Publications by authors named "Sobhy Abdel-Shafy"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of polyphenols extracted from and plants on glutathione S-transferase of the cattle tick () (Acari: Ixodidae).

J Parasit Dis 2021 Jun 5;45(2):524-538. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth St, Ad Doqi, Dokki, Cairo, 12622 Cairo Governorate Egypt.

Ticks are hematophageal ectoparasites that transport major pathogens around the world. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are involved in resistance to acaricide and redox balancing during the life cycle of the tick. The inhibition of tick GST enzymes by certain phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and tannins, can be a promising approach to tick control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of red peel and leaf extracts on () GST activity in order to reduce the resistance of cattle to acaricide. The results showed that ethanol extract (70%) contained the highest total phenol content (350 ± 1.2 μM GAE g), the highest condensed tannin content (270 ± 1.3 μM CE g) and the highest hydrolysable tannin content (70 ± 5.0 μM TAE g). Adult immersion test with a dosage of 100 mg ml of ethanol extracts had a significant mortality of 50% and 75% after 24 h and 96 h, respectively ( < 0.01). A simple and reproducible procedure was established to purify the whole GST (wRaGST) while a full-length cDNA of GST was cloned from a cDNA library of the local Egyptian cattle tick (rRaGST). Aqueous extracts of inhibited both wRaGST and rRaGST with values of IC = 0.114 and 0.07 µg ml, respectively, compared to extracts (IC values = 2.08 and 1.35 µg ml, respectively). These inhibitory effects were attributed to the presence of a high tannin concentration (≥ 80%). HPLC analysis indicated the presence of gallic acid and catechin in both extracts, in addition to the rutin, which was only observed in extracts. The addition of a tannin inhibitor, polyethylene glycol, suggested the existence of other phenolic compounds in combination with catechins responsible for inhibiting the activity of these extracts. Non-competitive behaviour of catechins may be helpful in preventing, or at least delaying, the development of chemical acaricide resistance in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-020-01323-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254837PMC
June 2021

Acaricidal activity of Artemisia herba-alba and Melia azedarach oil nanoemulsion against Hyalomma dromedarii and their toxicity on Swiss albino mice.

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 May 2;84(1):241-262. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Biopesticides such as essential oils (EOs) are considered an improvement for integrated pest control as they appear to be less toxic to the environment than chemical acaricides. The current study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of Artemisia herba-alba and Melia azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion as alternatives for chemical acaricides against the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii, besides evaluating their toxic effect on Swiss albino mice. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for the characterization of loaded nano-emulsions.The immersion test was used for the bioassay of both loaded nanoemulsions on tick stages (egg, nymph, larva, and adult). Mortality percentages and LC values of each tick stage were calculated. Reproductive performance for the survived engorged females after treatment was monitored. The toxicity of both loaded nano-emulsions was evaluated on Swiss albino mice by an oral dose of 1500 mg/kg/day for five successive days. The hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes were evaluated. TEM characterization revealed spherical droplets for A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion with droplet size ranging from 62 to 69 nm and 52-91 nm, respectively. FTIR revealed the absence of extra peaks in the loaded nano-emulsions that confirmed no chemical changes existed by ultrasonication. The LC values of A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion on embryonated eggs, larvae, engorged nymphs, and unfed adults were 0.3 and 1.1%, 0.7 and 1.7%, 0.3 and 0.4%, 4.4 and 22.2%, respectively. The egg productive index (EPI), egg number, and hatchability percentage were lower in the treated females compared with Butox 5% (deltamethrin) and control. The hematological picture and biochemical analysis revealed insignificant changes in the treatment group compared with the negative control group. The liver of the A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion treated group exhibited vacuolar degeneration and infiltration of lymphocytic cells. The kidney of mice treated with A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion showed hemolysis and slight degeneration of epithelial cells of tubules. It is concluded that A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion have good acaricidal activity against camel tick H. dromedarii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-021-00618-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Therapeutic Potential of Green Synthesized Copper Nanoparticles Alone or Combined with Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantime) in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 68149-93165, Iran.

Background: In recent years, the focus on nanotechnological methods in medicine, especially in the treatment of microbial infections, has increased rapidly.

Aim: The present study aims to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) green synthesized by fruit extract alone and combined with meglumine antimoniate (MA).

Methods: CuNPs were green synthesized by methanolic extract. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of CuNPs (10-200 µg/mL) or MA alone (10-200 µg/mL), and various concentrations of MA (10-200 μg/mL) along with 20 μg/mL of CuNPs, was assessed against the (MRHO/IR/75/ER) amastigote forms and, then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis induced in male BALB/c mice by Moreover, infectivity rate, nitric oxide (NO) production, and cytotoxic effects of CuNPs on J774-A1 cells were evaluated.

Results: Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particle size of CuNPs was 17 to 41 nm. The results demonstrated that CuNPs, especially combined with MA, significantly ( < 0.001) inhibited the growth rate of amastigotes and triggered the production of NO ( < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. CuNPs also had no significant cytotoxicity in J774 cells. The mean number of parasites was significantly ( < 0.05) reduced in the infected mice treated with CuNPs, especially combined with MA in a dose-dependent response. The mean diameter of the lesions decreased by 43 and 58 mm after the treatment with concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/mL of CuNPs, respectively.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated the high potency and synergistic effect of CuNPs alone and combined with MA in inhibiting the growth of amastigote forms of as well as recovery and improving cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) induced by in BALB/c mice. Additionally, supplementary studies, especially in clinical settings, are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11040891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065924PMC
March 2021

In vitro acaricidal activity of green synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Ixodidae), and its toxicity on Swiss albino mice.

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Apr 13;83(4):611-633. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

The green synthesized nanoparticles have been determined as a novel pesticide against arthropod pests. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal activity of green synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) using aqueous extract of Melia azedarach ripened fruits against different developmental stages of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii in addition to their toxic effect on laboratory animals. The synthesized NiO NPs were characterized by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The UV-Vis spectra of the NiO NPs showed an absorption peak at 307 nm. FTIR analysis showed the possible functional groups used for capping and stabilization of NiO NPs with strong bands at 3416.2 and 1626.6 cm. The SEM images of the NiO NPs exhibited a size ranging from 21 to 35 nm. The immersion test was used for the in vitro application of the synthesized NiO NPs on the various tick stages (egg, nymph, larva, and adult). Mortality percentages and LC values of each tick stage were calculated. The oviposition and hatchability of the engorged females were monitored for the survived tick after treatment. The LC values for NiO NPs on embryonated eggs, larvae, and engorged nymphs were 5.00, 7.15, and 1.90 mg/mL, respectively. The egg productive index (EPI), egg number, and hatchability (%) were lower in females treated with the NiO NPs than in control ticks. The toxicity of the NiO NPs on laboratory animals was also investigated using Swiss albino mice by oral dose of 500 mg/kg/day administration for five consecutive days. The hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The hematological analysis showed significant increase in the level of white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin (Hb). Biochemical analysis showed non-significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine amino transferase (ALT). We concluded that NiO NPs have a significant acaricidal activity as demonstrated on eggs, larvae, engorged nymphs, and fully fed females of H. dromedarii. From a toxicological point of view further in vivo investigations are needed to determine the mechanism of toxic effect of NiO NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-021-00596-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Ovicidal and Latent Effects of Pulicaria jaubertii (Asteraceae) Leaf Extracts on Aedes aegypti.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2020 09;36(3):161-166

The control of Aedes aegypti with synthetic pesticides may result in adverse effects on wildlife and the environment. Bioactive plant extracts have been proposed as one of the alternatives to chemical pesticides used against mosquitoes. Here, we report on the ovicidal and latent effects of ethanolic, petroleum ether, and chloroform leaf extracts of Pulicaria jaubertii at 25 to 150 ppm each against the life stages of laboratory stain of Ae. aegypti. At 150 ppm, the ethanolic leaf extract resulted in 100% ovicidal activity, followed by petroleum ether extract (74%), and chloroform extract about 7% mortality. The ethanolic extract produced 100% larval and pupal mortality at both 75 and 50 ppm, while the petroleum ether extract produced 76.5 and 58.3%, respectively. The ethanolic extract recorded the highest percentage of adult mortality (72.7%) at the lowest concentration (25 ppm). At 25 and 50 ppm, the ethanolic extract resulted in 62.2 and 85.2% sterility index of Ae. aegypti females, respectively, as compared with the 0.1 and 3.5% sterility index caused by the chloroform extract at the same concentrations. In conclusion, P. jaubertii appears to have potential to be further evaluated as a mosquito control agent. Additional studies are needed on its mode of action, synergism with other products, and efficacy under actual field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2987/20-6952.1DOI Listing
September 2020

Essential Oil; Anti-Parasitic Effects and Induction of the Innate Immune System in Mice with Infection.

Molecules 2021 Feb 4;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 68149-93165, Iran.

Background: () is a wild aromatic plant used for traditional herbal medicine that can be demonstrated in insecticidal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity of its essential oils (MCEO).

Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effects of essential oil (MCEO) against chronic toxoplasmosis induced by the Tehran strain of in mice.

Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was performed to determine the chemical composition of MCEO. Mice were then orally administrated with MCEO at the doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day and also atovaquone 100 mg/kg for 21 days. On the 15th day, the mice were infected with the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from the Tehran strain of . The mean numbers of brain tissue cysts and the mRNA levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in mice of each tested group were measured.

Results: By GC/MS, the major constituents were α-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%), respectively. The results demonstrated that the mean number of tissue cysts in experimental groups Ex1 ( < 0.05), Ex2 ( < 0.001) and Ex3 ( < 0.001) was meaningfully reduced in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group (C2). The mean diameter of tissue cyst was significantly reduced in mice of the experimental groups Ex2 ( < 0.01) and Ex3 ( < 0.001). The results demonstrated that although the mRNA levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were elevated in all mice of experimental groups, a significant increase ( < 0.001) was observed in tested groups of Ex2 and Ex3 when compared with control groups.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated the potent prophylactic effects of MCEO especially in the doses 200 and 300 mg/kg in mice infected with . Although the exceptional anti- effects of MCEO and other possessions, such as improved innate immunity and low toxicity are positive topics, there is, however, a need for more proof from investigations in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915315PMC
February 2021

A report on tick burden and molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in cattle blood samples collected from four regions in Saudi Arabia.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 05 13;12(3):101652. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, 60800, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Babesiosis, theileriosis and anaplasmosis are among the most commonly reported tick-borne diseases in cattle and are associated with significant economic losses. Through the present study the researchers aimed to report the presence of various pathogens that cause babesiosis, theileriosis and anaplasmosis in cattle collected from different provinces in Saudi Arabia and to report their phylogenetic relationship. A total of 362 blood samples of cattle along with ticks that were present on the cattle were collected from four regions (Riyadh, Al-Kharj, Al-Hasa and Al-Qassim) of Saudi Arabia. Blood samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of various Babesia, Theileria and Anaplasma species by amplification of their 18S rRNA and/or 23S rRNA genes. A total of 541 ticks were collected and identified from the cattle. These included Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus annulatus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. Regarding tick-borne pathogens, the overall prevalence was 1.9 % (7/362) for Theileria annulata, (2/362) 0.6 % for Theileria and (21/362) 5.8 % for Anaplasma ovis. Four of the cattle were found to be co-infected with more than one pathogen (1.1 %). We did not detect any Babesia species in the blood of the studied cattle. Prevalence of the Theileria and Anaplasma species was highest in cattle that resided in Riyadh, followed by cattle from Al-Hasa and Al-Qassim. Representative amplified partial-gene sequences of T. annulata (GenBank accession numbers MK826137-39) and A. ovis (GenBank acc. no. MK 880224) were submitted to GenBank. The presence of ticks on cattle was found to be associated with a high prevalence of Theileria spp. (P = 0.02) and Anaplasma ovis (P < 0.001). We report novel genotypes of T. annulata and A. ovis from cattle in Saudi Arabia and we recommend that molecular surveys are undertaken throughout the country to address the prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne infections for their effective diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101652DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular Survey of Vector-Borne Pathogens of Dogs and Cats in Two Regions of Saudi Arabia.

Pathogens 2020 Dec 31;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 6517658978, Iran.

Dogs and cats play an important role as reservoirs of vector-borne pathogens, yet reports of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Blood samples were collected from 188 free-roaming dogs and cats in Asir (70 dogs and 44 cats) and Riyadh (74 dogs), Saudi Arabia. The presence of spp., spp., hemotropic spp., spp., and spp. was detected using a multiplex tandem real-time PCR. PCR-positive samples were further examined with specific conventional and real-time PCR followed by sequencing. Dogs from Riyadh tested negative for all pathogens, while 46 out of 70 dogs (65.7%) and 17 out of 44 cats (38.6%) from Asir were positive for at least one pathogen. Positive dogs were infected with (57.1%), (30%), (15.7%), and (1.4%), and cats were infected with (13.6%), Mycoplasma haemominutum (13.6%), (9.2%), and (2.27%), all of which are reported for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Co-infection with and was detected in 17 dogs (24.28%), while coinfections were not detected in cats. These results suggest that effective control and public awareness strategies for minimizing infection in animals are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823254PMC
December 2020

In vitro acaricidal effect of and - extracts on (Acari: Ixodidae): embryonated eggs and engorged nymphs.

J Parasit Dis 2019 Dec 13;43(4):696-710. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

3Department of Agriculture Microbiology, Agriculture and Biology Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of four medicinal plant extracts: petroleum ether and ethyl alcohol extracts of the ripen fruits of and whole aerial parts of - against the two inactive stages of the camel tick , embryonated eggs and engorged nymphs in comparison to reference acaricide Butox5.0 (Deltamethrin). Egg and nymphal immersion tests at four concentrations with three replicates were used. The deformity in larvae hatched from treated eggs and adults moulted from treated nymphs were observed and photographed by light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that and - extracts revealed higher significant toxic effects on embryonated eggs and engorged nymphs comparing with the reference acaricide (Butox5.0) and control. In egg emmersion test, the LC of petroleum ether extracts of and - was 3.14 and 3.91%, respectively and LC of the respective ethyl alcohol extracts was 1.77 and 2.45%. In nymphal immersion test, LC of petroleum ether extracts of and - was 0.26 and 1%, respectively, and LC of the respective ethyl alcohol extracts was 4.17 and 8.7%. Abnormalities were observed by LM and SEM in the larvae hatched from the treated eggs as incomplete development of legs and mouth parts as well as shrinkage mainly in legs and mouthparts of adults emerged from treated nymphs. In conclusion, all extracts and petroleum ether extracts of the two plants have great potential to be developed as a novel acaricidal for controlling eggs and nymphs of , respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01149-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6841824PMC
December 2019

Species Diversity and Seasonal Distribution of Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Infesting Mammalian Hosts in Various Districts of Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia.

J Med Entomol 2019 06;56(4):1027-1032

Department of Zoonotic Disease, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Hard ticks are among the most important blood sucking arthropods that transmit pathogens to humans and animals. This study was designed to determine prevalence, mapping, geographical distribution, and seasonal activity of hard tick species infesting the most common domestic and wild mammals in various districts of Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia, during the period January to December 2017. In total, 10,832 adult hard ticks were collected from the bodies of 8,435 animals belonging to 18 different mammalian species. The ticks were preserved in 70% alcohol and microscopy was used to identify species. Two genera, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus, were identified, comprising 10 species of hard ticks, with Hyalomma comprising 68.3% and Rhipicephalus comprising 31.7% of species. The most common species on domestic mammalian hosts was Hyalomma dromedarii (Koch 1844) (39.9%) followed by Rhipicephalus turanicus (Pomerantsev, Matikashvili & Lotosky 1936) (34.9%), whereas on wild mammalian hosts Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille 1806) was by far the most prevalent species (83.0%). However, ticks were most abundant during May through July (36.0%) in the studied areas, and tick intensity and abundance differed among seasons. Our results provide information for human and animal health service managers, as well as governmental authorities, to gain a better understanding of hard ticks infesting mammalian hosts in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia, which can help improve prevention and control of tick-borne diseases, especially during outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz036DOI Listing
June 2019

Efficacy and safety of ethanolic extract as a treatment for sand tampan ticks in a rabbit model.

Vet World 2019 Apr 29;13(4):812-820. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 61413, Abha, 9088, Saudi Arabia.

Background And Aim: The soft tick is distributed throughout Africa, including Egypt. It primarily attacks camels, cattle, donkeys, and cows; and rarely affects humans. This study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of ethanolic extract (Turmeric) on the second nymphs of and then investigated the safety of this herb in rabbits.

Materials And Methods: The nymphs were immersed in 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 mg/ml ethanolic extract. An additional group was immersed in ethanol as a control. On the 1, 7, and 15-day post-treatment, the mortality percentages, LC, and LC were calculated. The ticks exposed to 10mg/ml ethanol extract were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three male New Zealand White rabbits were orally administered 2ml (two doses) of 10mg/ml ethanolic extract, and another three rabbits were orally given two doses of 2ml of absolute ethanol as a negative control. Histopathological examination of the kidney and liver hematology and the kidney and liver function was performed. Chemical analysis of the extract was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The LC and LC were 1.31 and 15.07, 1.07 and 8.56, and 0.81 and 6.97mg/ml on the 1, 7, and 15day, respectively. SEM revealed that mamillae and spots on the surfaces of the treated ticks were not discriminating except for some clefts on the surfaces. The histological examination, blood profile, and biochemical analyses revealed no significant differences between the treated and untreated rabbits (p>0.05). GC/MS analysis revealed 50 compounds, and curcumene and tumerone were found to be the major constituents of this ethanolic extract.

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract produced a strong acaricidal effect on the second nymph of , and it was safe to use in rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.812-820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245714PMC
April 2019

Molecular and immunological characterization of and (Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels.

Vet World 2018 Aug 12;11(8):1109-1119. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and was detected in mammals and ticks. Ticks play an important role in the spread of in the environment. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever in camels and ixodid ticks by molecular tools and identification of and using molecular and immunological assays.

Materials And Methods: A total of 113 blood samples from camels and 190 adult ticks were investigated for the infection with by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing the targeting IS30A spacer. The two tick species and were characterized molecularly by PCR and sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 () genes and immunologically by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot.

Results: A total of 52 camels (46%) were positive for Q fever infection. Only 10 adult ticks of were infected with . The IS30A sequence was around 200 bp in length for in ticks with a similarity of 99% when compared with reference data in GenBank records. The length of 16S rDNA and was 440 and 850 bp, respectively, for both and . The phylogenetic status of was distant from that of . SDS-PAGE revealed seven different bands in the adult antigens of either or with molecular weights ranged from 132.9 to 17.7 KDa. In western blot analyses, the sera obtained from either infested camel by or infested cattle by recognized four immunogenic bands (100.7, 49.7, 43.9, and 39.6 kDa) in antigen. However, the infested camel sera identified two immunogenic bands (117 and 61.4 kDa) in antigen. Furthermore, the sera collected from cattle infested by recognized three immunogenic bands (61.4, 47.3, and 35 kDa) in antigen.

Conclusion: Molecular analyses indicated that both camels and ticks could be sources for infection of animals and humans with Q fever. Furthermore, the molecular analyses are more accurate tools for discriminating and than immunological tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2018.1109-1119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141297PMC
August 2018

Is the cattle tick Say, 1821 reared on the rabbit?

J Parasit Dis 2018 Jun 23;42(2):297-302. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The cattle tick Say, 1821 (Acari: Ixodidae) is the main tick species on cattle in Egypt. This study was designed to know the possibility of rearing on rabbits in order to obtaining an adequate tick number and maintaining this tick species in lab to the next generation. Additionally, a comparison was performed between some biological parameters in fed on rabbits with that fed on cows. Six New Zealand white rabbits were used as a lab animal for rearing . The animals were divided into two groups. The first (G1) included four rabbits and the second (G2) included two rabbits. In G1, larvae fed until to reach unfed adults those were detached, cleaned their mouth parts carefully and re-fed on another rabbit. In G2, larvae were maintained on rabbits until to the fully fed females dropped. Oviposion, hatchability and life cycle of fed on rabbits were recorded and compared with those fed on cows. Results showed that although the cattle tick is highly specific to cattle, it is possible reared on rabbit in limited scale. The larvae well developed on the same rabbit to nymphs and adults. In G2, a very few adults completed their feeding and laid very small egg mass, some of eggs failed to hatch and a few recorded hatchability percentage not more than 9.1% in comparing 98.3% in females fed on cow. In G1, the rearing technique led to slightly increase the egg mass and their hatchability that reached to 23.6% in comparing with the hatchability recorded in G2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1000-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962484PMC
June 2018

Morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick and the camel tick (Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Rickettsioses in Egypt.

Vet World 2016 Oct 18;9(10):1087-1101. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Division of Veterinary Research, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Aim: Rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. The dog tick and the camel tick play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of Rickettsiae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in Egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of and .

Materials And Methods: A total of 601 and 104 of ticks' specimens were collected from dogs and camels, respectively, in Cairo, Giza and Sinai provinces. Hemolymph staining technique and and genes amplification were performed to estimate the prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks. For morphological identification of tick species, light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. In addition to the phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA, Second internal transcript spacer, 12S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1, and 16S rDNA were performed for molecular identification of two tick species.

Results: The prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks was 11.6% using hemolymph staining technique and 6.17% by and genes amplification. Morphological identification revealed that 100% of dogs were infested by while 91.9% of camels had been infested by . The phylogenetic analyses of five DNA markers confirmed morphological identification by LM and SEM. The two tick species sequences analyses proved 96-100% sequences identities when compared with the reference data in Genbank records.

Conclusion: The present studies confirm the suitability of mitochondrial DNA markers for reliable identification of ticks at both intra- and inter-species level over the nuclear ones. In addition to, the detection of Rickettsiae in both ticks' species and establishment of the phylogenetic status of and would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of ticks and tick borne rickettsioses in Egypt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.1087-1101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5104717PMC
October 2016

Assessment of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches.

Parasit Vectors 2016 May 4;9:260. Epub 2016 May 4.

Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, WSU, Pullman, WA, USA.

Background: Equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, contributes to significant economic loss in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. This study focuses on surveying T. equi and B. caballi infections and hematological disorders in equine populations in Egypt.

Methods: Theileria equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys in Egypt using light microscopy, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), nested PCR (nPCR), and competitive-ELISA (cELISA) assays. PCR products were examined for specificity by DNA sequencing. Hematological alterations were evaluated using a standard cell counter.

Results: Microscopic analysis revealed EP infection in 11.4% and 17.8% of horses and donkeys respectively. IFAT detected 23.9% and 17.0% infection of T. equi and B. caballi, respectively, in horses, and 31.4% of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys. T. equi cELISA detected 14.8% and 23.5% positive horses and donkeys, respectively, but the B. caballi RAP-1-based cELISA failed to detect any positives, a result hypothesized to be caused by sequence polymorphism found in the rap-1 genes. Nested-PCR analysis identified 36.4% and 43.1% positive horses and donkeys, respectively for T. equi and it also identified 19.3% and 15.7% positive horses and donkeys, respectively for B. caballi. The overall EP incidence found in the population under study was relatively high and comparable regardless of the diagnostic method used (56.8% using nPCR and 48.9% using IFAT). Hematologic analysis revealed macrocytic hypochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia in all piroplasma-infected horses.

Conclusions: The data confirm relatively high levels of EP, likely causing hematological abnormalities in equines in Egypt, and also suggest the need for an improved serological test to diagnose B. caballi infection in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1539-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4857240PMC
May 2016

Morphological and molecular description of immature stages of Ornithodoros savignyi (Acari: Argasidae).

Parasitol Res 2016 Aug 27;115(8):3033-40. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

This study was designed to provide more details about larva, first nymph, and second nymph of Ornithodoros savignyi using a combination of light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequence of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA). The main characteristics of larva are wrinkled integument with many grooves, gnathosoma without camerostome cheeks, hypostome with a pair of large teeth apically, and tarsus without humps. The comparisons between the first and the second nymphs are different shape and distribution of dorsal grooves; a few spots without mammilla on the dorsal surface of the second nymph; 27 and 63-65 pairs of setae on the dorsal surface of the first and second nymphs, respectively; small holes on mammillae that are more dense in the second nymph; basis capitulum with two pairs of small setae in the second nymph; and one pair of sate in the first nymph, hypostome with dental formula 2/2 in the first nymph, and 3/3 in the second nymph. The partial 16S rRNA sequence of the second nymph that was determined as O. savignyi (450 bp) was deposited in GenBank under the accession number KU163242.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5058-6DOI Listing
August 2016

Scanning electron microscopy and morphometrics of nymph and larva of the tick Hyalomma rufipes Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae).

J Parasit Dis 2016 Mar 16;40(1):1-10. Epub 2014 Mar 16.

Veterinary Research Division, Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, National Research Center, Post Box 12622, Al Buhouse St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The genus Hyalomma comprises the most ixodid tick species that parasitize camels in Egypt. Although the immature stages of tick species play an important role in distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases, the identification depends mainly on the adult stage. Therefore, this study tries to identify the specific characteristics of both nymph and larva of Hyalomma rufipes Koch, 1844 using scanning electron microscopy and morphometric analysis in order to differentiate them easily from those of other Hyalomma spp. described before in Egypt. Results showed that the nymph and larva of H. rufipes can be easily identified from those of H. excavatum Koch, 1844, H. dromedarii Koch, 1844 and H. impressum Koch, 1844 but they are strongly close to H. marginatum Koch, 1844. The nymph of H. rufipes can be distinguished from H. marginatum by the number and distribution of dorsal and ventral idiosomal setae and the distribution of sternal setae. All morphological characteristics of H. rufipes larva resemble those of H. marginatum larva. The measurements of nymph and larva structures of H. rufipes are significantly lower than those of H. marginatum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0450-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4815858PMC
March 2016

Identification of four novel Rhipicephalus annulatus upregulated salivary gland proteins as candidate vaccines.

Protein J 2013 Jun;32(5):392-8

Molecular Biology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

The control of Rhipicephalus annulatus ticks in Egypt and other countries relies principally on the application of acaricides which have many drawbacks. Recently, cattle vaccination against ticks showed a potential unconventional approach to control ticks. As a target, salivary glands contain various proteins that may play specific roles during attachment, feeding and may modulate the immune system of the host. We have performed immunoscreening on expression normalized cDNA library to identify unique R. annulatus proteins from salivary gland (RaSal) that are particularly expressed during engorgement. We also present the cloning and sequencing of four novel cDNAs (RaSal1-4) from salivary glands that are expressed during feeding. RaSal4 shows 13 cysteine amino acid residues forming 6 potential disulfide bonds. We detected the expression level of the four genes during embryogenesis in eggs collected at 6, 12 and 18 days after oviposition. RT-PCR analysis detected these proteins at days 12 and 18 while slight amplification was detected at day 6 for only RaSal2. The expression of these salivary genes may put forward new vaccines to control tick infestations and tick-borne diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-013-9498-xDOI Listing
June 2013

Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ixodid ticks in Egypt.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2012 May 4;12(5):346-59. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Tick-borne diseases comprise a complex epidemiological and ecological network that connects the vectors, pathogens, and a group of host species. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria from the genus Rickettsia associated with ixodid ticks infesting camels and cows in Egypt. Ticks were collected from 6 different localities: Qina, Giza, Qalet El Nakhl, New Valley, El Arish, and Minufia, from July to October 2008. Species were identified using PCR, followed by sequencing. The gltA and rOmpA genes were used for the initial detection of Rickettsia spp. Further characterization of positive samples utilized primers targeting rOmpB, sca4, and intergenic spacers (mppA-purC, dksA-xerC, and rpmE-tRNA(fMet)). Cows were infested with Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Boophilus annulatus. Camels were infested with Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, and H. marginatum marginatum. Approximately 57.1% of H. dromedarii ticks collected from Qalet El Nakhl were infected with Rickettsia africae, exhibiting 99.1-100% identity to reference strains. Within H. impeltatum, 26.7% and 73.3% of ticks from El Arish were infected with R. africae and R. aeschlimannii, with 98.3-100% and 97.9-100% identity, respectively. Furthermore, 33.3% of H. marginatum marginatum ticks in Qalet El Nakhl were infected with the same two species as H. impeltatum, demonstrating 99.1-100% and 99.3-100% identity, respectively. By comparing percent identities and phylogenetic relationships, R. africae is identified for the first time in Egypt, in addition to R. aeschlimannii, which exhibits 100% identity with the Stavropol strain in GenBank. In conclusion, the obtained data underscore the medical and veterinary importance of tick-borne rickettsioses, which necessitate further investigation by authorities in Egypt. Moreover, additional characterization of these rickettsial isolates should be performed to designate their strains, using a polyphasic strategy combining genotypic and phenotypic tests, to facilitate their deposition in the rickettsial collection of the WHO and/or ATCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0241DOI Listing
May 2012

Evaluation of glycoproteins purified from adult and larval camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii) as a candidate vaccine.

J Vet Sci 2011 Sep;12(3):243-9

Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

In order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (GLPs) about 97, 66 and 40 kDa in size were purified from adult and larval Egyptian ticks, Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with Con-A sepharose. The purified GLPs were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. The rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of GLPs (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. In the immunoblot analysis, Sera from the immunized rabbits recognized the native GLPs and other proteins from larval and adult H. dromedarii ticks along with those from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus but not Ornithodoros moubata. The effects of immunity induced by these GLPs were determined by exposing rabbits to adult H. dromedarii ticks. These results demonstrated that GLP immunization led to a slightly decreased reproductive index and significantly reduced rates of egg hatchability. These results demonstrated that immunization with the purified GLPs can provide protection against infestation by H. dromedarii and some other tick species. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of immunization with GLPs against other tick species.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165153PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2011.12.3.243DOI Listing
September 2011

Scanning electron microscopy and morphometrics of nymph and larva of the tick Hyalomma impressum (Acari: Ixodidae).

Parasitol Res 2011 Dec 3;109(6):1509-18. Epub 2011 May 3.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Post Box: 12622, Al Buhouse St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Nymphs and larvae of ixodid ticks play an important role on the distribution of ticks and transmission of pathogens. They almost infest small mammals and birds which either move from place to place as rodents or migrate across different countries as migratory birds. The morphological descriptions of nymph and larva of the tick Hyalomma impressum were firstly studied in details by scanning electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. The distinguished characters of H. impressum nymph are as follows: dorsal idiosoma (excluding scutum) with 26-27 pairs of setae, posterior margin of scutum is narrowly rounded, posterolateral margins of scutum is straight, cervical grooves on the scutum extend to the midlength, coxa I with two large spurs, coxae (II-IV) with one small spur for each, spiracle is an egg shape with a numerous pores, palpus does not project beyond the hypostome, with nine setae dorsally and six setae ventrally, hypostome has cylindrical shape, dental formula 2/2, teeth number per file is eight in the outer file and seven in the inner file, basis capitulum has triangular shape without setae dorsally and tetragonal shape with three pairs of setae ventrally. The distinctive characters of H. impressum larva are as follows: idiosoma with 13 pairs of setae for each dorsal (including scutal setae) and ventral (excluding coxal setae), scutum with cervical grooves is narrow and shallow extending about one third of the scutal length, posterior margin of scutum is broadly rounded, posterolateral margins of scutum is straight, fold-like indistinctive spurs on coxae II and III, palpus with eight setae dorsally, three setae ventrally and one seta apically, hypostome with dental formula 2/2, teeth number per file (excluding small basal and apical teeth) is seven in the outer file and six in the inner file, basis capitulum without setae dorsally and with three pairs of setae ventrally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2422-4DOI Listing
December 2011

Effect of various levels of dietary Jatropha curcas seed meal on rabbits infested by the adult ticks of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum I. Animal performance, anti-tick feeding and haemogram.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2011 Feb 30;43(2):347-57. Epub 2010 Sep 30.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, National Research Center, El-Behouse Street, Dokki, Post Box, 12622, Giza, Egypt.

The goal of this study was to investigate the use of Jatropha curcas seed meal (JCSM) in different levels as acaricide in diet of rabbits experimentally infested by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum then determining animal performance, anti-tick feeding and its effects on haemogram of rabbits. Thirty healthy mixed-breed rabbits were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first group was kept as a control fed soya bean meal (20%) as a source of protein. Groups from the second to the fifth fed diets contained 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of JCSM instead of soya bean meal as a source of protein, respectively. Feeding and watering were given freely throughout the study. Animal performance for treatment groups were recorded from the 1st week up to the 6th week. Then each group divided into two subgroups, and the ticks were introduced to all of one subgroup and the other kept as control, following them until dropped at the end of the 8th week for all groups of the experiment. Feeding and reproductive performance of the adult tick females were determined. Blood samples were collected and analysed for haematological examination at the 0, 6th and 8th weeks post-treatment from all animals. Result revealed that rabbits received diets containing 5%, 7.5% and 10% had significantly (P < 0.05) lower growth performance than control and 2.5% JCSM groups. Feed intake and body weight gain decreased with increasing the level of JCSM in the diet. The result of anti-tick feeding observed that the highest percentage (60-90%) of rejection was recorded in 10% of JCSM group then the other treated groups (20-30%). Egg mass and reproductive index per female were marked increase (P < 0.001) in groups 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% of JCSM. Macrocytic normochromic anaemia was development after 8 weeks of treatment, which changed to microcytic normochromic anaemia after challenge of ticks in groups received 5%, 7.5% and 10% JCSM. Leukopenia, neutopenia and lymphopenia were noticed (P < 0.05) in all treated groups which more drop in the group received 7.5% JCSM. Also, monocytosis was recorded in 7.5% and 10% JCSM groups. In conclusion, JCSM could be use in the treatment of ectoparasites at level less than 10% in diet. Further investigations should be done to detoxification the Jatropha seed meal to decrease the level of its toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9696-xDOI Listing
February 2011

The efficacy of some wild medicinal plant extracts on the survival and development of third instar larvae of Chrysomyia albiceps (Wied) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

Trop Anim Health Prod 2009 Dec 20;41(8):1741-53. Epub 2009 May 20.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Four crude wild plants extract of Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Artemisia monosperma Del., Euphorbia aegyptiaca Boiss. and Francoeuria crispa (Forsk.) extracted with four successive solvents; hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol were evaluated against the third instar larvae of Chrysomyia albiceps using dipping and thin film techniques. In dipping technique, larvae were immersed in the concentrations of plant extracts for 30 seconds. However, in thin film technique, larvae were exposed to thin layer from each plant extract in the Petri-dishes. Results showed that all extracts had toxic effects on larvae in both two treatments. Hexane and diethyl ether extracts of A. herba-alba and ethyl acetate extract of A. monosperma recorded the highest effect in both two treatments. Ethanol extracts of E. aegyptiaca and A. monosperma were the highest in dipping and thin film treatments, respectively. In dipping treatment, most plant extracts revealed extending effect on pupae especially while in thin film treatment most larvae which succeeded to develop to pupae produced normal flies. Deformed pupae were only recorded with the high concentration of diethyl extracts of A. herba-alba. Hexane, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts of F. crespa only produced low percentages of deformed flies. Histological examination conducted on larvae confirmed that extracts in thin film treatment penetrated to the gut and destroyed its epithelial cells and wall. It concluded that the crude extracts of the four tested plants can be used in controlling of C. albiceps larvae while hexane extracts of E. aegyptiaca, A. herba-alba and A. monosperma are considered the most promising plant preparations against the larvae by using thin film technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-009-9373-0DOI Listing
December 2009

Detection of microorganisms in the saliva and midgut smears of different tick species (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Egypt.

J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2007 Aug;37(2):533-9

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Investigation of 1789 field-collected adult ticks in Egypt for the presence of microorganisms revealed the following: the protozoan, Babesia bigemina, B. canis; Theileria annulata, and the rickettesia Aegyptianella pullorum (Carpano) were found in the saliva and the mid-guts smears of eight ixodid and two argasid tick species. The infected percent was higher in cattle and dog ticks than it was in fowl ticks; it was also higher in salivary glands (S) than in the midguts (M). Identification of protozoa using microscopic image analysis, showed that: Hyalomma spp. (Koch) were infected with T. annulata; the genera Boophilus (Curtice) and Rhipicephalus Koch were infected with B. bigemina, and B. canis respectively; Argas spp. (Latreille) were infected with A. pullorum. The bacterial disease agents: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Yersinia were detected in (S) and (M) of eight ixodids and one argasid tick species; Bacillus was only found in H. anatolicum excavatum, (Koch). Escherichia coli was isolated only from A. persicus (Oken) midguts.
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August 2007

Light, scanning electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE studies on the effect of the essential oil, Citrus sinensis var. balady on the embryonic development of camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Koch, 1818) (Acari: Ixodidae).

Pak J Biol Sci 2007 Apr;10(8):1151-60

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, P. Code: 12622, El Tahrir Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

GC-MSE analysis of the essential oil of fresh fruit peel of Citrus sinensis var. balady recognized two main natural toxic compounds, limonene (83.28%) as hydrocarbon compound and linalool (3.97%) as oxygenated compound. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate its effect on different egg-ages of Hyalomma dromedarii at four concentrations of 1:40, 1:30, 1:20 and 1:15 (oil : ethanol 95%) (v/v). The LC50 values were 1:56, 1:34, 1:41, 1:32, 1: 23, 1:23, 1:18, 1:14 and 1:11 for egg-ages of 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18 and 20 day, respectively. Histological Examination (HE), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were done on the 9th day old-eggs treated with the essential oil 1:32 (the LC50 value of 9 day old-egg). HE was done on the 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15th day old eggs; SEM was done on the 11, 15 and 17th day old eggs and SDS-PAGE was done on the 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17th day old eggs and compared each with those of control. In control, HE showed that nuclei migrated to the periphery and became part of the cytoplasmic membrane, blastula appears as a complete ring cells. Germ layer form and the later differentiate to different organelles such as opithosoma, ambulatory segment and chelicera...etc. while incase of treated eggs, HE showed that irregular manner of ectoplasmic membrane formed, blastula gathered on one or two sides, the cells of germ layer gather on one side as small or large mass or ring shape. Cells gathered as small masses or finger shape without forming any organelles. SEM revealed that heavy small bulging wrinkles were observed on egg shells of control. These wrinkles changed into large size in treated eggs on the 11th day and disappeared at the following days to become smooth surfaced. SDS-PAGE exhibited 15, 14, 14, 12, 17, 14 and 15 bands for treated eggs on the 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17th day old-eggs, respectively and 14, 15, 16, 19, 17, 19 and 18 bands for control eggs at the same egg-ages. The molecular weights of these bands were different in both control and treated eggs. It was concluded that the essential oil of C. sinensis var. balady has strong toxic effect on eggs of H. dromedarii especially in earlier embryonic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.1151.1160DOI Listing
April 2007

Acaricidal efficacy of Myrrh (Commiphora molmol) on the fowl tick Argas persicus (Acari: Argasidae).

J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2005 Aug;35(2):667-86

Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, El-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Five concentrations of purified extract of Myrrh from Commiphora molmol tree were prepared to study its effects on the fowl tick Argas persicus under laboratory conditions. The results revealed that Myrrh had dependant dose toxic effect on the adult female of A. persicus. Toxicity increased gradually daily post treatment. The LC50 was 1.28%, 0.88%, 0.84%, 0.50% and 0.42% at Ist, 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 12th days respectively. At 12th day, the recorded mortality rates were 63, 67, 76, 87 and 94% for concentrations, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10%, respectively against 5% in control. Histopathological and Transmission election microscope (TEM) examinations showed the lysing of epithelial gut cells in treated groups. The lysed epithelial gut cells showed irregularly distributed nucleus, commonly at low concentrations and rarely in high concentrations of Myrrh. The lysed epithelial gut cells, without nucleus or with aggregated one beside the basal lamina, were common at high concentrations and rare in low concentrations of Myrrh. Consequently, Myrrh can rapidly penetrate the cuticle to body cavity, destroy the epithelial gut cells and finally cause the death of ticks.
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August 2005
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