as compared to baseline values (P=0.002, P=0.001 and P=0.037, respectively). Whereas, the total antioxidant capacity of plasma and MMSE scores significantly increased at end point (P=0.000, P=0.043, respectively).

Conclusion: The findings indicate that consumption of green tea for two months by with the improvement of antioxidant system exerts beneficial effect on cognitive function.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5062177PMC
January 2016

Effects of Regular Treadmill Exercise on a DNA Oxidative-Damage Marker and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rat Hippocampal Tissue.

J Clin Neurol 2016 Oct 26;12(4):414-418. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Regular exercise can result in changes in the levels of oxidative stress in the hippocampus; however, little attention has been paid to physical-activity-induced neuronal protection to exposure to lead compounds. This study investigated the effects of regular treadmill exercise on a DNA oxidative-damage marker [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate exposed rats.

Methods: This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of regular treadmill exercise on 8-OHdG and the TAC of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate-exposed rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: baseline, sham (control), lead, and exercise+lead. The exercise program involved running on a treadmill with increasing intensity five times a week for 8 weeks. Animals in the lead and exercise+lead groups received lead acetate at 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks. Animals in the sham group received solvent (ethyl oleate) at 30 mg/kg body weight three times weekly for 8 weeks. TAC and 8-OHdG were measured by spectrophotometric and ELISA techniques, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test with a significance cutoff of p≤0.05.

Results: The level of 8-OHdG and the TAC were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the lead group than in the baseline and sham groups (p<0.01). However, the 8-OHdG level and TAC value in hippocampal tissue were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the exercise+lead group relative to the lead group (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The TAC of hippocampal tissue may be directly associated with neural protection mechanisms of exercise following lead acetate injection, and the beneficial effects of regular exercise in preventing hippocampal neuronal damage could be due to decreased hippocampal oxidative stress such as reflected by a lower 8-OHdG level and increased TAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3988/jcn.2016.12.4.414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5063866PMC
October 2016

Altered plasma marker of oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Caspian J Intern Med 2016 ;7(2):88-92

Mehr-Avaran-Shomal Nursing Home, Sari, Iran.

Background: Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress (OS) is the most important indicator in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the results in previous studies are conflicting. This study aimed to assess the plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as DNA oxidative damage marker and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with AD versus control group.

Methods: Thirty patients with AD and 30 sex-and age-matched healthy subjects were studied. Diagnosis of AD was based on National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS/ADRDA) criteria. Also for the patients, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), computed tomography (CT) scan and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were done. Plasma levels of 8-OHdG and TAC were measured by competitive ELISA method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively.

Results: Plasma levels of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in AD compared to control group (p<0.001), while the total antioxidant was significantly lower in patients compared to controls (p=0.002). The value of area under the ROC curve for 8-OHdG and TAC in discriminating AD from controls were 0.87 and 0.32, respectively.

Conclusion: Our results indicate a link between oxidative stress and AD indicating a possible contributive role of these markers in the development of AD and as an indicator in the discrimination of AD from healthy controls.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4913710PMC
July 2016

Evaluation of oxidative stress in endometriosis: A case-control study.

Caspian J Intern Med 2015 ;6(1):25-9

Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress (OS) may have a contribution in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, the results of previous studies regarding OS in endometriosis are controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of OS markers in endometriosis versus the control group.

Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 30 women with endometriosis aged 20-38 years presented to Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Babol, Iran between March 2011 through November 2013. The serum samples of 40 women with same age were collected as the control group. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl and iron were measured by photometric methods and compared between the patient and control groups using t-test. Also, we used ROC curve analysis to determine the discrimination ability of these markers.

Results: Serum iron in endometriosis patients was significantly higher than control (p<0.0001). Area under the ROC curve (AUC) for iron, MDA and carbonyl were 0.899, 0.648 and 0.530, respectively. Serum iron at cutoff value of 173.3 µg/dl exhibited high discrimination ability to discriminate endometriosis from control.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that the high level of serum iron may promote OS in patients with endometriosis. In addition, serum Iron at cut off level of 173.3 exhibits high discriminative ability to distinguish patients with endometriosis from healthy subjects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4478115PMC
July 2015

Nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma of infertile smoking men.

Cell J 2015 8;17(1):129-36. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Fatemeh-zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Objective: Cigarette is a rich source of oxidants and reactive nitrogen species. Nitric oxide (NO) in high concentration has deleterious effects on human sperm function. Antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma protects spermatozoa from the attack of reactive oxygen metabolites. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette smoking with the NO levels and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the seminal plasma in infertile smoker men and to compare severity of oxidative stress (OS) in them with fertile and infertile non-smoking men.

Materials And Methods: In this cross sectional study, a total of 95 male participants attended the Infertility Clinic of the Fatehmeh-zahra Hospital in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran, between 2010 and 2011. They were divided into three groups: I. fertile non-smokers (F.ns; n=32), II. infertile non-smokers (IF.ns; n=30) and III. infertile smokers (IF.s; n=33) according to semen analysis World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 2001) and smoking data. TAC concentration and NO levels of seminal plasma were measured using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method and the Griess reagent, respectively.

Results: Standard sperm parameters were significantly higher in the fertile group than those in the infertile groups, but these differences between the IF.ns and IF.s were not statistically significant. The mean TAC in the seminal plasma was higher in the F.ns>IF.ns>IF.s, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant among three groups (p= 0.096). In contrast, the mean NO level in the seminal plasma was lower in the F.ns
Conclusion: It argued that the increased NO levels associated with smoking might exceed the capacity of antioxidant defense system, leading to increased oxidative damage of seminal plasma and decreased fertility in men.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393660PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2015.519DOI Listing
April 2015

Fabrication and characterization of core-shell magnetic chitosan nanoparticles as a novel carrier for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia lipase.

J Oleo Sci 2015 ;64(4):423-30

Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB) Tehran, ( 2) Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran.

In this study, the chitosan magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (CMNPs) was synthesized and then used as a support for immobilization of lipase. The characteristics of CMNPs, including morphology, topography and spectra type before and after immobilization were determined. The scanning electron micrographs of the CMNPs showed that they were approximately uniform spheres and the distribution chart indicated that the particles have the mean diameter of 100 nm. Kinetic parameters of Km and Vm were calculated as 1.07 mM and 29.43 U/mg for free B. cepacia lipase and 1.29 mM and 25.82 U/mg for immobilized lipase on CMNPs, respectively. The activity of immobilized lipase was 32 U/mg under optimum temperature and pH. CMNP's were used in trasesterification reaction in order to evaluate the activity of the immobilized enzyme compared to the free enzyme. Immobilization of lipase on CMNPs improved stability and total relative activity of the enzyme. It could be concluded that CMNPs be considered as a suitable carrier for enzyme immobilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess14236DOI Listing
November 2015

Synthesis and optimization of chitosan nanoparticles: Potential applications in nanomedicine and biomedical engineering.

Caspian J Intern Med 2014 ;5(3):156-61

Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran.

Background: Chitosan nanoparticles have become of great interest for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering and development of new therapeutic drug release systems with improved bioavailability, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. The aim of the present study was to synthesis and optimize of the chitosan nanoparticles for industrial and biomedical applications.

Methods: Fe3O4 was synthesized and optimized as magnetic core nanoparticles and then chitosan covered this magnetic core. The size and morphology of the nano-magnetic chitosan was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Topography and size distribution of the nanoparticles were shown with two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanoparticles were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Results: The chitosan nanoparticles prepared in the experiment exhibited white powder shape. The SEM micrographs of the nano-magnetic chitosan showed that they were approximately uniform spheres. The unmodified chitosan nanoparticles composed of clusters of nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm. AFM provides a three-dimensional surface profile. The TEM image showed physical aggregation of the chitosan nanoparticles.

Conclusion: The results show that a novel chitosan nanoparticle was successfully synthesized and characterized. It seems that this nanoparticle like the other chitosan nano particles has potential applications for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering, industrial and pharmaceutical fields.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4143737PMC
September 2014

Hypoglycemic activity of Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaf extract and arbutin: Inhibitory effects on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase.

Caspian J Intern Med 2013 ;4(4):763-7

Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: The mechanism of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaf extract (PbBLE) and its phytochemical component arbutin, have not been well determined. The present study was performed to understand the hypoglycemic activity mechanisms of pbBLE and arbutin more clearly.

Methods: In vitro enzymatic carbohydrate digestion with PbBLE and arbutin was assessed using α-amylase and α-glucosidase powders. The enzyme solutions were premixed with PbBLE and arbutin at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml). Substrate solutions and colorimetric reagents were added to the reaction. The release of glucose was determined by spectrophotometric method. Acarbose was used as the positive control.

Results: The extract (10, 100 mg/ ml) completely inhibit α- amylase and α- glucosidase activities. The extract produced higher reduction of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity than arbutin. Inhibition at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/ml) were significantly different (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Our results exhibited that both the extract and arbutin were able to suppress the enzymes strongly.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3841776PMC
December 2013

Chronic exercise training versus acute endurance exercise in reducing neurotoxicity in rats exposed to lead acetate.

Neural Regen Res 2013 Mar;8(8):714-22

L.Orbeli Inst. of Physiology, NAS of Armenia, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia.

After intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lead acetate, rats received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (15-22 m/min, 25-64 minutes) and/or treadmill exercise at 1.6 km/h until exhaustion. The markers related to neurotoxicity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. 8 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.04) and plasma level of total antioxidant capacity of rats exposed to lead acetate (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.001). Acute exercise only decreased the hippocampal malondialdehyde level (P = 0.09) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.66). Acute exercise also enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in rats exposed to lead acetate, insignificantly (P = 0.99). These findings suggest that chronic treadmill exercise can significantly decrease neurotoxicity and alleviate oxidative stress in rats exposed to lead acetate. However, acute endurance exercise was not associated with these beneficial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.08.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146070PMC
March 2013

Continuous exercise training and curcumin attenuate changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate in the hippocampus of male rats.

Pharm Biol 2013 Feb 7;51(2):240-5. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Context: For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including neurodegenerative disease. Curcumin (the principal curcuminoid found in turmeric) has demonstrated potent antioxidant properties.

Objective: We investigated neuroprotective effects of endurance exercise and/or curcumin on lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus.

Materials And Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1) lead acetate, 2) curcumin, 3) training, 4) training + curcumin, and 5) control. The rats in the training groups performed treadmill running five times a week for 8 weeks (15-22 m/min, 25-64 min). All groups except control received lead acetate (20 mg/kg), whereas the control group received curcumin solution (ethyl oleate). In addition, the curcumin and training + curcumin groups received curcumin solution (30 mg/kg) intraperioneally.

Results: Lead acetate resulted in a significantly increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma (72%), but not significant in hippocampus (59%). In addition, it led to significantly decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus (17%) and total antioxidant capacity (27%), as compared to control group. Treadmill running, curcumin supplementation or both resulted in a significant decrease in hippocampus MDA (17, 20, 31%, respectively) and plasma MDA (60, 22, 71%) and also, significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (76, 45, 94%) and total antioxidant capacity (47.13, 47.11, 61%) levels, as compared to lead acetate group.

Discussion And Conclusion: These results provide a rationale for an inhibitory role of curcumin and regular exercise in the attenuation of lead-induced neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2012.717230DOI Listing
February 2013

Quantification and comparison of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase with two methods in normal and paget's specimens.

Caspian J Intern Med 2012 ;3(3):478-83

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is synthesized by the osteoblasts and is presumed to be involved in the calcification of bone matrix, though its precise role in the formation process is unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the BAP activity in Paget's and normal specimens by two different techniques.

Methods: Total ALP (TAP) as well as BAP activity-measuring tests were repeatedly undertaken at different times during the day and different days on the serum samples (inter and intra assay). Precision and repeatability of the phenylalanine inhibition (PHI) and heat inactivation (HI) techniques were approved during ten times repetition of all the tests on two normal samples besides one sample from Paget's disease of bone. The measurement of TAP and BAP activities was also carried out on 50 serum samples from normal adults using the standard IFCC-AACC and the established methods, respectively.

Results: Coefficients of Variation (CV) for intra-assay of BAP were 2.33% and 3.16% by HI and PHI methods, respectively. Also, the inter-assay CV of BAP was 2.87% and 3.49% for mentioned methods in Paget's sample, respectively. In addition, the correlation of HI and PHI methods was found to be r= +0.873 for bone-specific isoenzyme.

Conclusion: Regarding the appropriate precision, repeatability and correlation of HI and PHI techniques, as well as their cost effectiveness can be of use in the quantification of bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity, especially when bone is involved.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3755844PMC
September 2013

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the Iranian Committee of Obesity and ATP III criteria in Babol, North of Iran.

Caspian J Intern Med 2012 ;3(2):410-6

Department of Internal Medicine, Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is highly significant due to its association to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of MS according to the report of the Iranian National Committee of Obesity criteria (INCO) versus Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) in Babol, North of Iran.

Methods: Data obtained based on criteria ATP III from the Babol Lipid and Glucose Study (from July 2004 to September 2005) and were compared with the new INCO criteria 2010. The data were collected and analyzed.

Results: In total, 933 adult males and females were evaluated. According to ATP III criteria, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23.7% (95% confidence interval: 21%-26.4%); 28.4% and 9.4% were females and males, respectively; however, the prevalence was 20.5% (95% confidence interval: 17.9%-23.1%) according to the INCO criteria, 22.5% and 15.7% were females and males, respectively.

Conclusion: The new INCO criteria for the metabolic syndrome proclaimed by the Iranian Committee of Obesity estimated a lower prevalence of syndrome in comparison with ATP III criteria in Babol.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3861904PMC
December 2013

Role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

Caspian J Intern Med 2012 ;3(1):386-96

nfectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

The metabolic syndrome (MS) recognized as a major cause of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, has become one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome is multiple and still poorly understood. No single factor has yet been identified as an underlying causal factor. There is a growing belief, however, that obesity, especially visceral obesity, may play an important role in the development of the syndrome. Visceral adiposity seems to be an independent predictor of insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure. An increasing number of studies confirm that oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and angiogenesis all play important roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Chronic hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in tissues prone to complications in patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress occurs in a cellular system when the production of free radical moieties exceeds the antioxidant capacity of that system. If cellular antioxidants do not remove free radicals, radicals attack and damage proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The oxidized or nitrosylated products of free radical attack have decreased biological activity, leading to loss of energy metabolism, cell signaling, transport, and other major functions. These altered products are also targeted for proteosome degradation, further decreasing cellular function. Accumulation of such injury ultimately leads a cell to die through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms. In conclusion, a puzzle of many pieces of evidence suggests that free radical overgeneration may be considered the key in the generation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600138PMC
November 2015