Publications by authors named "Snehil Gupta"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Smartphone Health Assessment for Relapse Prevention (SHARP): a digital solution toward global mental health.

BJPsych Open 2021 Jan 7;7(1):e29. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Digital Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Predicting and preventing relapse presents a crucial opportunity and first step to improve outcomes and reduce the care gap for persons living with schizophrenia. Using commercially available smartphones and smartwatches, technology now affords opportunities to capture real-time and longitudinal profiles of patients' symptoms, cognition, physiology and social patterns. This novel data makes it possible to explore relationships between behaviours, physiology and symptoms, which may yield personalised relapse signals.

Aims: Smartphone Health Assessment for Relapse Prevention (SHARP), an international mental health research study supported by the Wellcome Trust, will inform the development of a scalable and sharable digital health solution to monitor personal risk of relapse. The resulting technology will be studied toward predicting and preventing relapse among individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness.

Method: SHARP is a two-phase study with research sites in Boston, Massachusetts, and Bangalore and Bhopal, India. During phase 1, focus groups will be conducted at each study site to collect feedback on the design and features available on mindLAMP, a digital health platform. Individuals with serious mental illness will use mindLAMP for the duration of a year during phase 2.

Results: The results of the research outlined in this protocol will guide the development of technology and digital tools to help address pervasive challenges in global mental health.

Conclusions: The digital tools developed as a result of this study, and participants' experiences using them, may offer insight into opportunities to expand digital mental health resources and optimize their utilisation around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.142DOI Listing
January 2021

Molecular tools-advances, opportunities and prospects for the control of parasites of veterinary importance.

Int J Trop Insect Sci 2020 Jul 29:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Zoology, Choudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh 250001 India.

The recent advancement in genome sequencing facilities, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics of eukaryotes have opened door for employment of molecular diagnostic techniques for early detection of parasites and determining target molecules for formulating control strategies. It further leads to the introduction of several purified vaccines in the field of veterinary parasitology. Earlier, the conventional diagnostic methods was entirely based upon morphological taxonomy for diagnosis of parasites but nowadays improved molecular techniques help in phylogenetic study and open an another area of molecular taxonomy of parasites with high precision. Control measures based upon targeting endosymbionts in parasites like is also under exploration in veterinary parasitology. Metagenomics have added an inside story of parasites bionomics which have created havoc in human and animals population since centuries. Omics era is playing a key role in opening the new approaches on parasite biology. Various newer generations of safer vaccines like edible vaccines and subunit vaccines and diagnostic techniques based upon purified immunologically active epitopes have become commercially available against the parasites (helminths, protozoa and arthropod borne diseases). Nowadays, a transgenic and gene knock out studies using RNA interference and CRISPR are also helping in understanding the functions of genes and screening of target genes, which are not available before the advent of molecular tools. Molecular techniques had paramount impact on increasing the sensitivity of diagnostic tools, epidemiological studies and more importantly in controlling these diseases. This review is about the advancements in veterinary parasitology and their impact on the control of these pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42690-020-00213-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387080PMC
July 2020

Juvenile Justice System, Juvenile Mental Health, and the Role of MHPs: Challenges and Opportunities.

Indian J Psychol Med 2020 May-Jun;42(3):304-310. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Psychiatry and National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Juvenile justice system (JJS) and the mental health of the juveniles involved in it are intricately related. Children in conflict with the law (CICL) and children in need of care and protection (CINCP) have a higher prevalence of mental health-and substance use related-problems, similarly, juveniles with mental health problems have a higher chance of coming in contact with JJS. Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 (JJ Act), with its latest amendment (2015), emphasizes the developmental well-being, including the psychological well-being of juveniles coming in contact with JJS and their social reintegration and rehabilitation. Mental health professionals (MHPs) can play a significant role in realizing this goal by contributing at all the levels: mental health promotion, preventing juveniles from coming in contact with JJS, treating juveniles in contact with JJS, and subsequent rehabilitation. Being well-versed in this area would also give a clinical and legal edge to the MHPs. Although JJ Act is a child-friendly law, its implementation in the real-world is faced with many practical challenges, which in turn limit or undermine the full legal, social, educational, and health benefits to the juveniles. The current viewpoint is aimed to highlight the important mental health aspects of juveniles involved with JJS with reference to the JJ Act (care and protection of children act, 2015) and the potential role that MHPs can play and discusses important challenges and road ahead.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_82_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320727PMC
April 2020

Portrayal of alcohol in Bollywood movies: A mixed methods study.

Indian J Psychiatry 2020 Mar-Apr;62(2):159-166. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Exposure to alcohol in popular movies during adolescence is associated with higher rates of alcohol use. We aimed to assess the extent and pattern of depiction of alcohol in Bollywood movies, and to analyze the trends in portrayal of alcohol over three decades selected for the study.

Materials And Methods: We selected the top five grossing movies for each year of the three decades selected (1961-1970; 1981-1990; and 2001-2010). Content analysis was conducted for each scene depicting alcohol in the movie. We compared quantitative variables across the three decades to assess for any changes in the portrayal of alcohol and performed qualitative content analysis for the text description of the context, in which alcohol was depicted in each movie.

Results: Of the total 150 movies analyzed, 135 (90%) movies contained at least one scene depicting alcohol. Alcohol scenes comprised 7% of the total movie time. Majority of the scenes (92.2%, = 976) showed the substance (alcohol) itself. Spirits were the most common alcohol beverages depicted (75.1%, = 733). Only 7.9% of scenes ( = 84) depicted alcohol brands. About 67% ( = 709) of scenes showed characters consuming alcohol or appeared intoxicated. Most scenes portrayed hero ( = 253, 35.7%) consuming alcohol. Female characters were depicted in 7.5% ( = 53) alcohol scenes. The third decade (2001-2010) had the least proportion of scenes depicting Spirits and the highest proportion of scenes depicting beer and wine. Decade three also had the most proportion of scenes set in clubs, bars, discotheques or restaurants, scenes with characters of "positive" shade depicting alcohol use, and the scenes portraying heroine with alcohol use.

Conclusion: There is an increasing trend toward alcohol depiction by positive characters for fun and relaxation, and toward depiction of low-concentration alcohol such as beer in recent decades. The impact of changing trend of alcohol depiction on the Indian viewers, especially young audience, needs further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_294_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197829PMC
March 2020

The pattern of alcohol use and its relationship with consequences among problem alcohol users: A community-based cross-sectional study from India.

Indian J Psychiatry 2020 Mar-Apr;62(2):152-158. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Psychiatry, National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Pattern of drinking has a strong bearing on alcohol-related negative consequences. Very few studies from India have assessed this relationship using any standardized instrument.

Aim: The current study aims to assess the relationship between pattern of alcohol use and negative consequences among problem alcohol users using a standardized instrument.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study using snowball sampling technique was conducted among 75 participants in an urban slum of a metropolitan city of India. Screening of the participants was done by the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (WHO-ASSIST). Alcohol use details and alcohol-related adverse consequences were obtained by a semi-structured questionnaire and Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC) inventory, respectively. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and logistic regression test were used to analyze the data.

Results: There was a significant association between high total DrInC score and ≥3 subscale scores with employment status, percentage of total family income spent on alcohol, source of income to procure alcohol, amount of alcohol, morning drinking, alcohol use for relaxation, and drinking throughout the day (Chi-square test). Age ≤35 years, current unemployment/part-time employment state, spending ≥25% of total family income on alcohol, family history, and drinking throughout the day were more likely to have high total DrInC score and ≥2 subscale scores (logistic regression analysis).

Conclusion: A large proportion of the participants were suffering significantly from alcohol-related consequences but still were not receiving any treatment. It emphasizes the need for more epidemiological studies in this area for its treatment and policy-level implication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_194_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197826PMC
March 2020

Standardization of tick specific biochemical tools for estimation of esterases, monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferase for characterization of acaricide resistance.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2020 Mar 21;164:130-139. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Entomology Laboratory, Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Protocols to determine metabolic resistance in ticks were mainly derived from reports published using mosquitoes and agriculturally important insects without prior standardization. In the present study, biochemical assays were standardized to quantify acaricide metabolizing enzymes in tick homogenates. Three variables viz., age, number of larvae and reaction time were optimized using reference susceptible IVRI-I and deltamethrin resistant IVRI-IV (Resistance Factor = 194) tick strains. The optimum conditions for estimation of general esterases were 10-15 day old 40 larvae with 15 mins reaction time, 15-20 day old 40 larvae with 20 mins reaction time for Glutathione S- transferase, while 10-15 day old 80 larvae with 5 mins reaction time for monooxygenase. The standardized protocols were further validated in multi acaricide resistant strain (IVRI-V) and in nine field isolates having variable resistant factors to different acaricides. In all the nine heterogeneous field isolates, a significant correlation (p < .05) between resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and over-expression of esterases and monooxygenase was noticed. Similarly, esterases and GST activities were significantly correlated with resistance to organophosphates. The details of the assay protocol are explained for adoption in different laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.01.008DOI Listing
March 2020

Problematic dicyclomine use: A case report and narrative review.

Asian J Psychiatr 2020 Feb 6;48:101891. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences and National Drug Dependence Centre, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2019.101891DOI Listing
February 2020

Acaricidal efficacy of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) and Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) against Rhipicephalus microplus from Mardan, Pakistan.

Exp Appl Acarol 2019 Aug 31;78(4):595-608. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Entomology Laboratory, Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, UP, 243122, India.

Medicinal plants are used by traditional folk healers, modern physicians, and veterinarians as an alternative to conventional drugs to treat a wide range of disorders including parasitic diseases. Some compounds from these plants have been shown to have acaricidal activity and repel arthropods. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most destructive pests to the livestock industry in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The potential to develop herbal acaricides to control R. microplus infestations is critical in maintaining cattle herd productivity, reducing economic losses, and curtailing the overuse of synthetic chemical acaricides. Calotropis procera, the apple of Sodom, and Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, were evaluated for acaricidal activity against R. microplus larvae and adults in vitro. Both plant species tested are common indigenous species of Pakistan where R. microplus infestations are widespread across livestock species including cattle, sheep, and goats. Whole-plant extracts derived from C. procera and T. officinale significantly reduced the index of egg laying (P < 0.01) and increased the percent inhibition of oviposition of adult female ticks at a concentration of 40 mg/mL when assessed by the adult immersion test (AIT). Calotropis procera and T. officinale treatments at the same concentration also resulted in larval mortality of 96.0% ± 0.57 and 96.7% ± 0.88, respectively, as measured using the larval packet test (LPT). An increasing range of extract concentrations was tested to determine the LD and LD for C. procera, 3.21 and 21.15 mg/mL, respectively, and T. officinale, 4.04 and 18.92 mg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that further studies are warranted to determine the relative contribution of individual phytochemicals from whole-plant extracts on acaricidal activity. This information will guide the design of further acaricidal efficacy tests using livestock infested with R. microplus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-019-00406-zDOI Listing
August 2019

Does Sociodemographic Background Determine the Responses to Ethical Dilemma Vignettes among Patients?

Indian J Psychol Med 2019 Mar-Apr;41(2):155-159

Department of Psychiatry and NDDTC, All India Institutes of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background And Aims: Patients are important stakeholders in the care process and may have different viewpoints on clinical disclosure, which may be influenced by their sociodemographic and cultural background. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess whether age, gender, employment status, educational status, and other sociodemographic variables of persons with mental illness influence their views about ethical issues in clinical care.

Materials And Methods: The study was conducted at the Outpatient Department of a tertiary care mental health/de-addiction center in North India. Patients aged ≥18 years and currently in remission of their primary psychiatric illness were included. Using case vignettes, their responses to ethical issues related to clinical situations were assessed.

Results: The study included a total of 160 participants. The younger age group less frequently agreed on disclosure of a man's Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive status to other family members against his wishes. Women less frequently agreed on disclosure of marital strife to husbands' parents. Higher educational status was associated with a less frequent agreement to disclosure of a man's suicidal ideas to other family members, and those currently employed less frequently agreed to disclosure of marital strife of a female patient to her parents.

Conclusion: Age, gender, education, and employment status might influence some of the responses to ethical dilemmas in the clinical setting. These factors may be considered while clinical decision-making faces ethical challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_110_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436418PMC
April 2019

National Mental Health Programme-Optimism and Caution: A Narrative Review.

Indian J Psychol Med 2018 Nov-Dec;40(6):509-516

Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

India was one of the major World Health Organization (WHO) member countries to launch its National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) in 1982 in accordance with WHO's recommendations to deliver mental health services to the people under the framework of general health care system in the community. NMHP underwent major strategic revisions over its course, starting from setting a district as the unit for program planning and implementation under the District Mental Health Program (DMHP) to incorporating it with the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) for effectively scaling up the program. The program also underwent evaluations by government bodies and independent agencies and was reviewed by many researchers. The program has been partly successful in terms of enhancing its reach to community, improving service delivery, and getting increased budgetary allocation, but at the same time, its impact was limited by financial and human resource constraints, lack of community participation, ineffective training, poor NGO/private partnership, and lack of a robust monitoring and evaluation (M and E) system. The latest National Mental Health Policy and the incorporation of its objectives have given a new impetus to the ongoing NMHP, however, its implementation needs to be monitored and the impact is yet to be evaluated. We attempted to review the available literature pertaining to NMHP and DMHP to highlight the determinants of its outcome, with special emphasis on on-going programs and to provide some important future directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_191_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241184PMC
December 2018

Incorporating Data Citation in a Biomedical Repository: An Implementation Use Case.

AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc 2017 26;2017:131-138. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Washington University in St. Louis, USA.

Research data is a dynamic and evolving entity and the ability to cite such data depends on recreating the same datasets utilized in the original research. Despite the availability of several existing technologies, most data repositories lack the necessary setup to recreate a point-in-time snapshot of data, let alone long-term sustainability of dynamic data without restoring an entire database. Through this project, we adopted a subset of the Research Data Alliance data citation working group recommendations to establish a robust informatics system supporting dynamic data and its use for reproducible research within our evolving clinical data repository. We implemented key recommendations: data versioning, times-stamping, query storing, query time-stamping, query PID, and data citation in one data repository, implemented entirely at the database level, and were able to successfully reproduce a previous dataset as it existed at a specific point-in-time using only the PID as provided in a citation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543373PMC
July 2017

Therapeutic management of canine ehrlichiosis with aid of blood transfusion: a case report.

J Parasit Dis 2017 Jun 9;41(2):395-397. Epub 2016 Jul 9.

Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243 122 India.

An adult female Labrador Retriever dog was presented at referral veterinary polyclinic, IVRI in lateral recumbency with history of anorexia, high fever, severe panting, heavy tick infestation, and not responding to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones since last 1 week. Clinical examination showed pale conjunctiva, enlarged popliteal lymph node however, electrocardiogram (ECG) report found to be normal. Haematological finding showed marked anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Parasitological examination found it to be positive for and confirmed ticks to be . Dog was treated with doxycycline @ 10 mg/kg for 28 days in divided dose with supportive therapy. Blood transfusion was done on second day to avoid complication. Dog showed marked recovery after 15 days and re-examination of blood revealed no parasitemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-016-0813-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447590PMC
June 2017

Shared or Induced Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report with Critical Review.

Indian J Psychol Med 2017 May-Jun;39(3):384-385

Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_435_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5461864PMC
June 2017

Characterization and establishment of a reference deltamethrin and cypermethrin resistant tick line (IVRI-IV) of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2017 May 3;138:66-70. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Entomology Laboratory, Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122, U.P., India.

The problem of ticks and tick borne diseases is a global threat and growing reports of resistance to commonly used insecticides further aggravated the condition and demands for country specific resistance monitoring tools and possible solutions of the problem. Establishment of standard reference is prerequisite for development of monitoring tools. For studying possible role of different mechanisms involved in development of resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population and to develop newer drug to manage the problem of resistance, a deltamethrin exposed and selected tick colony, referred to as IVRI-IV, was characterized using reference susceptible IVRI-I tick line as control. The RF values of IVRI-IV ticks against deltamethrin, cypermethrin and diazinon were determined as 194.0, 26.6, 2.86, respectively, against adults. The esterase enzyme ratios of 2.60 and 5.83 was observed using α-naphthyl and β-naphthyl acetate while glutathione S-transferase (GST) ratio was 3.77. Comparative analysis of IVRI-I and IVRI-IV carboxylesterase gene sequences revealed 13 synonymous and 5 non synonymous mutations, reported for the first time. The C190A mutation in the domain II S4-5 linker region of sodium channel gene leading to leucine to isoleucine (L64I) amino acid substitution was also detected in the IVRI-IV population. In the present study, monitorable indicators for the maintenance of the reference IVRI-IV colony, the first established deltamethrin and cypermethrin resistant tick line of India, were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2017.03.002DOI Listing
May 2017

Diagnosis and therapeutic management of in dogs: a case report.

J Parasit Dis 2016 Dec 13;40(4):1426-1428. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243 122 India.

The present study is related to infection in dogs. Three dogs about 1 year of age with the history of scooting behaviour and passing diarrhoeic stool containing white specks were presented before the clinicians. Physical examination of dogs revealed flea infestation and faecal examination revealed the presence of gravid segments, which were confirmed microscopically to be of cestode, Dogs were treated with Praziquantel@5 mg/kg body wt. orally. Dogs showed marked recovery post treatment. On re-examination after a week, faeces were found negative for any parasitic eggs/gravid segments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-015-0706-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5118332PMC
December 2016

Esterase mediated resistance in deltamethrin resistant reference tick colony of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

Exp Appl Acarol 2016 Jun 15;69(2):239-48. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Entomology Laboratory, Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P., 243122, India.

Monitoring of acaricide resistance is considered as one of the important facets of integrated tick management. In an attempt of development of resistance monitoring indicators, in the present study two reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus maintained in the Entomology laboratory, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, India, were studied to determine the possible contributing factors involved in development of resistance to deltamethrin. Electrophoretic profiling of esterase enzymes detected high activities of EST-1 in reference resistant tick colony designated as IVRI-IV whereas it was not detectable in reference susceptible IVRI-I line of R. (B.) microplus. Esterases were further characterized as carboxylesterase or acetylcholinesterase based on inhibitor study using PMSF, eserine sulphate, malathion, TPP and copper sulphate. It was concluded that an acetylcholinesterase, EST-1, possibly plays an important role for development of deltamethrin resistance in IVRI-IV colony of R. (B.) microplus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-016-0032-7DOI Listing
June 2016

caTissue Suite to OpenSpecimen: Developing an extensible, open source, web-based biobanking management system.

J Biomed Inform 2015 Oct 29;57:456-64. Epub 2015 Aug 29.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid® (caBIG®) program established standards and best practices for biorepository data management by creating an infrastructure to propagate biospecimen resource sharing while maintaining data integrity and security. caTissue Suite, a biospecimen data management software tool, has evolved from this effort. More recently, the caTissue Suite continues to evolve as an open source initiative known as OpenSpecimen. The essential functionality of OpenSpecimen includes the capture and representation of highly granular, hierarchically-structured data for biospecimen processing, quality assurance, tracking, and annotation. Ideal for multi-user and multi-site biorepository environments, OpenSpecimen permits role-based access to specific sets of data operations through a user-interface designed to accommodate varying workflows and unique user needs. The software is interoperable, both syntactically and semantically, with an array of other bioinformatics tools given its integration of standard vocabularies thus enabling research involving biospecimens. End-users are encouraged to share their day-to-day experiences in working with the application, thus providing to the community board insight into the needs and limitations which need be addressed. Users are also requested to review and validate new features through group testing environments and mock screens. Through this user interaction, application flexibility and interoperability have been recognized as necessary developmental focuses essential for accommodating diverse adoption scenarios and biobanking workflows to catalyze advances in biomedical research and operations. Given the diversity of biobanking practices and workforce roles, efforts have been made consistently to maintain robust data granularity while aiding user accessibility, data discoverability, and security within and across applications by providing a lower learning curve in using OpenSpecimen. Iterative development and testing cycles provide continuous maintenance and up-to-date capabilities for this freely available, open-access, web-based software application that is globally-adopted at over 25 institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2015.08.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772150PMC
October 2015