Publications by authors named "So Young Kim"

786 Publications

Dynamics and Entropy of Cyclohexane Rings Control pH-Responsive Reactivity.

JACS Au 2021 Nov 24;1(11):2070-2079. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Activation entropy (Δ ) is not normally considered the main factor in determining the reactivity of unimolecular reactions. Here, we report that the intramolecular degradation of six-membered ring compounds is mainly determined by the Δ , which is strongly influenced by the ring-flipping motion and substituent geometry. Starting from the unique difference between the pH-dependent degradation kinetics of geometric isomers of 1,2-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid amide (1,2-CHCAA), where only the isomer can readily degrade under weakly acidic conditions (pH < 5.5), we found that the difference originated from the large difference in Δ of 16.02 cal·mol·K. While -1,2-CHCAA maintains a preference for the classical chair cyclohexane conformation, -1,2-CHCAA shows dynamic interconversion between the chair and twisted boat conformations, which was supported by both MD simulations and VT-NMR analysis. Steric repulsion between the bulky 1,2-substituents of the isomer is one of the main reasons for the reduced energy barrier between ring conformations that facilitates dynamic ring inversion motions. Consequently, the more dynamic isomer exhibits much a larger loss in entropy during the activation process due to the prepositioning of the reactant than the isomer, and the pH-dependent degradation of the isomer is effectively suppressed. When the ring inversion motion is inhibited by an additional methyl substituent on the cyclohexane ring, the pH degradability can be dramatically enhanced for even the isomer. This study shows a unique example in which spatial arrangement and dynamic properties can strongly influence molecular reactivity in unimolecular reactions, and it will be helpful for the future design of a reactive structure depending on dynamic conformational changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.1c00354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611792PMC
November 2021

Association between Coffee Consumption/Physical Exercise and Gastric, Hepatic, Colon, Breast, Uterine Cervix, Lung, Thyroid, Prostate, and Bladder Cancer.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 2;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.

Although the effects of coffee consumption and physical exercise on the risk of cancer have been suggested, their interactions have not been investigated. The present cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the correlation of coffee consumption and physical exercise with cancer. Participants ≥40 years old in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study 2004-2016 were included ( = 162,220). Histories of gastric cancer, hepatic cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, uterine cervix cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, prostate cancer, and bladder cancer were analyzed according to the coffee consumption groups using logistic regression models. The odds among individuals in the >60 cups/month coffee group were lower for gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.80 (95% confidence intervals = 0.65-0.98)), hepatic cancer (0.32 (0.18-0.58)), colon cancer (0.53 (0.39-0.72)), breast cancer (0.56 (0.45-0.70)), and thyroid cancer (0.71 (0.59-0.85)) than for individuals in the no coffee group. Physical exercise of ≥150 min/week was correlated with higher odds for gastric cancer (1.18 (1.03-1.36)), colon cancer (1.52 (1.26-1.83)), breast cancer (1.53 (1.35-1.74)), thyroid cancer (1.42 (1.27-1.59)), and prostate cancer (1.61 (1.13-2.28)) compared to no exercise. Coffee consumption and physical exercise showed an interaction in thyroid cancer ( = 0.002). Coffee consumption was related to a decreased risk of gastric cancer, hepatic cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer in the adult population. Physical exercise was positively correlated with gastric cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13113927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8620757PMC
November 2021

Deep-Ultraviolet (DUV)-Induced Doping in Single Channel Graphene for Pn-Junction.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Nov 9;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

HMC (Hybrid Materials Center), Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea.

The electronic properties of single-layer, CVD-grown graphene were modulated by deep ultraviolet (DUV) light irradiation in different radiation environments. The graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), exposed to DUV in air and pure O, exhibited p-type doping behavior, whereas those exposed in vacuum and pure N gas showed n-type doping. The degree of doping increased with DUV exposure time. However, n-type doping by DUV in vacuum reached saturation after 60 min of DUV irradiation. The p-type doping by DUV in air was observed to be quite stable over a long period in a laboratory environment and at higher temperatures, with little change in charge carrier mobility. The p-doping in pure O showed ~15% de-doping over 4 months. The n-type doping in pure N exhibited a high doping effect but was highly unstable over time in a laboratory environment, with very marked de-doping towards a pristine condition. A lateral pn-junction of graphene was successfully implemented by controlling the radiation environment of the DUV. First, graphene was doped to n-type by DUV in vacuum. Then the n-type graphene was converted to p-type by exposure again to DUV in air. The n-type region of the pn-junction was protected from DUV by a thick double-coated PMMA layer. The photocurrent response as a function of Vg was investigated to study possible applications in optoelectronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11113003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623685PMC
November 2021

Association between Osteoporosis and Previous Statin Use: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Nov 12;18(22). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.

The relationship between statin use and osteoporosis is controversial; therefore, this study aimed to investigate this association. The ≥40-year-old population of the Korean National Health Insurance Service Health Screening Cohort was enrolled. The 68,592 osteoporosis patients were matched 1:1 with control participants for age, sex, income, and region of residence using propensity score matching. The histories of statin use for two years before the diagnosis of osteoporosis (index date) in the osteoporosis and control groups were compared using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. An increased number of days of statin use was not associated with osteoporosis (adjusted OR (aOR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.94-1.00, = 0.052). In the subgroup analyses, a large number of days of statin use was related to a reduced rate of osteoporosis in the <60-year-old female group, while the opposite was true in the ≥60-year-old female group. Both lipophilic and hydrophilic statins were related to a decreased rate of osteoporosis in the <60-year-old female group. Lipophilic statins, but not hydrophilic statins, were associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis in the ≥60-year-old female group. Statin use showed different associations in middle-aged and elderly women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8620647PMC
November 2021

Association between Temporomandibular Joint Disorder and Weight Changes: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study Using a National Health Screening Cohort.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Nov 10;18(22). Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate BMI changes following a temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) diagnosis. The Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort from 2002 to 2015 was used. In Study I, 1808 patients with TMJD (TMJD I) were matched with 7232 participants in comparison group I. The change in BMI was compared between the TMJD I and comparison I groups for 1 year. In study II, 1621 patients with TMJD (TMJD II) were matched with 6484 participants in comparison group II participants. The change in BMI was compared between the TMJD II and comparison II groups for 2 years. In Study I, the BMI change was not associated with TMJD. In Study II, the BMI change was associated with TMJD in the interaction of the linear mixed model ( = 0.003). The estimated value (EV) of the linear mixed model was -0.082. The interaction was significant in women < 60 years old, women ≥ 60 years old, and the obese I category. TMJD was not associated with BMI changes after 1-2 years in the overall population. In women and obese patients, TMJD was associated with a decrease in BMI after 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625011PMC
November 2021

Protection against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis by Fermented Sea Tangle ( Aresch) in Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells through Activation of Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

Foods 2021 Nov 15;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Anti-Aging Research Center, Dong-eui University, Busan 47340, Korea.

The purpose of the present study was to explore the efficacy of fermented extract of sea tangle ( Aresch, FST) with on DNA damage and apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide (HO)-stimulated osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and clarify related signaling pathways. Our results showed that exposure to FST significantly improved cell viability, inhibited apoptosis, and suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HO-stimulated cells. In addition, HO triggered DNA damage in MC3T3-E1 cells was markedly attenuated by FST pretreatment. Moreover, HO-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions associated with apoptotic events, including loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased Bcl-2/Bcl-2 associated x-protein (Bax) ratio, and cytosolic release of cytochrome , were reduced in the presence of FST. FST also diminished HO-induced activation of caspase-3, which was associated with the ability of FST to protect the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, FST notably enhanced nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the presence of HO with concomitant upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. However, artificial blockade of this pathway by the HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX, greatly abolished the protective effect of FST against HO-induced MC3T3-E1 cell injury. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FST could protect MC3T3-E1 cells from HO-induced damage by maintaining mitochondrial function while eliminating ROS along with activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623046PMC
November 2021

Mori Ramulus Suppresses Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Damage in Murine Myoblast C2C12 Cells through Activation of AMPK.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 29;22(21). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu 42158, Korea.

Mori Ramulus, the dried twigs of L., has been attracting attention for its potent antioxidant activity, but its role in muscle cells has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of Mori Ramulus (AEMR) against oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (HO) in C2C12 mouse myoblasts, and in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced muscle atrophied models. Our results showed that AEMR rescued HO-induced cell viability loss and the collapse of the mitochondria membrane potential. AEMR was also able to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in HO-treated C2C12 cells, whereas compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, blocked the protective effects of AEMR. In addition, HO-triggered DNA damage was markedly attenuated in the presence of AEMR, which was associated with the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Further studies showed that AEMR inhibited cytochrome release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, and Bcl-2 suppression and Bax activation induced by HO. Furthermore, AEMR diminished HO-induced activation of caspase-3, which was associated with the ability of AEMR to block the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, thereby attenuating HO-induced apoptosis. However, compound C greatly abolished the protective effect of AEMR against HO-induced C2C12 cell apoptosis, including the restoration of mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AEMR could protect C2C12 myoblasts from oxidative damage by maintaining mitochondrial function while eliminating ROS, at least with activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. In addition, oral administration of AEMR alleviated gastrocnemius and soleus muscle loss in DEX-induced muscle atrophied rats. Our findings support that AEMR might be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating oxidative stress-mediated myoblast injury and muscle atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8583786PMC
October 2021

Birth-related retinal hemorrhages: The Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital universal newborn eye screening (SUCH-NES) study.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(11):e0259378. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Korea.

Purpose: To report the prevalence, related factors, and characteristics of birth-related retinal hemorrhages (RHs) according to their severity in healthy newborns using a telemedicine network and wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI).

Methods: Newborns who underwent WFDRI at 61 obstetrics/gynecology hospitals between January 2017 and December 2019 were enrolled. Demographics and related factors were compared among newborns with and without RHs. The newborns' eyes were divided into the minimal, mild, moderate, and severe groups according to the number of RHs, and characteristics like bilaterality, laterality, involved retinal layer, involved zone, macular and/or optic nerve (ON) involvement were compared.

Results: Among 56247 newborns, 13026 had birth-related RHs (23.2%). Normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (NSVD) showed the highest association with RHs (odds ratio, 19.774; 95% confidence interval, 18.277-21.393; P < 0.001) on multivariate analysis. Bilateral RHs (8414/13026; 64.59%) were more common than unilateral RHs (4612/13026; 35.41%); however, unilateral RHs (2383/4217; 56.51%) were more common than bilateral RHs (1834/4217; 43.49%) in the minimal group. RHs showed no laterality differences between the two eyes (P = 0.493). Most RHs were intraretinal (18678/21440; 87.12%), and 2328 (31.65%) eyes with preretinal hemorrhage were observed in the severe group. Zone I RHs were common in the minimal (7072/7090; 99.75%), mild (4953/4960; 99.86%), and moderate (2013/2035; 98.92%) groups; zone I and II RHs were common in the severe group (4843/7355; 65.85%); and RHs in zone III were rare (7/21440; 0.03%). Most RHs showed no macular and/or ON involvement in the minimal and mild group; however, this was common in the severe group (7111/7355; 96.68%).

Conclusions: Birth-related RHs were common in healthy newborns and were significantly associated with NSVD. RHs were usually bilateral, intraretinal, and distributed posterior to the retina, but severe RHs had unique characteristics. Future long-term and longitudinal studies are required to elucidate the prognosis of severe RHs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0259378PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8577753PMC
November 2021

[Validity and Reliability of Korean Version of the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale].

J Korean Acad Nurs 2021 Oct;51(5):617-629

College of Nursing, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan, Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the self-efficacy for managing chronic disease 6-item scale (SECD-6-K).

Methods: The English version of the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-item Scale first underwent forward and backward translation procedures. The SECD-6-K was then used to collect data from 350 adults diagnosed with chronic diseases. Content, construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity were all evaluated. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α. SPSS 25.0 and the data were analyzed using AMOS 26.0 software.

Results: The SECD-6-K consists of six items in two domains: disease management and health behavior. The results for construct, convergent, and discriminant validity were good. Exploratory factor analysis produced eigen values between 2.27 and 3.28, with factors total explained cumulative variance of 91.1%. Confirmatory factor analysis supported goodness of fit and reliability for the modified SECD-6-K model. The criterion validity also showed significant correlation with both the Patient Health Questionnaire and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2. Finally, reliability was found to be excellent.

Conclusion: This study identified the high reliability and validity of SECD-6-K. The SECD-6-K is an appropriate tool for determining Korean patients' self-efficacy in managing their chronic conditions. Therefore, this scale may be used in clinical settings as well as in educational and research settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4040/jkan.21069DOI Listing
October 2021

Elucidation of the electron transfer environment in the MMOR FAD-binding domain from 5.

Dalton Trans 2021 Nov 23;50(45):16493-16498. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54796, Republic of Korea.

By facilitating electron transfer to the hydroxylase diiron center, MMOR-a reductase-serves as an essential component of the catalytic cycle of soluble methane monooxygenase. Here, the X-ray structure analysis of the FAD-binding domain of MMOR identified crucial residues and its influence on the catalytic cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt03273aDOI Listing
November 2021

The associations of previous influenza/upper respiratory infection with COVID-19 susceptibility/morbidity/mortality: a nationwide cohort study in South Korea.

Sci Rep 2021 11 3;11(1):21568. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea.

We aimed to investigate the associations of previous influenza/URI with the susceptibility of COVID-19 patients compared to that of non-COVID-19 participants. A nationwide COVID-19 cohort database was collected by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 8,070 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32,280 control participants. Severe COVID-19 morbidity was defined based on the treatment histories of the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death. The susceptibility/morbidity/mortality associated with prior histories of 1-14, 1-30, 1-90, 15-45, 15-90, and 31-90 days before COVID-19 onset were analyzed using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. Prior influenza infection was related to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.07 [1.61-5.85] for 1-14 days and 1.91 [1.54-2.37] for 1-90 days). Prior URI was also associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (6.95 [6.38-7.58] for 1-14 days, 4.99 [4.64-5.37] for 1-30 days, and 2.70 [2.55-2.86] for 1-90 days). COVID-19 morbidity was positively associated with influenza (3.64 [1.55-9.21] and 3.59 [1.42-9.05]) and URI (1.40 [1.11-1.78] and 1.28 [1.02-1.61]) at 1-14 days and 1-30 days, respectively. Overall, previous influenza/URI did not show an association with COVID-19 mortality. Previous influenza/URI histories were associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility and morbidity. Our findings indicate why controlling influenza/URI is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00428-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8566493PMC
November 2021

Targeting glycan sulfation in a CD11c+ myeloid population inhibits early KRAS-mutant lung neoplasia.

Neoplasia 2021 11 26;23(11):1137-1143. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

VA San Diego Healthcare System, Medical and Research Sections, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Veterans Medical Research Foundation, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Early lung carcinoma development may be modulated by innate host cellular mechanisms that promote tumor growth and invasion. We recently identified how a loss-of-function mutation in the glycan sulfating enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1; involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis) targeted to antigen presenting cells (APCs) may augment acquired anti-tumor T cell immune mechanisms. Crossing this mutation (Ndst1f/f CD11cCre+) onto a model of inducible spontaneous Kras mutant lung cancer [CCSP-rtTA; (tetO7) CMV-Kras-G12D] allowed us to examine how the APC mutation affects the formation and growth of early lung carcinoma. We examined early bronchocentric adenoma formation in the model, and the frequency of such events was significantly reduced on the mutant background. This was associated with significant reductions in tumor associated FOXP3+ cellular infiltration and CD163+ M2-type macrophage infiltration. The findings evolved prior to effector CD8+ T cell infiltration into tumors. The impact of this unique glycan under-sulfating mutation on inhibiting early Kras G12D mutant bronchocentric adenoma formation along with a cellular phenotype of inhibited tumor infiltration by cells involved in suppressive T-regulatory cell signaling (FOXP3+ cells) or tumor-permissive M2 macrophage functions (CD163+ cells) provides insight on how glycan targeting may modulate innate cellular mechanisms during early lung tumor development. The findings may also impact the future design of host-centered immunologic anti-tumor therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2021.09.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8560828PMC
November 2021

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and COVID-19 Susceptibility and Outcomes: a Korean Nationwide Cohort.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Oct 25;36(41):e291. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Data Science, Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes.

Methods: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death.

Results: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort.

Conclusion: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8546310PMC
October 2021

Changes in Dietary Habits and Exercise Pattern of Korean Adolescents from Prior to during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 23;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13103314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8541287PMC
September 2021

Induction of Apoptosis by Isoalantolactone in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hep3B Cells through Activation of the ROS-Dependent JNK Signaling Pathway.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Oct 6;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Dong-eui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan 47227, Korea.

Isoalantolactone (IALT) is one of the isomeric sesquiterpene lactones isolated from the roots of L. IALT is known to possess various biological and pharmacological activities, but its anti-cancer mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of IALT in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to evaluate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that IALT treatment concentration-dependently suppressed the cell survival of HCC Hep3B cells, which was associated with the induction of apoptosis. IALT increased the expression of death-receptor-related proteins, activated caspases, and induced Bid truncation, subsequently leading to cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, IALT contributed to the cytosolic release of cytochrome c by destroying mitochondrial integrity, following an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio. However, IALT-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis were significantly attenuated in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting that IALT induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in Hep3B cells. Moreover, IALT activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway, and the anti-cancer effect of IALT was significantly diminished in the presence of a potent c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor. IALT also improved the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas the ROS inhibitor significantly abrogated IALT-induced growth reduction, apoptosis, and JNK activation. Furthermore, ROS-dependent apoptosis was revealed as a mechanism involved in the anti-cancer activity of IALT in a 3D multicellular tumor spheroid model of Hep3B cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that IALT exhibited anti-cancer activity in HCC Hep3B cells by inducing ROS-dependent activation of the JNK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540929PMC
October 2021

The Effects of Income Level on Susceptibility to COVID-19 and COVID-19 Morbidity/Mortality: A Nationwide Cohort Study in South Korea.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 15;10(20). Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate the association of income level with susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Using the Korean National Health Insurance COVID-19 Database cohort, medical claim data from 2015 through 2020 were collected. A total of 7943 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 from 1 January 2020 to 4 June 2020 were included. A total of 118,914 participants had negative COVID-19 PCR tests. Income levels were classified by 20th percentiles based on 2019 Korean National Health Insurance premiums. The 20th percentile income levels were categorized into three groups (low, middle, and high). The relationship of income level with susceptibility to COVID-19 and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. A high income level was related to lower odds of COVID-19 infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-0.83, < 0.001). The negative association between income level and COVID-19 infection was maintained in all subgroups. Patients with low income levels were susceptible to COVID-19 infection; however, there was no relation of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality with income level in the Korean population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8541024PMC
October 2021

Quantification of Biogenic Amines in 35 Korean Cottage Industry Traditional (Fermented Red Pepper Paste) Products.

Foods 2021 Oct 6;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Traditional is well known for its distinguished flavor and taste. However, the safety of cottage industry products is uncertain, particularly, in terms of biogenic amine (BA) content which is not yet documented. The present study aimed to determine the level of BAs present in 35 traditional products nationwide. All products had considerable amounts of total BAs ranging from 52.95 mg/kg to 176.24 mg/kg. Individually, histamine and tyramine were either not detected or detected up to 16.94 mg/kg and 2.15-52.34 mg/kg, respectively. In all the tested products, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were detected in the range of 7.60-56.72 mg/kg, 14.96-36.93 mg/kg, and 4.68-16.31 mg/kg, respectively. A total of 22 and 19 products had less than 1 mg/kg of cadaverine and histamine, respectively. The findings indicate that all the products tested herein had BA levels below the suggested toxicity limits recommended by the various regulatory authorities, which reveal that they are safe for human consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10102370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535449PMC
October 2021

A Cold-Shock Protein from the South Pole-Dwelling Soil Bacterium sp. Confers Cold Tolerance to Rice.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Oct 9;12(10). Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Biosafety Division, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Jeonju 54874, Korea.

Low temperature is a critical environmental factor restricting the physiology of organisms across kingdoms. In prokaryotes, cold shock induces the expression of various genes and proteins involved in cellular processes. Here, a cold-shock protein (ArCspA) from the South Pole-dwelling soil bacterium sp. A2-5 was introduced into rice, a monocot model plant species. Four-week-old transgenic rice plants grown in a cold chamber at 4 °C survived for 6 days. Cold stress significantly decreased the chlorophyll content in WT plants after 4 days compared with that in transgenic plants. RNA-seq analysis was performed on WT and transgenic rice with/without cold stress. GO terms such as "response to stress (GO:0006950)", "response to cold (GO:0009409)", and "response to heat (GO:0009408)" were significantly enriched among the upregulated genes in the transgenic rice under normal conditions, even without cold-stress treatment. The expression of five cold stress-related genes, (Os11g0454200), (Os11g0454300), (Os01g0702500), (Os01 g0859300), and (Os03g0285800), was significantly upregulated in the transgenic rice compared with the WT rice. These results indicate that the gene might be involved in the induction of cold-responsive genes and provide cold tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12101589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535255PMC
October 2021

Association Between Asthma and Meniere's Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Laryngoscope 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea.

Objectives/hypothesis: This study aimed to investigate the association between Meniere's disease and prior history of asthma.

Study Design: A nested case-control study.

Methods: Among the patients aged ≥40 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort 2002-2015, 7,734 diagnosed with Meniere's disease between 2004 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. From the 505,834 participants without a prior history of Meniere's disease, 30,936 control participants were selected based on age, sex, income, and region of residence. The presence of a prior history of asthma before the diagnosis of Meniere's disease was compared between the Meniere's disease group and control group using conditional logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

Results: Prior history of asthma was associated with 1.30 (1.21-1.39) times higher odds of Meniere's disease (E-value = 1.92 [1.71]). Both allergic asthma and nonallergic asthma patients demonstrated higher odds of Meniere's disease than the control group (adjusted OR = 1.21 [1.08-1.36] and E-value = 1.72 [1.37] for allergic asthma; adjusted OR = 1.26 [1.17-1.36] and E-value = 1.83 [1.60] for nonallergic asthma).

Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate a positive relationship between Meniere's disease and prior asthma history in adults. The association between prior asthma history and Meniere's disease was noted in both allergic and nonallergic asthma cases. The potential development of Meniere's disease should be considered when managing the asthma patients with dizziness or vertigo.

Level Of Evidence: 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29917DOI Listing
October 2021

Primary testicular carcinoid tumor with marked lymphovascular invasion.

J Pathol Transl Med 2021 Nov 20;55(6):410-414. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.

Testicular carcinoid tumors are very rare, accounting for less than 1% of all testicular tumors. We report a rare case of a testicular carcinoid tumor with extensive lymphatic invasion. A 42-year-old man presented with a painless, enlarged right testicular mass. There was no history of injury or discomfort in this region. Right radical orchiectomy was performed, which showed a well-defined, non-encapsulated solid white mass with calcification (7.0 × 4.5 × 3.5 cm) and absence of cystic components. Microscopic examination using hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor sections identified organoid, trabecular, and solid patterns with rosette formation. Extensive multifocal lymphatic invasion was observed. Immunohistochemistry was positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. Testicular carcinoid tumors usually show good prognoses; however, there was extensive lymphovascular invasion in this case. Thus, in the case of unusual presentation of the disease, close follow-up is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2021.09.11DOI Listing
November 2021

Increased Risk of Neurodegenerative Dementia after Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 10 8;18(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University, College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.

The aim of the present study was to estimate the risk of dementia in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), using a population cohort. Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort for the population ≥60 years of age from 2002 to 2013 were collected. A total of 11,432 individuals with dementia were matched for age, sex, income, region of residence, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia with 45,728 individuals comprising the control group. The crude (simple) and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of dementia in BPPV patients were analyzed using non-conditional logistic regression analyses. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age and sex. A history of BPPV characterized 5.3% (609/11,432) of the dementia group and 2.6% (1,194/45,728) of the control group ( < 0.001). The adjusted OR of dementia for BPPV was 1.14 (95% CI = 1.03-1.26, = 0.009). In subgroup analyses according to age and sex, males had higher ORs of dementia for BPPV. BPPV increases the risk of dementia in the 60 years of age or older population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507776PMC
October 2021

Statin Use and COVID-19 Infectivity and Severity in South Korea: Two Population-Based Nationwide Cohort Studies.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 10 8;7(10):e29379. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking.

Objective: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers.

Methods: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort.

Results: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/29379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510150PMC
October 2021

Powerful use of automated prioritization of candidate variants in genetic hearing loss with extreme etiologic heterogeneity.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 30;11(1):19476. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Variant prioritization of exome sequencing (ES) data for molecular diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with extreme etiologic heterogeneity poses a significant challenge. This study used an automated variant prioritization system ("EVIDENCE") to analyze SNHL patient data and assess its diagnostic accuracy. We performed ES of 263 probands manifesting mild to moderate or higher degrees of SNHL. Candidate variants were classified according to the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics guidelines, and we compared the accuracy, call rates, and efficiency of variant prioritizations performed manually by humans or using EVIDENCE. In our in silico panel, 21 synthetic cases were successfully analyzed by EVIDENCE. In our cohort, the ES diagnostic yield for SNHL by manual analysis was 50.19% (132/263) and 50.95% (134/263) by EVIDENCE. EVIDENCE processed ES data 24-fold faster than humans, and the concordant call rate between humans and EVIDENCE was 97.72% (257/263). Additionally, EVIDENCE outperformed human accuracy, especially at discovering causative variants of rare syndromic deafness, whereas flexible interpretations that required predefined specific genotype-phenotype correlations were possible only by manual prioritization. The automated variant prioritization system remarkably facilitated the molecular diagnosis of hearing loss with high accuracy and efficiency, fostering the popularization of molecular genetic diagnosis of SNHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99007-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484668PMC
September 2021

The Protective Effect of Oral Application of Corni Fructus on the Disorders of the Cornea, Conjunctiva, Lacrimal Gland and Retina by Topical Particulate Matter 2.5.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 27;13(9). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-Eui University, Busan 47227, Korea.

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM) may aggravate dry eye disease (DED). Corni Fructus (CF), which is fruit of Sieb. et Zucc., has been reported to have various beneficial pharmacological effects, whereas the effect of CF on the eye is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of oral administration of water extract of CF (CFW) on the eye, hematology, and biochemistry in a DED model induced by topical exposure to PM. Furthermore, the efficacy of CFW compared with cyclosporine (CsA), an anti-inflammatory agent, and lutein, the posterior eye-protective agent. Sprague-Dawley rats were topically administered 5 mg/mL PM in both eyes four times daily for 14 days. During the same period, CFW (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and lutein (4.1 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day. All eyes of rats in the 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA)-treated group were topically exposed to 20 μL of CsA, twice daily for 14 days. Oral administration of CFW attenuated the PM-induced reduction of tear secretion and corneal epithelial damage. In addition, CFW protected against goblet cell loss in conjunctiva and overexpression of inflammatory factors in the lacrimal gland following topical exposure to PM. Furthermore, CFW markedly prevented PM-induced ganglion cell loss and recovered the thickness of inner plexiform layer. Meanwhile, CFW treatment decreased the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum induced by PM. Importantly, the efficacy of CFW was superior or similar to that of CsA and lutein. Taken together, oral administration of CFW may have protective effects against PM-induced DED symptoms via stabilization of the tear film and suppression of inflammation. Furthermore, CFW may in part contribute to improving retinal function and lipid metabolism disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13092986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464674PMC
August 2021

The Protective Effect of Topical Spermidine on Dry Eye Disease with Retinal Damage Induced by Diesel Particulate Matter2.5.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Sep 10;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-Eui University, Busan 47227, Korea.

Air pollutants, especially ambient fine particulate matter2.5, may contribute to various ocular surface disorders, including dry eye disease, keratitis and conjunctivitis. A natural polyamine spermidine has a protective effect on the retina and optic nerve; however, no study has been conducted on the application of spermidine in particulate matter2.5-induced dry eye disease. In the present study, we investigated the effect of spermidine eye drops in topically exposed particulate matter2.5-induced dry eye models of Sprague-Dawley rats, by hematological, biochemical and histological evaluation. Spermidine eye drops attenuated the particulate matter2.5 exposure-induced reduction of tear secretion and corneal epithelial damage. Furthermore, spermidine protected against conjunctival goblet cell loss and retinal ganglion cell loss induced by particulate matter2.5. Additionally, spermidine markedly prevented particulate matter2.5-induced infiltration of cluster of differentiation3 and cluster of differentiation4 T lymphocytes and F4/80 macrophages on lacrimal gland. Moreover, over expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 in the lacrimal gland and cornea. Meanwhile, the levels of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were markedly increased by topical exposure to particulate matter2.5, but this change in the lipid profile was decreased by spermidine. Taken together, spermidine may have protective effects against particulate matter2.5-induced dry eye symptoms via stabilization of the tear film and suppression of inflammation and may in part contribute to improving retinal function and lipid metabolism disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468149PMC
September 2021

Characterization of Circulating IL-7R Positive Cell Populations for Early Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

J Clin Med 2021 Sep 15;10(18). Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

(1) Background: Pancreatic cancer is a high devastating disease with the lowest survival rate among all common cancers due to difficulties in early diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the distinct subset of blood cell population elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of pancreatic cancer to evaluate the potential markers for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; (2) Methods: We analyzed differential gene expression in PBMC from normal individuals and pancreatic cancer patients utilizing transcriptome analysis. Flow cytometry analysis was applied to identify the discrete subset of interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) expressing cells in these cells. The expression of IL-7R during tumorigenesis was determined in syngeneic mouse model of pancreatic cancer in vivo; (3) Results: PBMC from pancreatic cancer patients expressed elevated IL-7R mRNA compared to healthy control individuals. IL-7R expressing cells rapidly appeared from the early stages of the onset of tumor formation in syngeneic pancreatic cancer mouse model in vivo. The discrete subset of IL-7R positive cells mainly consist of naive T, central memory T, and effector memory T cells; (4) Conclusions: Taken together, our present findings suggest that pancreatic cancer patients expressed higher level of IL-7R expression in PBMC that rapidly emerged from the onset of early pancreatic tumor formation in vivo than normal individuals. Thus, it can be used as a novel biological marker for early events of pancreatic cancer development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470840PMC
September 2021

Orthogonal genome-wide screens of bat cells identify MTHFD1 as a target of broad antiviral therapy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 09;118(39)

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Center for Infectious Disease Research, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China;

Bats are responsible for the zoonotic transmission of several major viral diseases, including those leading to the 2003 SARS outbreak and likely the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While comparative genomics studies have revealed characteristic adaptations of the bat innate immune system, functional genomic studies are urgently needed to provide a foundation for the molecular dissection of the viral tolerance in bats. Here we report the establishment of genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR libraries for the screening of the model megabat, We used the complementary RNAi and CRISPR libraries to interrogate cells for infection with two different viruses: mumps virus and influenza A virus, respectively. Independent screening results converged on the endocytosis pathway and the protein secretory pathway as required for both viral infections. Additionally, we revealed a general dependence of the C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase gene, MTHFD1, for viral replication in bat cells and human cells. The MTHFD1 inhibitor, carolacton, potently blocked replication of several RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. We also discovered that bats have lower expression levels of MTHFD1 than humans. Our studies provide a resource for systematic inquiry into the genetic underpinnings of bat biology and a potential target for developing broad-spectrum antiviral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2104759118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488669PMC
September 2021

MicroRNA Dysregulation in the Hippocampus of Rats with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 6;2021:1377195. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, CHA University College of Medicine, Bundang CHA Medical Center, Republic of Korea.

Although hippocampal changes due to noise-induced hearing loss have been suggested, little is known about the miRNA levels due to these hippocampal changes. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into noise and control groups ( = 20 per group). The noise group rats were exposed to white Gaussian noise (115 dB SPL, 4 hours per day) for three days. One day after noise exposure, the hippocampi of rats were harvested and miRNA expressions were analyzed using the Affymetrix miRNA 4.0 microarray ( = 6 per group). The predicted target genes of each miRNA were retrieved, and the pathways related to the predicted target genes were analyzed. miR-758-5p, miR-210-5p, miR-370-5p, miR-652-5p, miR-3544, miR-128-1-5p, miR-665, miR-188-5p, and miR-874-5p expression increased in the hippocampal tissue of the noise group compared to that in the control group. The overlapping predicted target genes included , , , , , and . The pathways related to these genes were the estrogen signaling pathway, vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, thyroid hormone synthesis, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, insulin secretion, circadian entrainment, insulin resistance, cholinergic synapse, dopaminergic synapse, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and AMPK signaling pathway. miR-448-3p, miR204-5p, and miR-204-3p expression decreased in the hippocampal tissue of the noise group compared to that in the control group. The overlapping predicted target genes of these three miRNAs were , , , , , , , and . Pathway analysis suggested that the Wnt signaling pathway is related to and . Noise-induced hearing loss dysregulates miR-758-5p, miR210-5p, miR370-5p, miR-652-5p, miR-3544, miR-128-1-5p, miR-665, miR-188-5p, miR-874-5p, miR-448-3p, miR-204-5p, miR-204-3p, and miR-140-5p expression in the hippocampus. These miRNAs have been predicted to be associated with hormonal, inflammatory, and synaptic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1377195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437592PMC
September 2021

Association between Statin Use and Meniere's Disease: Results from a National Health Screening Cohort.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 17;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Hallym Data Science Laboratory, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068, Korea.

The protective effects of statins against inner ear diseases have been suggested. This study investigated the relationship between previous statin use and the occurrence of Meniere's disease (MD). Participants ≥40 years old in the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort 2002-2015 were enrolled. A total of 7734 MD participants were matched with 38,670 comparison participants. The dates of statin prescriptions for the 2 years before the onset of MD were examined. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of statin use for MD. Regarding the different types of statins, lipophilic statins, but not hydrophilic statins, were associated with lower odds of MD in the <65 year-old group (adjusted OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.68-0.97, = 0.023). Prior statin use did not show association with MD in the adult population. Regarding the different types of statins, lipophilic statin use was related to a lower rate of MD in a middle-aged population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392457PMC
August 2021
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