Publications by authors named "Sneha Goswami"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Imaging of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection From Head to Toe: A Primer for the Radiologist.

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease has rapidly spread around the world after initial identification in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Most common presentation is mild or asymptomatic disease, followed by pneumonia, and rarely- multiorgan failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Knowledge about the pathophysiology, imaging and treatment of this novel virus is rapidly evolving due to ongoing worldwide research. Most common imaging modalities utilized during this pandemic are chest radiography and HRCT with findings of bilateral peripheral, mid and lower zone GGO and/or consolidation, vascular enlargement and crazy paving. HRCT is also useful for prognostication and follow-up of severely ill COVID-19 patients. Portable radiography allows follow-up of ICU patients & obviates the need of shifting critically ill patients and disinfection of CT room. As the pandemic has progressed, numerous neurologic manifestations have been described in COVID-19 including stroke, white matter hyperintensities and demyelination on MRI. Varying abdominal presentations have been described, which on imaging either show evidence of COVID-19 pneumonia in lung bases or show abdominal findings including bowel thickening and vascular thrombosis. Numerous thrombo-embolic and cardiovascular complications have also been described in COVID-19 including arterial and venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and myocarditis. It is imperative for radiologists to be aware of all the varied faces of this disease on imaging, as they may well be the first physician to suspect the disease. This article aims to review the multimodality imaging manifestations of COVID-19 disease in various organ systems from head to toe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/j.cpradiol.2021.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256677PMC
July 2021

Flow Cytometry: An Important Diagnostic Tool in Critically Ill Preterm Neonates with Suspected Sepsis.

Am J Perinatol 2020 Sep 29. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Objective:  Sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. The gold standard for diagnosis is blood culture which suffers from low sensitivity and huge turn-around time. Flow cytometry has been extensively applied to malignant disorders and is an upcoming tool for diagnosis of nonmalignant disorders due to its rapidity and accuracy in detecting cells, cell products, and their functional states. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of flow cytometric expression of neutrophil CD64, monocyte human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and CD16 in diagnosis in suspected preterm neonates.

Study Design:  In total, 100 preterm neonates with clinical signs of sepsis were enrolled in the study. Blood culture, C-reactive protein (CRP) and flow cytometry for nCD64, mHLA-DR, and mCD16 were performed. The neonates were divided into two groups: culture positive and culture negative and CRP and flow cytometric findings compared. ROC analysis was performed to determine the best cut-off for nCD64, mHLA-DR, and mCD16 values along with estimation of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Probability of <0.05 was taken as significant.

Results:  Out of the 100 enrolled neonates, 34 (34%) were culture positive. CRP was not found to be significantly different in the two groups. Expression of nCD64 ( = 0.03) was significantly upregulated in the blood culture positive cases with a cut-off mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) value = 4.72 and sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 52%. Expression of mCD16 ( = 0.02) was also upregulated in the blood culture positive cases with a cut-off MFI value = 4.9, with sensitivity of 41%, specificity of 83%.

Conclusion:  The study concluded that nCD64 and mCD16 can be potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis with a high sensitivity and specificity.

Key Points: · Neutrophil CD64 significantly upregulated in septic neonates.. · Monocyte CD16 significantly upregulated in septic neonates.. · C-reactive protein values were not significantly different in septic versus nonseptic neonates..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1718370DOI Listing
September 2020

Aggressive Osteoblastoma Involving the Navicular Bone of Foot: A Rare Tumor in a Unique Location.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Nov - Dec;59(6):1279-1282. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Director and Professor, Department of Orthopedics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Aggressive osteoblastoma (AO) is a rare variant of osteoblastoma characterized histologically by epithelioid osteoblasts and clinically by local recurrences if not excised completely. Aggressive osteoblastoma has been described in various unusual sites; however, based on our search of the literature, involvement of the tarsal navicular has not been previously described. Herein, we report what we believe to be the first case of aggressive osteoblastoma involving the tarsal navicular in a 35-year-old woman. The tumor showed osteoid surrounded by epithelioid cells along with numerous osteoclastic giant cells. Absence of necrosis, mitosis, and infiltration into the surrounding native bone helped rule out the possibility of low-grade osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2019.07.028DOI Listing
June 2021

Sepsis screen: A useful parameter in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in preterm neonates.

Int J Lab Hematol 2020 12 31;42(6):e283-e286. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13321DOI Listing
December 2020

Post-thyroidectomy neck appearance and impact on quality of life in thyroid cancer survivors.

Surgery 2019 06 26;165(6):1217-1221. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: There is a paucity of patient-reported data on thyroidectomy scar perception. The effect of neck scarring on quality of life is not known. We hypothesized that worse perception of neck appearance would be related to worse health-related quality of life and that perception improves with time.

Methods: Survivors of thyroid cancer (n = 1,710) were surveyed online. Respondents were asked to score the appearance of their neck via a 5-point Likert scale. Quality of life was evaluated via the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29. The relationships between neck appearance, patient characteristics, quality of life, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domains were analyzed with multivariable models and Spearman partial correlations (r).

Results: Older age was associated with better perception of neck appearance (odds ratio 0.975/year; 95% confidence interval 0.967-0.983; P < .001). Greater time since surgery was also associated with improved perception (odds ratio 0.962/year; 95% confidence interval 0.947-0.977; P < .0001). We observed no statistically significant difference between current and preoperative baseline perception >2 years after surgery. On multivariable analysis, age >45 years, >2 years since surgery, and higher self-reported quality of life were independent predictors of better self-reported neck appearance (P ≤ .0003). In patients ≤2 years after surgery (n = 568), the PROMIS domains of anxiety, depression, social function, and fatigue had weak but statistically significant correlations with worse perception of neck appearance (P < .0001).

Conclusion: Age >45, >2 years since surgery, and higher quality of life were independently associated with better self-reported neck appearance. Perception of neck appearance returned to preoperative baseline 2 years after surgery. PROMIS domains had a weak but significant association with neck appearance perception in patients ≤2 years after surgery. The impact of post-thyroidectomy neck appearance on quality of life appears to be mild and transient and returns to preoperative levels after 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.03.006DOI Listing
June 2019

Clinical factors associated with worse quality-of-life scores in United States thyroid cancer survivors.

Surgery 2019 07 18;166(1):69-74. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Introduction: Thyroid cancer survivors are a rapidly growing population in the United States. The factors that drive health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in this population have not been well characterized. We hypothesized that more aggressive treatments and greater treatment-related adverse effects would be associated with worse HRQOL scores in thyroid cancer survivors.

Methods: Thyroid cancer survivors (18-89 years of age) completed an online survey regarding their clinical history in addition to the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) 29 instrument. Univariable and multivariable modeling were performed to evaluate factors associated with worse HRQOL scores. We generated β-values and 95% confidence intervals to quantify the effect of each independent variable in the model.

Results: Thyroid cancer survivors (n = 1,743) reported a high incidence of complications related to surgery and radioactive iodine ablation. Postoperative dysphonia (ß 1.83-3.07) and dysphagia (ß 2.05-3.65) predicted worse HRQOL scores across multiple PROMIS domains. Younger patient age (age <45 years) and short- or long-term complications of radioactive iodine, including gastrointestinal symptoms (51.9%), appetite changes (71.2%), sialadenitis (58.1%), xerostomia (73.3%), and xerophthalmia (45.1%) were associated with worse HRQOL scores (P < .01).

Conclusion: The factors associated with significantly worse HRQOL scores across multiple PROMIS domains for thyroid cancer survivors included patient age <45 years, postoperative hypocalcemia, dysphonia, dysphagia, scar appearance, and complications from radioactive iodine. Methods of evaluation, management, and prevention of these factors might positively impact HRQOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.01.034DOI Listing
July 2019

Benchmarking health-related quality of life in thyroid cancer versus other cancers and United States normative data.

Surgery 2018 Nov 24;164(5):986-992. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Thyroid cancer survivors may experience long-lasting physical, psychosocial, and financial challenges. No previous studies have compared health-related quality of life in thyroid cancer survivors to United States normative data and patient-reported outcomes from other types of cancers. We hypothesized that thyroid cancer survivors would report health-related quality of life poorer than the general United States population but similar to individuals with other cancers.

Methods: Thyroid cancer survivors were recruited online January2017-June 2017. Individuals completed a two-part questionnaire to assess clinical characteristics and health-related quality of life, using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item profile. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System T-scores obtained from the literature were compared with United States normative data and T-scores from patients with breast, prostate, uterine, cervical, colorectal, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and lung cancers.

Results: A total of 1,743 US respondents completed the survey. Thyroid cancer survivors reported statistically significantly worse health-related quality of life across all seven Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domains compared with United States normative data (P < .05). Surveyed individuals reported statistically significantly worse scores for anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbance than respondents from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, colorectal, uterine, and prostate cancer cohorts (P < .01) but less pain and greater physical functioning than most other groups in this comparison (P < .01).

Conclusion: The importance of health-related quality of life among thyroid cancer survivors should not be obscured by the relatively high survival rate of thyroid cancer compared with other cancers. Our results demonstrate that thyroid cancer survivors may be encumbered with greater psychologic and social burdens than survivors of several cancers that have a worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.06.042DOI Listing
November 2018

Quality of life in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A compared with normative and disease populations.

Surgery 2018 09 11;164(3):546-552. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patient-reported outcomes are measured in chronic disease states to inform intervention and management decisions while minimizing negative outcomes. We hypothesized that health-related quality of life in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A would be worse than the general US population but similar to other chronic diseases.

Methods: Adults ≥18 years with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A were recruited to complete the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item questionnaire (n = 45). Scores based on the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System T-score metric were compared with the general US population and with cohorts with low back pain, cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, major depressive disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, neuroendocrine tumors, primary hyperparathyroidism, and MEN1.

Results: Compared with US normative data, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A patients reported worse anxiety (58.2 ± 12.0, P < .0001), depression (55.4 ± 12.0, P < .01), fatigue (61.4 ± 10.8, P < .0001), pain interference (54.0 ± 11.5, P < .05), and sleep disturbance (56.9 ± 2.7, P < .001), as well as significantly lower physical functioning (45.7 ± 9.3, P < .01) and ability to participate in social roles (46.4 ± 9.7, P < .05). Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A patients reported greater fatigue than patients with cancer (P < .0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = .01), rheumatoid arthritis (P = .0002), neuroendocrine tumors (P = .0007), and primary hyperparathyroidism (P < .0001) but higher physical functioning compared with patients with rheumatoid arthritis (P = .02), low back pain, congestive heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < .0001).

Conclusions: This study is the first to use the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System to compare patient-reported outcomes between multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and other chronic conditions. Individuals with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A reported worse health-related quality of life in all 7 domains compared with US normative data. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A patients reported greater fatigue but greater physical function compared with several other conditions. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of patient-reported outcomes in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A should be conducted to identify treatments associated with the highest health-related quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.04.036DOI Listing
September 2018

Health-related quality of life in MEN1 patients compared with other chronic conditions and the United States general population.

Surgery 2018 01 8;163(1):205-211. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 (MEN-1) is poorly described. HRQOL in MEN-1 was compared with other chronic conditions and the US general population.

Methods: Adults aged ≥18 years recruited from an MEN-1 support group (n=153) completed the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) 29-item profile. MEN-1 scores were compared with PROMIS scores reported in peer-reviewed literature from back pain (n=218), cancer (n=310), congestive heart failure (CHF; n=60), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=79), major depressive disorder (n=196), rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n=521), neuroendocrine tumors (NET; n=619), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT; n=45) cohorts.

Results: Patients with MEN-1 reported worse anxiety (mean=61.7), depression (57.9), fatigue (62.2), pain interference (55.4), sleep disturbance (58.0), physical functioning (44.4), and social functioning (44.7) compared to normative data (50, P < .05) and greater anxiety, depression, and fatigue than patients with back pain, cancer, COPD, RA, NETs, and PHPT (P < .001). MEN-1 respondents had greater pain interference (55.4) than those with cancer (51.9), NETs (52.3), and PHPT (38.4, P < .05). Physical functioning was higher in individuals with MEN-1 (44.4) than in those with back pain (37.5), CHF (34.8), COPD (38.0), and RA (40.7, P < .01).

Conclusion: This is the first study to describe HRQOL in a large sample of adults with MEN-1. MEN-1respondents reported worse HRQOL across PROMIS 29-item profile measure domains compared with the US general population and higher levels of anxiety, depression, and fatigue compared with many other chronic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2017.04.030DOI Listing
January 2018

Financial burden is associated with worse health-related quality of life in adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

Surgery 2017 12 15;162(6):1278-1285. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Health-related quality of life and financial burden among patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is poorly described. It is not known how financial burden influences health-related quality of life in this population. We hypothesized that the financial burden attributable to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is associated with worse health-related quality of life.

Methods: United States adults (≥18 years) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 were recruited from the AMENSupport MEN online support group. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and financial burden were assessed via an online survey. The instrument Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item profile measure was used to assess health-related quality of life. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify significant variables in each Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domain.

Results: Out of 1,378 members in AMENSupport, our survey link was accessed 449 times (33%). Of 153 US respondents who completed our survey, 84% reported financial burden attributable to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The degree of financial burden had a linear relationship with worse health-related quality of life across all Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domains (r = 0.36-0.55, P < .001); 63% reported experiencing ≥1 negative financial event(s). Borrowing money from friends/family (30%), unemployment (13%), and spending >$100/month out-of-pocket on prescription medications (46%) were associated consistently with impaired health-related quality of life (ß = 3.75-6.77, P < .05). Respondents were 3- and 34-times more likely to be unemployed and declare bankruptcy than the US population, respectively.

Conclusion: This study characterizes the financial burden in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Individuals with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 report a high degree of financial burden, negative financial events, and unemployment. Each of these factors was associated with worse health-related quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2017.07.010DOI Listing
December 2017

Disease and treatment factors associated with lower quality of life scores in adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.

Surgery 2017 12 14;162(6):1270-1277. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Physical and psychosocial morbidity of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 is ill-defined. How disease and treatment-related factors relate to patient-reported outcomes including health-related quality of life is unknown. We hypothesized that disease and treatment burden negatively impacts health-related quality of life in adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1.

Methods: Adults (≥18 years) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 completed an online survey of demographics, disease features, treatments, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item profile measure, and scores were compared with normative US data. Multivariable modeling was performed to evaluate factors associated with decreased health-related quality of life.

Results: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 patients (n = 207) reported worse health-related quality of life compared with US normative data in all health-related quality of life domains (P < .001). Persistent hypercalcemia after parathyroid surgery was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and decreased social functioning (P < .05). Patients <45 years of age at diagnosis reported worse physical and social functioning (P < .01). Traveling >50 miles for doctor appointments and ≥20 doctor appointments/year (P < .05) were associated with worse health-related quality of life. History of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors was not associated with worse health-related quality of life.

Conclusion: This is the largest study to assess clinical and treatment factors associated with health-related quality of life in multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1. Persistent hyperparathyroidism, increased travel distance and frequency of doctor appointments were all associated with worse health-related quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2017.07.023DOI Listing
December 2017
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