Publications by authors named "Sokoine L Kivuyo"

7 Publications

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Red meat consumption and its association with hypertension and hyperlipidaemia among adult Maasai pastoralists of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(6):e0233777. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

Background: Red meat is an important dietary source of protein and other essential nutrients. Its high intake has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, including hypertension (HTN) and hyperlipidaemia (HLP). Despite being physically active, the Maasai at Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) depend heavily on animals' products as their staple food with fewer intakes of vegetables or fruits due to restriction from carrying out agricultural activities within the NCA. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of HTN and HLP and their association with red meat consumption among adult Maasai of NCA.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2018 using multistage sampling technique. Eight hundred and ninety-four (894) participants enrolled from seven villages in three wards within NCA Data were collected using a modified WHO NCDs-STEPS tool. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP) measurements, and blood samples for glucose and cholesterol tests were obtained from the study participants. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for factors associated with HTN and HLP were estimated using Ordinal and Bayesian logistic regression models, respectively.

Results: The prevalence of HLP was 23.7 percent. The levels were higher among males than were among the females (29.0% vs. 20.1%, p = 0.002). The prevalence of HTN and pre-HTN (elevated BP) were 9.8 and 37.0 percent, respectively. Both HTN and elevated BP were higher among males than were among females (hypertensive [10.9% vs. 9.0%]; elevated BP [44.0% vs. 32.1%], p<0.001). The prevalence of HLP was significantly associated with level II (PR = 1.56, 95%CrI: 1.10-2.09) and level III (PR = 1.64, 95%CrI: 1.08-2.41) of red meat consumption as opposed to level I.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hyperlipidaemia and elevated BP were high among NCA Maasai. We found a significant association between red meat consumption and hyperlipidaemia. Further follow-up studies are warranted to establish a temporal relationship between red meat consumption and both conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233777PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263614PMC
August 2020

Cryptococcal meningitis screening and community-based early adherence support in people with advanced HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania and Zambia: an open-label, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2015 May 10;385(9983):2173-82. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Mortality in people in Africa with HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is high, particularly in those with advanced disease. We assessed the effect of a short period of community support to supplement clinic-based services combined with serum cryptococcal antigen screening.

Methods: We did an open-label, randomised controlled trial in six urban clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Lusaka, Zambia. From February, 2012, we enrolled eligible individuals with HIV infection (age ≥18 years, CD4 count of <200 cells per μL, ART naive) and randomly assigned them to either the standard clinic-based care supplemented with community support or standard clinic-based care alone, stratified by country and clinic, in permuted block sizes of ten. Clinic plus community support consisted of screening for serum cryptococcal antigen combined with antifungal therapy for patients testing antigen positive, weekly home visits for the first 4 weeks on ART by lay workers to provide support, and in Tanzania alone, re-screening for tuberculosis at 6-8 weeks after ART initiation. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 12 months, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISCRTN 20410413.

Findings: Between Feb 9, 2012, and Sept 30, 2013, 1001 patients were randomly assigned to clinic plus community support and 998 to standard care. 89 (9%) of 1001 participants in the clinic plus community support group did not receive their assigned intervention, and 11 (1%) of 998 participants in the standard care group received a home visit or a cryptococcal antigen screen rather than only standard care. At 12 months, 25 (2%) of 1001 participants in the clinic plus community support group and 24 (2%) of 998 participants in the standard care group had been lost to follow-up, and were censored at their last visit for the primary analysis. At 12 months, 134 (13%) of 1001 participants in the clinic plus community support group had died compared with 180 (18%) of 998 in the standard care group. Mortality was 28% (95% CI 10-43) lower in the clinic plus community support group than in standard care group (p=0·004).

Interpretation: Screening and pre-emptive treatment for cryptococcal infection combined with a short initial period of adherence support after initiation of ART could substantially reduce mortality in HIV programmes in Africa.

Funding: European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60164-7DOI Listing
May 2015

Cytomegalovirus viremia in dried blood spots is associated with an increased risk of death in HIV-infected patients: a cohort study from rural Tanzania.

Int J Infect Dis 2012 Dec 30;16(12):e879-85. Epub 2012 Sep 30.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, POB 4956 Nydalen, N-0424 Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the utility of dried blood spots (DBS) for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody and viremia in a resource-poor setting, to study the prevalence of CMV antibody and viremia in HIV-infected patients with access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania, and to relate CMV viremia to outcome.

Methods: DBS were prepared from 168 ART-naïve patients at baseline. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from patient records. CMV antibody was analyzed by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and viremia by quantitative PCR.

Results: All patients were CMV-seropositive. At baseline 38 (22.6%) had detectable CMV viremia and 14 (8.3%) had a CMV viral load ≥ 200 copies/ml. In 135 patients available for follow-up, CMV ≥ 200 copies/ml was an independent risk factor for death with a hazard ratio of 5.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-11.9) after adjusting for confounders. Symptoms compatible with CMV disease were common with viremia ≥ 200 copies/ml and CD4+ T cell counts <100 cells/mm(3), but confirmatory diagnostic procedures were unavailable.

Conclusions: DBS are suitable for the detection of CMV antibody and viremia in HIV patients in resource-poor areas. CMV viremia was frequent and associated with an increased risk of death. Improved diagnosis and treatment of CMV may improve the prognosis for HIV-infected patients in developing countries and should be addressed in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2012.08.003DOI Listing
December 2012

Public health concern and initiatives on the priority action towards non-communicable diseases in Tanzania.

Tanzan J Health Res 2011 Dec;13(5 Suppl 1):365-77

National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Centre, PO Box 3436, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Tanzania is already facing challenges caused by existing burden of communicable diseases, and the growing trend of nonconununicable diseases (NCDs), which raises a lot of concerns and challenges. The objective of this review is to provide broad insight of the "silent epidemic" of NCDs, existing policies, strategies and interventions, and recommendations on prioritized actions. A review of existing literature including published articles, technical reports, and proceedings from national and international NCDs meetings was carried out. The burden, existing interventions, socio-economic impact, lessons learnt, and potential for expanding cost effective interventions in Tanzania were explored. Challenges to catch up with global momentum on NCD agenda were identified and discussed. The review has indicated that the burden of NCDs and its underlying risk factors in Tanzania is alarming, and affects people of all socio-economic status. The costs of health care for managing NCDs are high, and thus impoverishing the already poor people. The country leadership has a high political commitment; there are policies and strategies, which need to be implemented to address the growing NCD burden. In conclusion, NCDs in Tanzania are a silent rising health burden and has enormous impact on an individual and country's social-economical status. From the experience of other countries, interventions for NCDs are affordable, feasible and some are income generating. Multisectoral approach, involving national and international partners has a unique role in intensifying action on NCDs. Tanzania should strategize on implementation research on how to adapt the interventions and apply multi-sectoral approach to control and prevent NCDs in the country.
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December 2011

Drug resistance is widespread among children who receive long-term antiretroviral treatment at a rural Tanzanian hospital.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2010 Sep 24;65(9):1996-2000. Epub 2010 Jun 24.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: To assess long-term virological efficacy and the emergence of drug resistance in children who receive antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Tanzania.

Patients And Methods: Haydom Lutheran Hospital has provided ART to HIV-infected individuals since 2003. From February through May 2009, a cross-sectional virological efficacy survey was conducted among children (<15 years) who had completed >or=6 months of first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Genotypic resistance was determined in those with a viral load of >200 copies/mL.

Results: Virological response was measured in 19 of 23 eligible children; 8 of 19 were girls and median age at ART initiation was 5 years (range 2-14 years). Median duration of ART at the time of the survey was 40 months (range 11-61 months). Only 8 children were virologically suppressed (
Conclusions: Among children on long-term ART in rural Tanzania, >50% harboured drug resistance. Results for children were markedly poorer than for adults attending the same programme, underscoring the need for improved treatment strategies for children in resource-limited settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkq234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920178PMC
September 2010

Dried blood spots perform well in viral load monitoring of patients who receive antiretroviral treatment in rural Tanzania.

Clin Infect Dis 2009 Sep;49(6):976-81

Ulleval Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Monitoring of antiretroviral treatment (ART) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral loads, as recommended in industrialized countries, is rarely available in resource-limited settings because of the high costs and stringent requirements for storage and transport of plasma. Dried blood spots (DBS) can be an alternative to plasma, but the use of DBS has not been assessed under field conditions in rural Africa. The present study investigates the performance of DBS in HIV viral load monitoring of patients who received ART in rural Tanzania.

Patients And Methods: From November 2007 through June 2008, parallel plasma and DBS specimens were obtained from patients who received ART at Haydom Lutheran Hospital in rural Tanzania. DBS specimens were stored at tropical room temperature for 3 weeks before testing with the NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v1.2 assay. Results obtained with DBS were compared with results obtained with use of a gold-standard plasma assay.

Results: Ninety-eight plasma-DBS pairs were compared, and plasma viral loads ranged from <40 to >1,000,000 copies/mL. The correlation between plasma and DBS viral load was strong (R(2) = 0.75). The mean difference (+/- standard deviation) was 0.04 +/ 0.57 log(10) copies/mL, and only 8 samples showed >1 log(10) copies/mL difference. HIV type 1 RNA was detected in 7%, 60%, and 100% of DBS specimens with corresponding plasma viral loads of 40-999, 1000-2999, and 3000 copies/mL, respectively.

Conclusions: DBS, in combination with the NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v1.2 asay, performed well in monitoring HIV viral loads in patients who received ART in rural Tanzania, although the sensitivity was reduced when viral burden was low. The use of DBS can simplify virological monitoring in resource-limited settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/605502DOI Listing
September 2009

Virological efficacy and emergence of drug resistance in adults on antiretroviral treatment in rural Tanzania.

BMC Infect Dis 2009 Jul 7;9:108. Epub 2009 Jul 7.

Ulleval Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Virological response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Africa is poorly described. We examined virological efficacy and emergence of drug resistance in adults receiving first-line ART for up to 4 years in rural Tanzania.

Methods: Haydom Lutheran Hospital has provided ART to HIV-infected patients since October 2003. A combination of stavudine or zidovudine with lamivudine and either nevirapine or efavirenz is the standard first-line regimen. Nested in a longitudinal cohort study of patients consecutively starting ART, we carried out a cross-sectional virological efficacy survey between November 2007 and June 2008. HIV viral load was measured in all adults who had completed at least 6 months first-line ART, and genotypic resistance was determined in patients with viral load >1000 copies/mL.

Results: Virological response was measured in 212 patients, of whom 158 (74.5%) were women, and median age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 29-43). Median follow-up time was 22.3 months (IQR 14.0-29.9). Virological suppression, defined as <400 copies/mL, was observed in 187 patients (88.2%). Overall, prevalence of > or =1 clinically significant resistance mutation was 3.9, 8.4, 16.7 and 12.5% in patients receiving ART for 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Among those successfully genotyped, the most frequent mutations were M184I/V (64%), conferring resistance to lamivudine, and K103N (27%), Y181C (27%) and G190A (27%), conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), whereas 23% had thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), associated with cross-resistance to all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Dual-class resistance, i.e. resistance to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, was found in 64%.

Conclusion: Virological suppression rates were good up to 4 years after initiating ART in a rural Tanzanian hospital. However, drug resistance increased with time, and dual-class resistance was common, raising concerns about exhaustion of future antiretroviral drug options. This study might provide a useful forecast of drug resistance and demand for second-line antiretroviral drugs in rural Africa in the coming years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-9-108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713244PMC
July 2009