Publications by authors named "Soghrat Faghihzadeh"

139 Publications

Interpretation of Hematological, Biochemical, and Immunological Findings of COVID-19 Disease: Biomarkers Associated with Severity and Mortality.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Feb 11;20(1):46-66. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly all over the world in late 2019 and caused critical illness and death in some infected patients. This study aimed at examining several laboratory factors, especially inflammatory and immunological mediators, to identify severity and mortality associated biomarkers. Ninety-three hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were classified based on disease severity. The levels of biochemical, hematological, immunological, and inflammatory mediators were assessed, and their association with severity and mortality were evaluated. Hospitalized patients were mostly men (77.4%) with an average (standard deviation) age of 59.14 (14.81) years. The mortality rate was significantly higher in critical patients (85.7%). Increased serum levels of blood sugar, urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphorus, total bilirubin, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin were significantly prevalent (p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.014, p=0.047, p=0.003, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, P<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively) in COVID-19 patients. Decreased red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were significantly prevalent among COVID-19 patients than healthy control subjects (p<0.001 for all). Troponin-I, interleukin-6, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin, and D-dimer showed a significant association with the mortality of patients with specificity and sensitivity more than 60%. Age, sex, underlying diseases, blood oxygen pressure, complete blood count along with C-reactive protein, lactic dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 evaluation help to predict the severity and required management for COVID-19 patients. Further investigations are highly recommended in a larger cohort study for validation of the present findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v20i1.5412DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of Drug and Alcohol Abuse in People Aged 15 Years and Older in Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Oct;49(10):1940-1946

Department of Sociology, University of Welfare, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Drug addiction is known as one of the health, medical and social problems of the present century. Beyond the harmful physical and mental consequences for addicts, drug abuse can cause serious social problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate drug and alcohol abuse in individuals aged 15 yr and over in Iran in 2015.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on individuals aged 15 yr and older who lived in urban and rural areas of Iran. Overall, 36,600 individuals were selected by systematic and cluster random sampling. The postal code was used to access the samples in 31 provinces of Iran. In each province 1200 individuals (50% men, 50% women) were evaluated. The used instrument was the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), and data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: The results showed 4.6% of individuals used Opium and its derivatives, 0.4% used Cannabis, 0.4% used Amphetamine stimulants, 6.1% used Sedative drugs, and 2.6% used Alcoholic beverages on a regular basis. Within the last 12 months, 3.9% of individuals used Opium and its derivatives, 0.4% used Cannabis, 0.3% used Amphetamine stimulants, 5.8% used Sedative drugs, and 1.9% used Alcoholic beverages. With the exception of Sedatives drugs men used more drugs than women and residents of rural areas used more opium and its derivatives than other groups of drugs. Based on the provincial distribution, Kerman and Qom used the highest and lowest prevalence percentage of Opium and its derivatives respectively.

Conclusion: Overall, 2340000 individuals were addicts used Opium and its derivatives in 2015, therefore, medical and health officials should take all necessary measures to deal with these serious social problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i10.4697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719666PMC
October 2020

Effect of topical marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) on atopic dermatitis in children: A pilot double-blind active-controlled clinical trial of an in-silico-analyzed phytomedicine.

Phytother Res 2021 Mar 9;35(3):1389-1398. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing eczematous skin disease, which primarily affects infants and young children. Due to the side effects of commonly used drugs for its treatment, the development of safer therapeutic strategies is needed. There are many reports on the topical use of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) for a range of skin diseases in Persian medicine. The main aim of the present investigation was evaluating the efficacy of marshmallow in children with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. Another aim of the study was screening the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory potential of phytocomponents against target proteins, including TNF-alpha, IL6, and PDEs A, B, and D enzymes with PDB IDs: 2AZ5, 1P9M, 3I8V, 4KP6, and 1Y2K, respectively, along with their respective standard ligands using computational docking analysis. A pilot clinical trial was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Althaea officinalis in children with AD. The diagnosis of AD was made according to the criteria of Hanifin and Rajka. Children between 3 months and 12 years old were participated in this trial and randomly allocated into two parallel intervention and control groups. The intervention group used Althaea officinalis 1% ointment while the positive control group used Hydrocortisone 1% ointment twice a day for a week and after that, three times per week for a period of 3 weeks. The severity of AD was measured using the SCORAD score at the end of each assessment visits. A total number of 22 patients completed the study. A significant decrease of the SCORAD score was observed in both groups. At the end of the study, this score change, which indicates the improvement of the patients was significantly higher in the intervention group in comparison to the baseline (p-value = .015) and week 1 (p-value = .018). In the docking analysis of the study, 33 phytochemical compounds were identified, which were docked into the active site of IL6, TNF-alpha, and human PDE4 isoenzymes. Affinity toward the selected enzymes was significantly higher in glycosylated compounds. The results of this pilot study showed that the efficacy of Althaea officinalis 1% ointment in a decrease of disease severity is more than Hydrocortisone 1% in children with AD. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding. Moreover, the docking analysis revealed that the inhibitory activity of compounds with free hydroxyl groups such as glycosylated compounds was better than others, probably due to the hydrogen bond interaction of hydroxyl groups of the ligands with the enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6899DOI Listing
March 2021

A double-blind, randomized pilot study for comparison of Melissa officinalis L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. with Fluoxetine for the treatment of depression.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Jul 3;20(1):207. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahed University, 1471, North Kargar, Engelab Square, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Depression has rapidly progressed worldwide, and the need for an efficient treatment with low side effect has risen. Melissa officinalis L and Lavandula angustifolia Mill have been traditionally used in Asia for the treatment of depression. Many textbooks of traditional Persian medicine refer to these herbs for the treatment of depression while there are no adequate clinical trials to support this claim. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of M. officinalis and L. angustifolia compared to fluoxetine for the treatment of mild to moderate depression in an 8-week randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

Methods: Forty-five adult outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) for major depression, were randomly assigned to 3 groups to daily receive either M. officinalis (2 g) or L. angustifolia (2 g) or fluoxetine (20 mg) and were assessed in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8 by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) including 17 items.

Results: Our study showed that M. officinalis and L. angustifolia effect similar to fluoxetine in mild to moderate depression. (F = 0.131, df = 2,42, p = 0.877).

Conclusion: Due to some restrictions in this study including absence of placebo group, large-scale trials are needed to investigate the anti-depressant effect of these two herbs with more details.

Trial Registration: IRCT2014061718126N1 . Registration date: 2015-06-04-"Retrospectively registered".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03003-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333290PMC
July 2020

Association between the ST segment resolution after primary angioplasty and short term outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Minerva Cardioangiol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the early/late complete ST-resolution and short-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing primary angioplasty.

Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients with acute myocardial infarction who candidate for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during 1 year. An ECG obtained at the time of admission, 90 minutes and 24 hour after PCI. Patients were followed up for in hospital and 1-year outcomes and then data assessed according to the ST segment resolution (STR) (complete ≥70% and incomplete <70% STR).

Results: Totally 124 patients included in the study. The rates of complete STR were 44.4% after 90 minutes and 82.3% after 24 hours. Patients with early complete STR had significant lower rates of heart failure after 1 year follow up (32% versus 46%, OR: 1.88, 95%CI: 1.42-2.50, P=0.005) but not like patients with late STR. No significant relationship observed between early/late complete STR and Re-Infarction, Stroke, Re-hospitalization and Death during 1 year follow-up (P>0.05). Moderate correlations were found between percentage of ST resolution after 90 minutes and EF before discharge and final EF (correlation coefficient: 0.395 and 0.488, respectively, P<0.001).

Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, early complete STR can be an indicator for development of heart failure after 1 year follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4725.20.05109-9DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of the LTBP1 and Smad6 Genes Expression in Lung Tissue of Sulfur Mustard-exposed Individuals with Long-term Pulmonary Complications.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2019 Oct 23;18(5):473-478. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Immunology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran AND Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure injures different organs such as the lungs and leads to short and long term complications Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has the main role in altering fibroblast activities linked to airways remodeling. Latency TGF beta binding proteins 1 (LTBP1 facilitates localization of TGF-β in the extracellular matrix. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 6 (Smad6) negatively regulates TGF-β signaling, thus establishing a main negative feedback loop. In this study, we investigated the expression of LTBP1 and Smad6 in the lung tissues of SM-exposed and control individuals. Lung formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of SM-exposed (20 samples) and control groups (20 samples) were collected from archival pathology department of several general hospitals. The total mRNA of lung FFPE tissues was extracted. Quality of the extracted mRNA was evaluated by an Agilent Bio analyzer and RNA was quantified using a Nano Drop. LTBP1 and Smad6 expression levels were evaluated by real-time PCR. LTBP1 expression levels did not change between the two groups (p=0.626), howeverSmad6 expression levels were significantly higher (2.6 fold) in SM-exposed individuals compared to the control group (p=0.001). Our results revealed that Smad6 may be involved in lung tissue remodeling process in SM-exposed patients. Smad6 regulates fibrotic alterations in lung tissue and its function as negative feedback mechanisms in TGF-β.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v18i5.1895DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of the Nurse-Led Sexual Health Discharge Program on the Sexual Function of Older Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection of Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2020 Mar 2;5(1). Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, 8049 Bodø, Norway.

Sexual dysfunction is a complication of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). There is a lack of knowledge of the effect of discharge programs aiming at improving sexual function in older patients undergoing TURP. To investigate the effect of the nurse-led sexual health discharge program on the sexual function of older patients undergoing TURP. : This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 older patients undergoing TURP in an urban area of Iran. Samples were selected using a convenience method and were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups ( = 40 in each group). The sexual health discharge program was conducted by a nurse in three sessions of 30-45 min for the intervention group. Sexual function scores were measured using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Questionnaire, one and three months after the intervention. The intervention significantly improved erectile function ( = 0.044), sexual desire ( = 0.01), satisfaction with sexual intercourse ( = 0.03), overall satisfaction with sexual function ( = 0.01), and the general score of sexual function ( = 0.038), three months after the program. In the first month after the intervention, except in sexual desire ( = 0.028), no statistically significant effect of the program was reported ( > 0.05). : The nurse-led sexual health discharge program led to the improvement of the sexual function of older patients undergoing TURP over time. This program can be incorporated into routine discharge programs for the promotion of well-being in older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150998PMC
March 2020

Hab-o Shefa, a Persian Medicine Compound for Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Dependence: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Altern Complement Med 2020 May 28;26(5):376-383. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

The major problem in maintenance treatment of opioid use disorder is craving and relapse. The utilization of herbal compounds and complementary therapy for treatment of disease and addiction has been widely expanding. Considering the significant effect of Hab-o Shefa in detoxification phase, this clinical trial has explored the influence of this compound on maintenance treatment of opioid-dependent patients. This product is made of four herbs, including L., L., Roscoe, and L. The authors conducted a two-group parallel randomized double-blind clinical trial on 81 opioid-dependent patients within 12 weeks. After medically assisted detoxification, participants were assigned randomly to Hab-o Shefa ( = 41) and placebo ( = 40). Outcome measures included craving assessed by craving beliefs questionnaire, self-reported opioid use, and lapse (any opioid-positive urine test) according to urinalysis and addiction severity index-lite questionnaire, retention in treatment, and depression and anxiety scores on the Hamilton's anxiety and depression scales. Forty-one participants completed the study for 12 weeks, 21 subjects in the drug group and 20 subjects in the placebo group. The rates of opioid-positive urine tests and self-reported opioid use were significantly lower in Hab-o Shefa group ( = 8.41,  = 0.001). Hab-o Shefa also indicated a significant superiority over placebo in the effect of treatment by time interaction for craving ( = 5.91,  = 0.001), depression ( = 3.40,  = 0.01), and anxiety ( = 2.58,  = 0.035). The retention time was 66.6 days for drug group and 59.6 days for placebo one. Although the causes for dropping out in two groups were different, there was no significant difference ( = 0.623). The side effects of the two groups were not significantly different. Results indicated that Hab-o Shefa could be useful for opioid maintenance treatment, and it can also be considered as a new promising drug for prevention of craving and relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2019.0390DOI Listing
May 2020

Effects of as an Add-On Therapy on Insomnia in Patients with Obsession or Depression: A Pilot Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Altern Complement Med 2020 May 19;26(5):398-408. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracted syrup on the quality and patterns of sleep in patients with depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as add-on therapy. A pilot double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Psychiatric Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Participants were 16-15 years of age with mild and moderate depression or OCD having insomnia. This pilot study was conducted on patients with insomnia divided into two groups with depression (40 patients) or OCD (43 patients). Each group randomly assigned into two arms with the same conditions at baseline. The intervention arm daily received 5 mL syrup every 12 h for 4 weeks, and the control arm received 5 mL placebo syrup every 12 h for 4 weeks. None of the participants was deprived of their routine treatment for depression or OCD. The scores of insomnia symptoms were evaluated using total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the scores of its components, the depression score using the final Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) score, and OCD score using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). The total PSQI score was found to be improved significantly in the intervention arms with depression or OCD ( < 0.001) compared with the corresponding control arms. Significant improvements were also observed in the final mean difference of BDI-II ( = 0.009) and YBOCS ( = 0.001) scores in the intervention arms. syrup significantly improved insomnia symptoms and the scores of depression and OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2019.0254DOI Listing
May 2020

The Effect of Sedation Protocol Using Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) on Some Clinical Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Patients in Intensive Care Units: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Caring Sci 2019 Dec 1;8(4):199-206. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Providing for patients' comfort and reducing their pain is one of the important tasks of health care professionals in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The current study was conducted to determine the effect of a protocol using a Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) on some clinical outcomes of patients under mechanical ventilation (MV) in 2017. This single-blind clinical trial was conducted on 79 traumatic patients in the ICU who were randomly allocated into the intervention (N=40) and the control groups (N=39). The sedation was achieved, using a sedation protocol in the intervention group and the routine care in the control group. The clinical outcomes of the patients (duration of MV, length of staying in ICU, final outcome) were measured. As the participants had different lengths of MV and staying in ICU, the data were restructured, and were analyzed, using proper statistical methods. The patients' level of sedation in the intervention group was significantly closer to the ideal score of RASS (-1 to +1). The duration of MV was significantly reduced in the intervention group, and the length of stay in the ICU was also significantly shorter. There was no difference in terms of final outcome. The ICU cost in the control group was twice as high as the cost in of the intervention group. The applied sedation protocol in this study would provide better sedation and could consequently lead to significantly better clinical outcomes, and the cost of caring as a result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jcs.2019.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942649PMC
December 2019

L-lysine protects C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against high glucose damages and stresses.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(12):e0225912. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Statistics, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of diabetes, which is associated with protein glycation and misfolding, impaired cell metabolism and altered signaling pathways result in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). We previously showed that L-lysine (Lys) inhibits the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and protects diabetic rats and type 2 diabetic patients against diabetic complications. Here, we studied some molecular aspects of the Lys protective role in high glucose (HG)-induced toxicity in C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cell lines were differentiated into myotubes and adipocytes, respectively. Then, they were incubated with normal or high glucose (HG) concentrations in the absence/presence of Lys (1 mM). To investigate the role of HG and/or Lys on cell apoptosis, oxidative status, unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy, we used the MTT assay and flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and fluorometry, RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In both cell lines, HG significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis, accompanying with the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, the spliced form of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), at both mRNA and protein levels, the phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIf2α), and the Light chain 3 (LC3)II/LC3I ratio was also significantly increased. Lys alone had no significant effects on most of these parameters; but, treatment with HG plus Lys returned them all to, or close to, the normal values. The results indicated the protective role of Lys against glucotoxicity induced by HG in C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225912PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6922410PMC
March 2020

Alteration in serum levels of immunoglobulins in seriously eye-injured long-term following sulfur-mustard exposure.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Mar 29;80:105895. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan 4515613191, Iran.

Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent toxic agent that cause local and systemic changes in the human body such as dysregulation of the immunological system. This gas affects different organs such as lungs, skin, eyes and the gastrointestinal tract.

Methods: 128 veterans with SM-induced eye injuries were examined and compared to 31 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of IgM, IgE, IgA, IgG, and IgG subclasses were measured using ELISA method.

Results: There was no significant difference in IgM level between two groups with abnormal and normal ocular conditions except for those having bulbar conjunctiva-limbal ischemia and bulbar conjunctiva-hyperemia abnormalities. There were not significant difference in IgA, IgE, and IgG levels between two groups with and without ocular problem also between study groups. IgG1 level in some ocular abnormalities were significantly lower than the healthy control groups. IgG2 level in SM-exposed participants with stromal abnormality was higher in the SM-exposed groups without this problem. IgG2 levels in the exposed group with some ocular problems were significantly increased compared with control. IgG3 level in all patients did not reveal any significant changes compared with the controls except the fundus abnormality. IgG4 level was not significantly different between two groups with normal and abnormal ocular conditions. Nonetheless, IgG4 level in the exposed participants with some ocular abnormalities significantly increased compared with the controls.

Conclusion: The results showed SM exposure could alter immunoglobulins level compared with healthy controls and the changes of IgG2 and IgG1 levels were associated with some ocular problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105895DOI Listing
March 2020

Speech-evoked auditory brainstem response; electrophysiological evidence of upper brainstem facilitative role on sound lateralization in noise.

Neurol Sci 2020 Mar 15;41(3):611-617. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background And Aim: Sound lateralization/localization is one of the most important auditory processing abilities, which plays approved role in auditory streaming and speech perception in challenging situations like noisy places. In addition to the main role of lower brainstem centers like superior olivary complex in sound lateralization, efferent auditory system effects on improving auditory skills in everyday auditory challenging positions were revealed. This study evaluated noise effects on lateralization scores in correlation with an objective electrophysiologic test (Speech-ABR in noise), which objectively shows cumulative effects of the afferent and efferent auditory systems at the inferior colliculus and upper brainstem pathway.

Method: Fourteen normal-hearing subjects in the age range of 18 to 25 participated in this study. Lateralization scores in the quiet and noisy modes were evaluated. Speech-ABR in both ears for quiet mode and three different contralateral noise levels (SNR = + 5, 0, - 5) were recorded, too. Correlation of lateralization scores and Speech-ABR changes in noise was studied.

Results: Significant decrease of lateralization scores with latency increase and amplitude decrease of Speech-ABR transient peaks (V, A, O) was seen with noise presentation. A high positive correlation between lateralization decrease with latency increase of onset peaks (V, A) and amplitude decrease of transient peaks (V, A, O) was found in low signal-to-noise ratios.

Conclusion: The study revealed that in high challenging auditory situations like auditory lateralization in noise, upper brainstem centers and pathways play a facilitative role for main auditory lateralization centers in lower levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-019-04102-zDOI Listing
March 2020

Tear and serum MMP-9 and serum TIMPs levels in the severe sulfur mustard eye injured exposed patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Dec 31;77:105812. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Immunology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) intoxication produces local and systemic changes in the human body. In this study, the relationship between tear and serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and serum tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are assessed in serious eye-injured SM-exposed casualties.

Methods: A group of 128 SM-exposed patients with serious ocular injuries in three subgroups (19 mild, 31 moderate, and 78 severe cases) is compared with 31 healthy controls. Tear and ocular status and serum MMPs and MMP-9/TIMPs complex levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: Serum level of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the SM-exposed group compared to the control group (P = 0.009). Mean serum MMP-9 level in the SM-exposed group with ocular abnormalities was significantly higher than that in the SM-exposed group without ocular abnormalities. SM-exposed people with corneal calcification had significantly higher serum MMP-9/TIMP-1 level compared to the SM-exposed ones without this problem (P = 0.045). The SM-exposed group with severe ocular injuries had significantly higher MMP-9/TIMP-1 than the controls (P = 0.046). The SM-exposed group had significantly lower levels of MMP-9/TIMP-4 complex than the controls (P < 0.001). The SM-exposed group with tear meniscus and fundus abnormality had significantly higher MMP-9/TIMP-4 levels than the SM-exposed group without these problems (P = 0.009 and P = 0.020).

Conclusion: Serum MMP-9 level had increased in SM-exposed groups with ocular problems, while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels had remained unchanged. Serum TIMP-4 drastically decreased in SM-exposed group, which clearly explains the severity of the systemic and ocular damages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105812DOI Listing
December 2019

Tear and serum interleukin-8 and serum CX3CL1, CCL2 and CCL5 in sulfur mustard eye-exposed patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Dec 24;77:105844. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115111 Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The serum and tear levels of four inflammatory chemokines were evaluated in sulfur mustard (SM)-exposed with serious ocular problems.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 128 SM-exposed patients and 31 healthy control participants participated. Tear and serum levels of chemokines were assessed by ELISA method.

Results: There was no significant difference in the serum level of IL-8/CXCL8, CX3CL1/fractalkine, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL5/RANTES between all SM-exposed subjects and control groups. The tear level of IL-8 in the SM-exposed group was lower than the control group, but the difference was not significant. In the SM-exposed group with the abnormalities in tear breakup time (TBUT) test, fundus and pannus formation were significantly higher than SM-exposed patients without these problems. CX3CL1 levels have significantly increased in SM-exposed group with blepharitis, pterygium, and conjunctival pigmentation as compared with the control group. Besides, significantly higher levels of CX3CL1 were observed in SM-exposed group with or without bulbar conjunctival hyperemia and abnormal vessels a well as with fundus abnormality compared to the control group. Only, SM-exposed group with subconjunctival fibrosis had significantly lower levels of CCL5 than SM-exposed group without this problem.

Conclusion: The higher level of CX3CL1 and consistent levels of IL-8/CXCL8, MCP-1/CCL2, and RANTES/CCL5 in SM-exposed individuals may indicate an anti-inflammatory response against the destructive effects of SM gas. High tear level of IL-8/CXCL8 reflects the severity of ocular surface abnormalities, yet significantly low tear level found in mild SM-exposed subgroup compared with the control group. The lower levels of CX3CL1 and RANTES/CCL5 may represent the different pathophysiology which requires further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105844DOI Listing
December 2019

Serum and sputum levels of IL-17, IL-21, TNFα and mRNA expression of IL-17 in sulfur mustard lung tissue with long term pulmonary complications (28 years after sulfur mustard exposure).

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Nov 17;76:105828. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Iranian veterans who had exposed to Sulfur Mustard (SM) suffer from long term complications such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and bronchiolitis obliterate (BO). Th17 cells product IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. They have important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases. Also, TNFα has a major part in pathobiological processes of COPD. In this study, we evaluate the serum and sputum levels of IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, and mRNA expression of IL-17 in the lung tissue of the patients 28 years after SM exposure.

Material And Method: The cytokine levels of IL-17, IL-21 and TNFα were measured by ELISA method in serum and sputum of 455 SM-exposed and 123 unexposed people participated in Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS) of chemical victims. The mRNA expression of IL-17 was evaluated with qRT-PCR in lung biopsies (SM-exposed =52, control =33). Analyses of all data were accomplished with the SPSS software with P value ≤05.

Result: The results show the sputum level of IL-17 in the exposed group decreased significantly compared to control group (P = 0.007) and Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) assessment was significantly lower in abnormal/exposed than normal/exposed group (P = 0.042). There were no significant differences between control and exposed groups in serum level of IL-17; also serum and sputum levels of IL-21, TNF-α, and IL-17 mRNA expression.

Conclusion: Conclusively, The IL-17 level decreased in the exposed group. This decline could cause by mutation on transcription factors like Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene (STAT3) or CCL20 as a chemokine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105828DOI Listing
November 2019

Serum Concentration of Thyroid Hormones Long-Term after Sulfur Mustard Exposure.

Iran J Public Health 2019 May;48(5):949-955

Endocrine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite several reports on the clinical manifestations of sulfur mustard (SM) intoxication, there is no study on serum concentrations of thyroid hormones long-term after SM exposure. In this study, the changes in thyroid functioning parameters 20 yr after SM exposure were evaluated.

Methods: This study is a part of a larger historical cohort study conducted in 2007 following 20 years of the exposure to SM, called Sardasht-Iran cohort study (SICS). We (SICS) comprised an SM-exposed group from Sardasht City, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran (n=169 as hospitalized group and n=203 as non-hospitalized exposed group); and control participants were selected from Rabat, a town near Sardasht (n=126). Peripheral blood samples were taken in fasting state and then the sera were separated. T4, T3, TSH, antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) concentrations in the sera were measured by the ELISA method.

Results: The mean of T3 concentration was significantly higher in the exposed than control group (0.88 ± 0.26 nmol/L vs 0.8 ± 0.25 nmol/L, <0.001). The levels of TSH, T4, and T3up were not significantly different between the exposed and control groups. Thyroglobulin level was significantly higher in the exposed non-hospitalized group (56.07 ± 140.22 μg/L vs 17.66 ± 41.49 μg/L, =0.004), but the level of anti-Tg and anti-TPO showed no significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusion: More studies are needed on the alterations in thyroid hormones, their gene expressions, and mechanisms involved in SM exposure to clarify the causes of these alterations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717423PMC
May 2019

Expression of miR-15b-5p, miR-21-5p, and SMAD7 in Lung Tissue of Sulfur Mustard-exposed Individuals with Long-term Pulmonary Complications.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2019 Jun 8;18(3):332-339. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Sulfur mustard (SM)-exposed individuals develop late pulmonary complications, which are associated with chronic inflammation and fibrotic changes in the lung tissue. MicroRNAs are known to act as important regulators of inflammatory responses, including inflammation and fibrosis-related cytokine signaling. In this study, we investigated the expression miR-15b-5p and miR-21-5p, two regulators of TGF-β signaling, as well as their target molecule, SMAD7, in lung tissues from SM-exposed and control individuals. Total RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung tissue biopsies obtained during surgery from SM-exposed (n=20) or control (n=20) cases. Quality of the extracted RNA was evaluated by an Agilent Bioanalyzer and RNA was quantified using a NanoDrop. MiR-21-5p, miR-15b-5p and SMAD7 expression levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR. miR-21-5p expression levels were significantly decreased (2.7 fold) in the lung tissues from SM-exposed individuals compared with tissues obtained from the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in miR-15b-5p expression levels between the two groups (p=0.94). Interestingly, SMAD7 expression levels were significantly higher (5.8 fold) in SM-exposed individuals' lung tissues compared with the control group (p=0.045). Our data indicate that exposure to sulfur mustard affects the expression of miR-21-5p as well as its target, SMAD7, in lung tissues many years after exposure. Considering the role of SMAD7 in the regulation of TGF-β signaling, these changes might point to a potential mechanism by which SM-exposure regulates inflammatory/fibrotic alterations in lung tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v18i3.1126DOI Listing
June 2019

Circulating mesenchymal stem cells in sulfur mustard-exposed patients with long-term pulmonary complications.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Sep 13;312:188-194. Epub 2019 May 13.

Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic agent that causes acute and long-term pulmonary complications. Recent evidence has shown the impact of SM on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These cells have a critical role in repairing the damaged tissues. In this study, we evaluated the mobilization of MSCs in SM-exposed patients with long-term pulmonary complications. Fifty-nine SM-injured patients with prolonged pulmonary complications and 20 healthy individuals were included. Patients were classified based on taking drugs, having comorbidities, and severity of respiratory consequence. MSCs with phenotype of CD45-CD44CD29CD105 were evaluated in peripheral blood using flow cytometry. Circulating MSCs were lower in SM-exposed patients compared to the control group (0.93 vs. 2.72 respectively, P = 0.005). No significant difference was observed in the MSC count between patients taking corticosteroids or antibiotics and those patients not taking them. Comorbidities like liver and kidney diseases had changed the count of MSCs in SM-exposed subjects. In addition, the frequency of MSCs did not show any association with the severity of long-term pulmonary complications. In conclusion, SM-exposure causes a decline in the frequency of circulating MSCs in survivors. The lower number of the peripheral MSC population in SM-exposed patients was not affected by taking corticosteroids or antibiotics, but comorbidities are probably involved in MSC frequency. The decreases observed in the number of circulating MSCs was not associated with the severity of the pulmonary complications; however, further studies in mustard lung models are required to demonstrate the therapeutic or pathologic role of MSCs in SM injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.05.015DOI Listing
September 2019

Time course study of oxidative stress in sulfur mustard analog 2‑chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxicity.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Aug 10;73:81-93. Epub 2019 May 10.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is the major mechanism impairing cell homeostasis, inducing cell death and tissue damage in sulfur mustard (SM)-exposed individuals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate time course changes of oxidative stress in the mice exposed with 2‑chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as SM analog. For this purpose, male BALB/c mice were divided into control groups and experimental groups that received CEES (10 mg/kg) through intraperitoneal injection. In both groups, animals were euthanized at three periods: short (12, 24 h and 1 week), medium (1, 2 and 3 months) and long-term (5 and 6 months) after CEES exposure. Oxidative stress indices and the antioxidant defense systems were evaluated in lung and liver tissues. The time course findings in both tissues showed a significant increase in oxidative damage markers such as malondialdehyde (lung P < 0.001, liver P < 0.001), protein carbonyl (lung P < 0.0001), and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (lung P < 0.0001, Liver P < 0.0001) and also a significant reduction in the antioxidant defense system including reduced glutathione level (lung P < 0.001, Liver P < 0.001,), activities of catalase (lung P < 0.01 and liver P < 0.05), superoxide dismutase (lung P < 0.05), glutathione S‑transferase (lung P < 0.05, liver P < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (lung, P < 0.05, Liver P < 0.05) and glutathione reductase (lung P < 0.001, liver P < 0.01) in the long-term. However, these changes occur with less intensity in the short-term and return to the normal status in the medium-term. Moreover, there was a positive time course correlation between oxidative damage indices and the percent of histopathological damage in both tissues (P < 0.05). This correlation finding confirms and supports the fact that time course oxidative-antioxidant imbalance plays an important role in the development of SM-induced acute and delayed injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.04.055DOI Listing
August 2019

Sonographic measurement of cervical length and its relation to the onset of spontaneous labour and the mode of delivery.

Natl Med J India 2018 Mar-Apr;31(2):70-72

Department of Reproductive Health and Midwifery, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-331, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to investigate the relationship between cervical length at 37 weeks of pregnancy and the onset of spontaneous labour as well as mode of delivery.

Methods: We did a prospective observational study of 126 low-risk pregnant women with cephalic presentation who were not in labour, attending a south Tehran health centre for prenatal care. The length of the cervix was measured using transvaginal ultrasound (10 MHz endovaginal transducer) by a single sonographer at 37 weeks of gestation. The outcomes were the onset of spontaneous labour and the mode of delivery.

Results: The mean cervical length was 26.1 mm (range 10-51 mm), with a non-significant difference between nulliparous and parous women (p=0.36). There was a significant association between cervical length and onset of spontaneous labour (r=0.33, p<0.001). When controlled for parity, maternal height and onset of spontaneous labour, cervical length did not predict the mode of delivery (p=0.79).

Conclusion: Measurement of cervical length at 37 weeks could predict the onset of spontaneous labour, but it failed to predict the mode of delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-258X.253163DOI Listing
October 2019

Comparison of the Effect Of 0.2% Chlorhexidine and Xylitol Plus 920 Ppm Fluoride Mouthwashes on Count of Salivary Streptococcus Mutants, a Pilot Study.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2018 Dec;19(4):301-304

Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Statement Of The Problem: Dental caries is a common chronic disease. Mouthwashes and other preventive approaches play an important role in caries prevention. Finding the most efficient mouthwash in the market is always a concern for dentists and patients.

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the effect of chlorhexidine (Behsa, Iran) and xylitol plus 920 ppm fluoride (FX) (Fuchs, Germany) mouthwash on salivary (), which is the main microorganism responsible for dental caries.

Materials And Method: This single-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 30 dental students, divided into two groups. The salivary count of was measured at the beginning of the study. Group 1 students used chlorhexidine mouthwash while group 2 used FX mouthwash for two weeks. Saliva samples were collected again and salivary count of was determined. Data were analyzed using Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank tests.

Results: Salivary count of significantly decreased in the two groups after using the mouthwashes < 0.05) and no significant difference was noted in the mean colony count between the two groups after the use of mouthwashes (> 0.05).

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the results showed that both mouthwashes could decrease count.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338685PMC
December 2018

Different Pain States of Trigeminal Neuralgia Make Significant Changes in the Plasma Proteome and Some Biochemical Parameters: a Preliminary Cohort Study.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 17;66(4):524-534. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Statistics, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) with chronic and severe neuropathic pain leads to remarkable interference in daily living activities of patients. Unknown molecular mechanisms involved in TN pathophysiology are a challenge for complete treatment of the disease. The present study was conducted to investigate changes in the plasma proteome beside biochemical parameters, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nitric oxide (NO), amino acids, and vitamin D (Vit D) in different pain states in TN patients. Plasma samples were obtained from the control group (#13) and patients with purely paroxysmal type of classical TN (#13) before and after microvascular decompression (MVD). We analyzed plasma proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified altered proteins by applying MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The plasma levels of neurotransmitters (CGRP, NO, and amino acids) and Vit D were investigated by ELISA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pain-rating index (PRI) was specified using a McGill pain questionnaire, which indicated a significant pain reduction after MVD. Plasma proteome analysis showed upregulated expression of transthyretin (TTR), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2 (AGP2) in TN patients compared to control group; whereas, TTR and RBP expression was downregulated after surgery. Moreover, the elevated NO and CGRP and decreased Vit D concentrations were observed in patients. After surgery, NO, Arg, Cit, and Gly levels were decreased along with pain relief. Our findings support the role of altered proteins in TN pathophysiology and suggest involvement of the evaluated neurotransmitters and Vit D in pain pathway sensitization during the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1183-2DOI Listing
December 2018

ALOX12 gene polymorphisms and serum selenium status in elderly osteoporotic patients.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Dec;27(12):1717-1722

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease which leads to a reduction in bone mass. Many studies have shown that up to 80% of bone mineral density (BMD) variations are attributed to genetic factors. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase enzyme, encoded by the ALOX12 gene, produces lipid peroxides as reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and the development of osteoporosis. Selenium (Se) is incorporated into selenoproteins, which may reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of 2 ALOX12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum Se level with lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD among elderly individuals living in Amirkola, Iran.

Material And Methods: The study consisted of 180 individuals aged ≥60 years (90 healthy and 90 osteoporotic patients). We examined the effect of 2 ALOX12 SNPs (rs2292350 and rs9897850), using the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) on both BMD regions measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum Se level was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer PGG990 AAS (PG Instruments Ltd., Luterworth, USA).

Results: The rs2292350 SNP showed a significant association with femoral neck BMD (p = 0.04). Moreover, in terms of serum Se level, a significant difference was found between the patient group (57.58 ±25.54 μg/L) and the control group (81.09 ±25.58 μg/L) (p < 0.001). In addition, individuals with higher serum Se levels also had higher BMD of the lumbar spine (r2 = 0.392; p < 0.001) and the femoral neck (r2 = 0.478; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The results suggested that genetic variation in ALOX12 might influence BMD variations in our recruited participants. As for the patients with lower serum Se levels, it was observed that serum Se deficiency was accompanied by some ALOX12 variation, contributing to the development of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/75689DOI Listing
December 2018

The relationship between paternal prenatal depressive symptoms with postnatal depression: The PATH model.

Psychiatry Res 2018 11 17;269:102-107. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Midwifery Department, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between men's prenatal and postnatal depressive symptom (PDS). In a descriptive study, 403 fathers meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled using Poisson random sampling method from public health clinics in Zanjan, Iran. All participants were selected in the third trimester of pregnancy and were followed up eight weeks after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen the participants for depressive symptoms. Data was analyzed using descriptive test, Path analysis at a confidence level of 95%. Results showed that the effect of the prenatal depressive symptoms on PDS had perfect good fitness indices. A high level of prenatal depressive symptoms predicted a high level of PDS. We found significant total mediating effects of state, trait, and total anxiety on PDS. The total moderating effect of income on PDS was not statistically significant. These results suggest that a high level of prenatal depressive symptoms is a risk factor for a high level of PDS. Therefore, health providers should pay more attention to the psychological health of fathers during the pre and postpartum period. The predictor factors should be considered in both intervention and clinical assessment of paternal PDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.08.044DOI Listing
November 2018

Efficiency of flubendazole-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles: A promising formulation against the protoscoleces and cysts of Echinococcus granulosus.

Acta Trop 2018 Nov 9;187:190-200. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Biological statistics and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

None of the existing drugs can effectively treat the human cystic echinococcosis. This study aimed to improve the efficacy of flubendazole (FLBZ) against the protoscoleces and cysts of Echinococcus granulosus by preparing polymeric FLBZ-loaded methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) nanoparticles. The protoscoleces and microcysts were treated with FLBZ-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles) and free FLBZ at the final concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL for 27 and 14 days, respectively. The chemoprophylactic efficacy of the drugs was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. The nanoparticles were stable for 1 month, with an average size of 101.41 ± 5.14 nm and a zeta potential of -19.13 ± 2.56 mV. The drug-loading and entrapment efficiency of the FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles were calculated to be 3.08 ± 0.15% and 89.16 ± 2.93%, respectively. The incubation of the protoscoleces with the 10 μg/mL nano-formulation for 15 days resulted in 100% mortality, while after incubation with the 10 μg/mL free FLBZ, the viability rate of the protoscoleces was only 44.0% ± 5.22%. Destruction of the microcysts was observed after 7 days' exposure to the FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. The in vivo challenge showed a significant reduction in the weight and number of the cysts (P <  0.05) in the mice treated with the FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles, yielding efficacy rates of 94.64% and 70.21%, correspondingly. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive ultrastructural damage to the cysts treated with the FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles. The results indicated that the FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles were more effective than the free FLBZ against the protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus both in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.08.010DOI Listing
November 2018

The effect of whole-body vibration training on the lower extremity muscles' electromyographic activities in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2017 18;31:107. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of Biostatistics, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Whole-Body Vibration Training (WBVT) is a novel neuromuscular training method that has been recently developed as a rehabilitation tool. The purpose of this study was to determine whether WBVT is effective on electromyographic activity of the muscles of the lower limbs in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The study was designed as a single blinded randomized clinical trial (IRCT201601171637N5), 45 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to three groups; WBVT (n = 15) receiving 12 sessions vibration therapy, control group (n =15) doing two exercise in the home and placebo (n =15) doing exercise like WBVT group on-off vibration system. Electromyographic activities of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius and soleus were evaluated pre and post intervention. The pairedsamples t-test and ANOVA were applied respectively to determine the differences in each group and among the groups (P≤0.05). The RMS value of vastus medialis in semi squat position in placebo group (p=0.024), vastus lateralis in SLR position in WBVT group (p=0.037), soleus in knee flexion in WBVT group (p=0.018), semitendinosus in knee flexion in WBVT group (p=0.007) and RMS response of Semitendinosus in ankle plantar flexion in control group (p=0.047) were revealed significant differences between the pre- and post- intervention. The ANOVA test confirmed the significant differences between the studied groups according to the EMG activity of vastus medialis in semi squat position (p=0.045), semitendinosus in semi squat position (p=0.046) and in plantar flexion position (p=0.015) and also soleus in plantar flexion position (p=0.003). The findings of this study showed the beneficial effects of WBVT in the improvement of the muscles RMS values in the patients with knee OA especially muscles' progression rates in a four-week period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.31.107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014769PMC
December 2017

The Association between ocular problems and Serum Testosterone, Prolactin and Thyroglobulin concentrations in Delayed phase of Sulfur Mustard exposure.

Iran J Pathol 2018 ;13(1):63-70

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

Background And Objective: Aside from direct toxic effects, Sulfur Mustard (SM) induced serum hormone abnormalities may aggravate ocular complaints, including Ocular Surface Discomfort (OSD) (burning, itching, and redness), dry eye sensation, photophobia, blurred vision, foreign body sensation, and pain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible association of ocular complaints with serum hormone concentrations in chronic phase of Sulfur Mustard (SM) exposure.

Methods: As a part of Sardasht Iran Cohort Study (SICS), 372 SM-exposed patients and 128 non-exposed participants were enrolled. Ocular complaints and ocular surface biomicroscopic conditions and serum hormones were compared.

Results: The exposed with tearing group had significantly higher mean serum levels of testosterone and prolactin (ng/mL) than controls (5.75 vs. 4.75, P=0.031; 11.71 vs. 8.42, P=0.009). The exposed with OSD group had significantly higher mean serum levels of prolactin than controls (12.48 vs. 6.90, P=0.002). The exposed with photophobia group had significantly higher mean serum levels of testosterone than the matched exposed (6.25 vs. 5.65, P=0.013). The exposed with blurred vision group had significantly higher mean serum levels of Thyroglobulin (Tg) (ng/mL) than the matched exposed (65.73 vs. 32.6, P=0.003).

Conclusion: Higher mean serum levels of testosterone (in exposed with tearing and photophobia) and prolactin (in exposed with tearing and OSD) may play protective roles against SM effects. Higher mean serum levels of Tg may deteriorate the tear film integrity and optical surface, which causes blurred vision. In the chronic phase of SM toxicity, some ocular surface problems are associated with alterations in the serum concentrations of testosterone, prolactin, and Tg.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5929390PMC
January 2018

In vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan-praziquantel and chitosan-albendazole nanoparticles on Echinococcus granulosus Metacestodes.

Parasitol Res 2018 Jul 3;117(7):2015-2023. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS), Mahdavi Blvd., Shahrak Karmandan, P.O. Box 45139-56111, Zanjan, Iran.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important zoonoses affecting humans. Benzimidazoles (in particular albendazole) and praziquantel (PZQ) are effective against CE, but poor water solubility of these agents often leads to inadequate results. Here, we evaluate the effects of chitosan-albendazole (ChABZ) and chitosan-praziquantel (ChPZQ) nanoparticles as a new formulation on hydatid cysts both in vitro and in vivo. Developed microcysts in culture were treated with different concentrations of ChABZ and ChPZQ nanoparticles (either alone or in combination), and ABZ + PZQ suspension. The viability rate of microcysts was used to evaluate the drug efficacies. In addition, the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of the drugs were studied on infected DBA/2 mice. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultra-structural changes. The viability rate of microcysts and differences in cyst weights were compared by ANOVA, and the cyst numbers were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The combination of ChABZ + ChPZQ nanoparticles was more effective than the ABZ + PZQ suspension in vitro (p < 0.05). In prophylaxy, a significant reduction was observed both in size and in number of the cysts in ChABZ + ChPZQ nanoparticle groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). In the therapeutic stage, however, this treatment only reduced the cyst numbers. Degeneration of the microcysts treated with the drugs was evident in the ultra-structural imaging. Overall, the nanoparticulate drugs were more effective than their suspension counterparts, but further studies are recommended to evaluate the full potential of these nanoparticles in the treatment of human CE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-5849-zDOI Listing
July 2018

The medieval Persian manuscript of Afyunieh: the first individual treatise on the opium and addiction in history.

J Integr Med 2018 03 5;16(2):77-83. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran 14179-53836, Iran. Electronic address:

According to historical evidence, the abuse of opium has been reported all over the globe-specifically throughout Eastern nations-since the sixteenth century. Before that, opium had mostly been applied as medication. Reference has been made in traditional Persian medical literature to the method of cultivation, properties, side effects and toxicity. In sixteenth century Iran, during the reign of the Safavids, opium abuse began. It was from then that prominent Persian scholars started to think of solutions to this societal problem. One of the most famous scholars was Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas'ud Shirazi, who composed a book concerning addiction-Afyunieh, a comprehensive book on the topic of opium and all issues of opium. Furthermore, he recommended methods for reducing opium dose as well as substitution with other medications that had a narrower range of side effects, in order to eradicate dependency upon opium and opium-derived materials. This is most likely the first book that comprehensively addressed opium and discussed drug rehabilitation methodology, in traditional Persian medical literature. In this historical review, the authors have introduced the book Afyunieh, which presents methods for treating addiction to and giving up opium; the text comprises a synthesis of the author's opinions, professional experience and references to the work of other famous physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2018.02.004DOI Listing
March 2018