Publications by authors named "Soichiro Kumamoto"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Senolysis by glutaminolysis inhibition ameliorates various age-associated disorders.

Science 2021 01;371(6526):265-270

Division of Cancer Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Removal of senescent cells (senolysis) has been proposed to be beneficial for improving age-associated pathologies, but the molecular pathways for such senolytic activity have not yet emerged. Here, we identified glutaminase 1 () as an essential gene for the survival of human senescent cells. The intracellular pH in senescent cells was lowered by lysosomal membrane damage, and this lowered pH induced kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) expression. The resulting enhanced glutaminolysis induced ammonia production, which neutralized the lower pH and improved survival of the senescent cells. Inhibition of KGA-dependent glutaminolysis in aged mice eliminated senescent cells specifically and ameliorated age-associated organ dysfunction. Our results suggest that senescent cells rely on glutaminolysis, and its inhibition offers a promising strategy for inducing senolysis in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb5916DOI Listing
January 2021

Generation of a p16 Reporter Mouse and Its Use to Characterize and Target p16 Cells In Vivo.

Cell Metab 2020 Nov 18;32(5):814-828.e6. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Division of Cancer Cell Biology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Electronic address:

Cell senescence plays a key role in age-associated organ dysfunction, but the in vivo pathogenesis is largely unclear. Here, we generated a p16-Cre-tdTomato mouse model to analyze the in vivo characteristics of p16 cells at a single-cell level. We found tdTomato-positive p16 cells detectable in all organs, which were enriched with age. We also found that these cells failed to proliferate and had half-lives ranging from 2.6 to 4.2 months, depending on the tissue examined. Single-cell transcriptomics in the liver and kidneys revealed that p16 cells were present in various cell types, though most dominant in hepatic endothelium and in renal proximal and distal tubule epithelia, and that these cells exhibited heterogeneous senescence-associated phenotypes. Further, elimination of p16 cells ameliorated nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related hepatic lipidosis and immune cell infiltration. Our new mouse model and single-cell analysis provide a powerful resource to enable the discovery of previously unidentified senescence functions in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.09.006DOI Listing
November 2020

Two distinct modes of DNMT1 recruitment ensure stable maintenance DNA methylation.

Nat Commun 2020 03 6;11(1):1222. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Division of Cancer Cell Biology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Stable inheritance of DNA methylation is critical for maintaining differentiated phenotypes in multicellular organisms. We have recently identified dual mono-ubiquitylation of histone H3 (H3Ub2) by UHRF1 as an essential mechanism to recruit DNMT1 to chromatin. Here, we show that PCNA-associated factor 15 (PAF15) undergoes UHRF1-dependent dual mono-ubiquitylation (PAF15Ub2) on chromatin in a DNA replication-coupled manner. This event will, in turn, recruit DNMT1. During early S-phase, UHRF1 preferentially ubiquitylates PAF15, whereas H3Ub2 predominates during late S-phase. H3Ub2 is enhanced under PAF15 compromised conditions, suggesting that H3Ub2 serves as a backup for PAF15Ub2. In mouse ES cells, loss of PAF15Ub2 results in DNA hypomethylation at early replicating domains. Together, our results suggest that there are two distinct mechanisms underlying replication timing-dependent recruitment of DNMT1 through PAF15Ub2 and H3Ub2, both of which are prerequisite for high fidelity DNA methylation inheritance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15006-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060239PMC
March 2020

Overexpression of microRNAs from the Gtl2-Rian locus contributes to postnatal death in mice.

Hum Mol Genet 2017 10;26(19):3653-3662

Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted domain functions in embryonic development but the roles of noncoding RNAs expressed from this domain remain unclear. We addressed this question by generating transgenic (TG) mice harbouring a BAC carrying IG-DMR (intergenic-differentially methylated region), Gtl2-DMR, Gtl2, Rtl1/Rtl1as, and part of Rian. High postnatal lethality (>85%) of the BAC-TG pups was observed in the maternally transmitted individuals (MAT-TG), but not following paternal transmission (PAT-TG). The DNA methylation status of IG-DMR and Gtl2-DMR in the BAC-allele was paternally imprinted similar to the genomic allele. The mRNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq analysis revealed marked expression changes in the MAT-TG, with 1,500 upregulated and 2,131 downregulated genes. The long noncoding RNAs and 12 miRNAs containing the BAC locus were markedly enhanced in the MAT-TG. We identified the 24 target genes of the overexpressed miRNAs and confirmed the downregulation in the MAT-TG. Notably, overexpression of mir770, mir493, and mir665 from Gtl2 in the MAT-TG embryos led to decreased expression of the 3 target genes, Col5a1, Pcgf2, and Clip2. Our results suggest that decreased expression of the 3 target genes concomitant with overexpression of the miRNAs within Gtl2 may be involved in the postnatal death in the MAT-TG. Because this imprinted domain is well conserved between mice and humans, the results of genetic and molecular analysis in mice hold important implications for related human disorders such as Temple syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddx223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886287PMC
October 2017

Repetitive DNA methylome analysis by small-scale and single-cell shotgun bisulfite sequencing.

Genes Cells 2016 Nov 3;21(11):1209-1222. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8502, Japan.

Whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (WG-SBS) is currently the most powerful tool available for understanding genomewide cytosine methylation with single-base resolution; however, the high sequencing cost limits its widespread application, particularly for mammalian genomes. We mapped high- to low-coverage SBS short reads of mouse and human female developing germ cells to consensus sequences of repetitive elements that were multiplied in the respective host genome. This mapping strategy effectively identified active and evolutionarily young retrotransposon subfamilies and centromeric satellite repeats that were resistant to DNA demethylation during the investigated progressive stages of germ cell development. Notably, quantities of only tens of thousands of uniquely mapped reads provided sufficient sensitivity to allow for methylation analyses of multiple retrotransposons and satellite repeats in mice. Furthermore, we produced SBS results from single female murine germ cells by an improved multiplexing and amplification-free SBS method (scPBAT). The scPBAT results quantitatively provided ≥5× sequencing coverage for at least 30 repeats, and the individual methylation patterns detected were similar to the bulk cell-based results. Our single-cell methylome sequencing technique will allow researchers to investigate intergenic methylation characteristics from limited amounts of mammalian cells as well as cells from other organisms with genomic annotations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gtc.12440DOI Listing
November 2016

Sex Specification and Heterogeneity of Primordial Germ Cells in Mice.

PLoS One 2015 23;10(12):e0144836. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Department of Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.

In mice, primordial germ cells migrate into the genital ridges by embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), where they are then subjected to a sex-specific fate with female and male primordial germ cells undergoing mitotic arrest and meiosis, respectively. However, the sex-specific basis of primordial germ cell differentiation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex-specific features of mouse primordial germ cells. We performed RNA-sequencing (seq) of E13.5 female and male mouse primordial germ cells using next-generation sequencing. We identified 651 and 428 differentially expressed transcripts (>2-fold, P < 0.05) in female and male primordial germ cells, respectively. Of these, many transcription factors were identified. Gene ontology and network analysis revealed differing functions of the identified female- and male-specific genes that were associated with primordial germ cell acquisition of sex-specific properties required for differentiation into germ cells. Furthermore, DNA methylation and ChIP-seq analysis of histone modifications showed that hypomethylated gene promoter regions were bound with H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. Our global transcriptome data showed that in mice, primordial germ cells are decisively assigned to a sex-specific differentiation program by E13.5, which is necessary for the development of vital germ cells.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0144836PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4689518PMC
June 2016