Publications by authors named "Soňa Marvanová"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Screening of Cellular Stress Responses Induced by Ambient Aerosol Ultrafine Particle Fraction PM0.5 in A549 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 13;20(24). Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Veterinary Research Institute, Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Hudcova 296/70, 62100 Brno, Czech Republic.

Effects of airborne particles on the expression status of markers of cellular toxic stress and on the release of eicosanoids, linked with inflammation and oxidative damage, remain poorly characterized. Therefore, we proposed a set of various methodological approaches in order to address complexity of PM0.5-induced toxicity. For this purpose, we used a well-characterized model of A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to a non-cytotoxic concentration of ambient aerosol particle fraction PM0.5 for 24 h. Electron microscopy confirmed accumulation of PM0.5 within A549 cells, yet, autophagy was not induced. Expression profiles of various cellular stress response genes that have been previously shown to be involved in early stress responses, namely unfolded protein response, DNA damage response, and in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and p53 signaling, were analyzed. This analysis revealed induction of GREM1, EGR1, CYP1A1, CDK1A, PUMA, NOXA and GDF15 and suppression of SOX9 in response to PM0.5 exposure. Analysis of eicosanoids showed no oxidative damage and only a weak anti-inflammatory response. In conclusion, this study helps to identify novel gene markers, GREM1, EGR1, GDF15 and SOX9, that may represent a valuable tool for routine testing of PM0.5-induced in vitro toxicity in lung epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940800PMC
December 2019

Source Impact Determination using Airborne and Ground Measurements of Industrial Plumes.

Environ Sci Technol 2016 09 1;50(18):9881-8. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute , Hudcova 296/70, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Industrial particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposing nearby residential areas forms several European air pollution hot-spots. One of these hot-spot is the residential district of Ostrava Radvanice-Bartovice with frequent exceedances for PM and benzo[a]pyrene B[a]P, a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of MW > 228 amu. Such PAHs are highly bonded to the ultrafine particles (UFPs), the smallest PM size fraction, which deposits most efficiently in the alveolar region of human lungs. Airborne measurements identified UFP point sources in the adjacent metallurgical complex and mapped limited horizontal and vertical dispersion of industrial plumes enriched with UFPs (3.2 × 10(5)cm(-3)). The plumes, episodes of simultaneous peaks of UFPs (1.4 × 10(5)cm(-3)), SO2 (88.2 ppb), and CO (11.3 ppm), were recorded on the ground downwind in the residential district when wind speeds >1 ms(-1). In the plumes, UFPs were mostly 19-44 nm in diameter, enriched with PAHs/B[a]P up to 43.8/3.5 mg·g(-1). Electron microscopy showed that these plume UFPs were mostly agglomerates of spherules of 30-50 nm in diameter. These source impact measurements, that combine airborne and ground-level measurements, are applicable to clearly identify specific industrial air pollution sources and provide information to assess their possible impact to human health in similar hot-spots worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b02304DOI Listing
September 2016

Genotoxicity of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and its methyl derivatives in human keratinocytes.

Mutat Res 2012 Mar 28;743(1-2):91-8. Epub 2012 Jan 28.

Laboratory of Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis, Cancer Research Institute, SAS, 833 91 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Differences between tissues in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes may substantially contribute to tissue-specificity of chemical carcinogens. To verify this hypothesis, the spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes HaCaT were used, in order to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC), a known hepatocarcinogen and sarcomagen, and its synthetic tissue-specific derivatives, 5,9-dimethyl-DBC (DiMeDBC) and N-methyl-DBC (N-MeDBC), which manifest specific tropism to the liver and skin, respectively. HaCaT cells mainly express cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), which is involved in metabolism of DBC and N-MeDBC, but not DiMeDBC [10]. Both DBC and the sarcomagen N-MeDBC induced significant levels of DNA strand-breaks, micronuclei, and DNA adducts followed by the phosphorylation of the p53 protein and histone H2AX in HaCaT cells. In contrast, the specific hepatocarcinogen DiMeDBC was devoid of any significant genotoxic activity in this cell line. Our study demonstrates that the absence of drug-metabolizing enzyme(s) involved in DiMeDBC metabolism may contribute substantially to the tissue-specific genotoxicity of this hepatocarcinogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.12.030DOI Listing
March 2012

Genotoxicity of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and its tissue-specific derivatives in human hepatoma HepG2 cells is related to CYP1A1/1A2 expression.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2011 Oct 1;52(8):636-45. Epub 2011 Aug 1.

Laboratory of Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis, Cancer Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia.

The goal of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, and its methyl derivatives, 5,9-dimethylDBC (DiMeDBC), a strict hepatocarcinogen, and N-methylDBC (N-MeDBC), a specific sarcomagen in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and to infer potential mechanisms underlying the biological activity of particular carcinogen. All dibenzocarbazoles, regardless the tissue specificity, induced significant DNA strand break levels and micronuclei in HepG2 cells; though a mitotic spindle dysfunction rather than a chromosome breakage was implicated in N-MeDBC-mediated micronucleus formation. While DBC and N-MeDBC produced stable DNA adducts followed with p53 protein phosphorylation at Ser-15, DiMeDBC failed. A significant increase in DNA strand breaks following incubation of exposed cells with a repair-specific endonuclease (Fpg protein) suggested that either oxidative DNA damage or unstable DNA-adducts might underlie DiMeDBC genotoxicity in human hepatoma cells. DiMeDBC and N-MeDBC increased substantially also the amount of CYP1A1/2 expression in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment of cells with substances affecting AhR-mediated CYP1A family of enzymes expression; however, diminished DiMeDBC and N-MeDBC genotoxicity. Our data clearly demonstrated differences in the mechanisms involved in the biological activity of DiMeDBC and N-MeDBC in human hepatoma cells; the genotoxicity of these DBC derivatives is closely related to CYP1A1/2 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.20664DOI Listing
October 2011

Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is the major toxic mode of action of an organic extract of a reference urban dust particulate matter mixture: the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Mutat Res 2011 Sep 5;714(1-2):53-62. Epub 2011 Jul 5.

Department of Cytokinetics, Institute of Biophysics AS CR, Královopolská 135, 61265 Brno, Czech Republic.

Many of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution have been linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to airborne particulate matter (PM). The carcinogenic properties of PAHs in complex organic mixtures derived from PM have been chiefly attributed to their mutagenicity. Nevertheless, PAHs are also potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which may contribute to their nongenotoxic effects, including tumor promotion. As the genotoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs in complex mixtures derived from urban PM is often inhibited by other mixture constituents, the AhR-mediated activity of urban PM extracts might significantly contribute to the carcinogenic activity of such mixtures. In the present study, we used an organic extract of the urban dust standard reference material, SRM1649a, as a model mixture to study a range of toxic effects related to DNA damage and AhR activation. Both the organic extract and its neutral aromatic fraction formed a low number of DNA adducts per nucleotide in the liver epithelial WB-F344 cells model, without inducing DNA damage response, such as tumor suppressor p53 activation and apoptosis. In contrast, we found that this extract, as well as its neutral and polar fractions, were potent inducers of a range of AhR-mediated responses, including induction of the AhR-mediated transcription, such as cytochrome P450 1A1/1B1 expression, and the AhR-dependent cell proliferation. Importantly, these toxic events occurred at doses one order of magnitude lower than DNA damage. The AhR-mediated activity of the neutral fraction was linked to PAHs and their derivatives, as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls were only minor contributors to the overall AhR-mediated activity. Taken together, our data suggest that more attention should be paid to the AhR-dependent nongenotoxic events elicited by urban PM constituents, especially PAHs and their derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2011.06.011DOI Listing
September 2011

Toxic effects of methylated benzo[a]pyrenes in rat liver stem-like cells.

Chem Res Toxicol 2011 Jun 3;24(6):866-76. Epub 2011 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100 Brno, Czech Republic.

The methylated benzo[a]pyrenes (MeBaPs) are present at significant levels in the environment, especially in the sediments contaminated by petrogenic PAHs. However, the existing data on their toxic effects in vitro and/or in vivo are still largely incomplete. Transcription factor AhR plays a key role in the metabolic activation of PAHs to genotoxic metabolites, but the AhR activation may also contribute to the tumor promoting effects of PAHs. In this study, the AhR-mediated activity of five selected MeBaP isomers was estimated in the DR-CALUX reporter gene assay performed in rat hepatoma cells. Detection of other effects, including induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AKR1C9 mRNAs, DNA adduct formation, production of reactive oxygen species, oxidation of deoxyguanosine, and cell cycle modulation and apoptosis, was performed in the rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cell line, a model of liver progenitor cells. We identified 1-MeBaP as the most potent inducer of AhR activation, stable DNA adduct formation, checkpoint kinase 1 and p53 phosphorylation, and apoptosis. These effects suggest that 1-MeBaP is a potent genotoxin eliciting a typical sequence of events ascribed to carcinogenic PAHs: induction of CYP1 enzymes, formation of high levels of DNA adducts, activation of DNA damage responses (including p53 phosphorylation), and cell death. In contrast, 10-MeBaP, representing BaP isomers substituted with the methyl group in the angular ring, elicited only low levels DNA adduct formation and apoptosis. Other MeBaPs under study also elicited strong apoptotic responses associated with DNA adduct formation as the prevalent mode of toxic action of these compounds in liver cells. MeBaPs induced a weak production of ROS, which did not lead to significant oxidative DNA damage. Importantly, 1-MeBaP and 3-MeBaP were found to be potent AhR agonists, one order of magnitude more potent than BaP, thus suggesting that the AhR-dependent modulations of gene expression, deregulation of cell survival mechanisms, and further nongenotoxic effects associated with AhR activation may further contribute to their tumor promotion and carcinogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx200049xDOI Listing
June 2011

Genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fail to induce the p53-dependent DNA damage response, apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells.

Toxicol Lett 2010 Sep 11;197(3):227-35. Epub 2010 Jun 11.

Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100 Brno, Czech Republic.

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been positively associated with prostate cancer, but knowledge of the formation of PAH-DNA adducts and related genotoxic events in prostatic cells is limited. In the present study, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagenic PAH, formed significant levels of DNA adducts in cell lines derived from human prostate carcinoma. When analyzing the effect of BaP on the induction of CYP1 enzymes participating in the metabolic activation of PAHs in LNCaP cells, we found that BaP induced expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, but not CYP1B1 enzyme. Despite a significant amount of DNA adducts being formed by BaP and, to a lesser extent also by another strong genotoxin, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, neither apoptosis nor cell-cycle arrest were induced in LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells were not sensitized to the induction of apoptosis by PAHs even through inhibition of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pro-survival pathway. The lack of apoptosis was not due a disruption of expression of pro-apoptotic and pro-survival members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators. In contrast to other genotoxic stimuli, genotoxic PAHs failed to induce DNA double-strand breaks, as illustrated by the lack of phosphorylation of histone H2AX or checkpoint kinase-2. BaP did not activate p53, as evidenced by the lack of p53 accumulation, phosphorylation at Ser15, or induction of p53 transcriptional targets. Taken together, although genotoxic PAHs produced significant levels of DNA adducts in a model of human prostate carcinoma cells, they did not activate the mechanisms leading to elimination of cells with significant damage to DNA, presumably due to their failure to activate the p53-dependent DNA damage response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.06.004DOI Listing
September 2010

Differences in DNA damage and repair produced by systemic, hepatocarcinogenic and sarcomagenic dibenzocarbazole derivatives in a model of rat liver progenitor cells.

Mutat Res 2009 Jun 13;665(1-2):51-60. Epub 2009 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis, Cancer Reserach Institute, SAS, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Liver progenitor (oval) cells are a potential target cell population for hepatocarcinogens. Our recent study showed that the liver carcinogens 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) and 5,9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DiMeDBC), but not the sarcomagen N-methyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole (N-MeDBC), induced several cellular events associated with tumor promotion in WB-F344 cells, an in vitro model of liver oval cells [J. Vondracek, L. Svihalkova-Sindlerova, K. Pencikova, P. Krcmar, Z. Andrysik, K. Chramostova, S. Marvanova, Z. Valovicova, A. Kozubik, A. Gabelova, M. Machala, 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and 5,9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole exert multiple toxic events contributing to tumor promotion in rat liver epithelial 'stem-like' cells, Mutat. Res. Fundam. Mol. Mech. Mutagen. 596 (2006) 43-56]. In this study, we focused on the genotoxic effects generated by these dibenzocarbazoles in WB-F344 cells to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Lower IC(50) values determined for DBC and DiMeDBC, as compared with N-MeDBC, indicated a higher sensitivity of WB-F344 cells towards hepatocarcinogens. Accordingly, DBC produced a dose-dependent DNA-adduct formation resulting in substantial inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. In contrast, DNA-adduct number detected in DiMeDBC-exposed cells was almost negligible, whereas N-MeDBC produced a low level of DNA adducts. Although all dibenzocarbazoles significantly increased the level of strand breaks (p<0.05) and micronuclei (p<0.001) after 2-h treatment, differences in the kinetics of strand break rejoining were found. The strand break level in DiMeDBC- and N-MeDBC-exposed cells returned to near the background level within 24h after treatment, whereas a relatively high DNA damage level was detected in DBC-treated cells up to 48h after exposure. Additional breaks detected after incubation of DiMeDBC-exposed WB-F344 cells with a repair-specific endonuclease, along with a nearly 3-fold higher level of reactive oxygen species found in these cells as compared with control, suggest a possible role of oxidative stress in DiMeDBC genotoxicity. We demonstrated qualitative differences in the DNA damage profiles produced by hepatocarcinogens DBC and DiMeDBC in WB-F344 cells. Different lesions may trigger distinct cellular pathways involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. The low amount of DNA damage, together with an efficient repair, may explain the lack of hepatocarcinogenicity of N-MeDBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.02.014DOI Listing
June 2009

Toxic effects of methylated benz[a]anthracenes in liver cells.

Chem Res Toxicol 2008 Feb 19;21(2):503-12. Epub 2008 Jan 19.

Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100 Brno, Czech Republic.

Monomethylated benz[ a]anthracenes (MeBaAs) are an important group of methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although the methyl substitution reportedly affects their mutagenicity and tumor-initiating activity, little is known about the impact of methylation on the effects associated with activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent gene expression and/or toxic events associated with tumor promotion. In the present study, we studied the effects of a series of MeBaAs on the above-mentioned end points in rat liver cell lines and compared them with the effects of benz[ a]anthracene (BaA) and the potent carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[ a]anthracene (DMBA). Methyl substitution enhanced the AhR-mediated activity of BaA derivatives determined in a reporter gene assay, as the induction equivalency factors (IEFs) of all MeBaAs were higher than that of BaA. IEFs of 6-MeBaA and 9-MeBaA, two of the most potent MeBaAs, were more than two orders of magnitude higher than the IEF of BaA. Correspondingly, all MeBaAs induced higher levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 mRNA. Both BaA and MeBaAs had similar effects on the expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 or aldo-keto reductase 1C9 in rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells. In contrast to genotoxic DMBA, MeBaAs induced low DNA adduct formation. Only 10-MeBaA induced apoptosis and accumulation of phosphorylated p53, which could be associated with the induction of oxidative stress, similar to DMBA. With the exception of 10-MeBaA, all MeBaAs induced cell proliferation in contact-inhibited WB-F344 cells, which corresponded with their ability to activate AhR. 1-, 2-, 8-, 10-, 11-, and 12-MeBaA inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 cells. This mode of action, like disruption of cell proliferation control, might contribute to tumor promotion. Taken together, these data showed that the methyl substitution significantly influences those effects of MeBaAs associated with AhR activation or GJIC inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx700305xDOI Listing
February 2008

DNA adducts formation and induction of apoptosis in rat liver epithelial 'stem-like' cells exposed to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Mutat Res 2008 Feb 16;638(1-2):122-32. Epub 2007 Sep 16.

Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, AS CR, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic.

The bipotent liver progenitor cells, so called oval cells, may participate at the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis induced by chemical carcinogens. Unlike in mature parenchymal cells, little is known about formation of DNA adducts and other genotoxic events in oval cells. In the present study, we employed spontaneously immortalized rat liver WB-F344 cell line, which is an established in vitro model of oval cells, in order to study genotoxic effects of selected carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). With exception of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and partly also benzo[g]chrysene and benz[a]anthracene, all other PAHs under the study induced high levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA. In contrast, we observed distinct genotoxic and cytotoxic potencies of PAHs. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and to a lesser extent also benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[g]chrysene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, formed high levels of DNA adducts. This was accompanied with accumulation of Ser-15 phosphorylated form of p53 protein and induction of apoptosis. Contrary to that, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene induced only low amounts of DNA adducts formation and minimal apoptosis, without exerting significant effects on p53 phosphorylation. Finally, we studied effects of 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene and fluoranthene, inhibitors of CYP1B1 activity, which plays a central role in metabolic activation of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene. In a dose-dependent manner, both compounds inhibited apoptosis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, suggesting that it interferes with the metabolic activation of the latter one. The present data show that in model cell line sharing phenotypic properties with oval cells, PAHs can be efficiently metabolized to form ultimate genotoxic metabolites. Liver progenitor cells could be thus susceptible to this type of genotoxic insult, which makes WB-F344 cell line a useful tool for studies of genotoxic effects of organic contaminants in liver cells. Our results also suggest that, unlike in mature hepatocytes, CYP1B1 might be a primary enzyme responsible for formation of DNA adducts in liver progenitor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2007.09.004DOI Listing
February 2008

Concentrations of methylated naphthalenes, anthracenes, and phenanthrenes occurring in Czech river sediments and their effects on toxic events associated with carcinogenesis in rat liver cell lines.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2007 Nov;26(11):2308-16

Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 61265 Brno, Czech Republic.

Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important environmental pollutants. In the present study, we determined levels of monomethylated naphthalenes (MeNap), phenanthrenes (MePhe), and anthracenes (MeAnt) in Czech river sediments. The levels of MePhe generally were lower than the concentrations of phenanthrene. In contrast, both MeNap and MeAnt were found at levels higher than their respective parent compounds in the majority of sampling sites. We then investigated their aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity, accumulation of phosphorylated p53 protein, induction of expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), and effects on cell proliferation in rat liver cell models to evaluate the relative importance of these toxicity mechanisms of low-molecular-weight methylated PAHs. Methylated phenanthrene and anthracene compounds were weak inducers of AhR-mediated activity as determined both in a reporter gene assay system and by detection of the endogenous gene (Cyp1a1) induction. 2-Methylphenanthrene was the most potent AhR ligand. Contribution of MeAnt and MePhe to overall AhR-inducing potencies should be taken into account in PAH-contaminated environments. Nevertheless, their effects on AhR were not sufficient to modulate cell proliferation in a normal rat liver progenitor cell model system. These PAHs only had a marginal effect on p53 phosphorylation at high doses of 1-, 3-, and 9-MePhe as well as 1 MeAnt. On the other hand, both 2- and 9-MeAnt as well as all the MePhe under study were efficient inhibitors of GJIC, suggesting that these compounds might act as tumor promoters. In summary, inhibition of GJIC and partial activation of AhR seem to be the most prominent toxic effects of the methylated PAHs in the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/07-161R.1DOI Listing
November 2007

7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and 5,9-dimethyldibenzo[c,g]carbazole exert multiple toxic events contributing to tumor promotion in rat liver epithelial 'stem-like' cells.

Mutat Res 2006 Apr 9;596(1-2):43-56. Epub 2006 Jan 9.

Laboratory of Cytokinetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno, Czech Republic.

Immature liver progenitor cells have been suggested to be an important target of hepatotoxins and hepatocarcinogens. The goal of the present study was to assess the impact of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) and its tissue-specific carcinogenic N-methyl (N-MeDBC) and 5,9-dimethyl (DiMeDBC) derivatives on rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells, in vitro model of liver progenitor cells. We investigated the cellular events associated with both tumor initiation and promotion, such as activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), changes in expression of enzymes involved in metabolic activation of DBC and its derivatives, effects on cell cycle, cell proliferation/apoptosis and inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). N-MeDBC, a tissue-specific sarcomagen, was only a weak inhibitor of GJIC or inducer of AhR-mediated activity, and it did not affect either cell proliferation or apoptosis. DBC was efficient GJIC inhibitor, while DiMeDBC manifested the strongest AhR inducing activity. Accordingly, DiMeDBC was also the most potent inducer of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1A2 expression among the three compounds tested. Both DBC and DiMeDBC induced expression of CYP1B1 and aldo-keto reductase 1C9 (AKR1C9). N-MeDBC failed to significantly upregulate CYP1A1/2 and it only moderately increased CYP1B1 or AKR1C9. Only the potent liver carcinogens, DBC and DiMeDBC, caused a significant increase of p53 phosphorylation at Ser15, an increased accumulation of cells in S-phase and apoptosis at micromolar concentrations. In addition, DiMeDBC was found to stimulate cell proliferation of contact-inhibited WB-F344 cells at 1 microM concentration, which is a mode of action that might further contribute to its hepatocarcinogenicity. The present data seem to suggest that the AhR activation, induction of enzymes involved in metabolic activation, inhibition of GJIC or stimulation of cell proliferation might all contribute to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of DBC and DiMeDBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.11.005DOI Listing
April 2006

Reconstruction of mycobacterial dehalogenase Rv2579 by cumulative mutagenesis of haloalkane dehalogenase LinB.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2003 Apr;69(4):2349-55

Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

The homology model of protein Rv2579 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was compared with the crystal structure of haloalkane dehalogenase LinB from Sphingomonas paucimobilis UT26, and this analysis revealed that 6 of 19 amino acid residues which form an active site and entrance tunnel are different in LinB and Rv2579. To characterize the effect of replacement of these six amino acid residues, mutations were introduced cumulatively into the six amino acid residues of LinB. The sixfold mutant, which was supposed to have the active site of Rv2579, exhibited haloalkane dehalogenase activity with the haloalkanes tested, confirming that Rv2579 is a member of the haloalkane dehalogenase protein family.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC154798PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.4.2349-2355.2003DOI Listing
April 2003