Publications by authors named "Smith F Heavner"

6 Publications

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Admission Code Status and End-of-life Care for Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Cambia Palliative Care Center of Excellence (WA.K., L.R.P., C.J.C., E.K.K., J.R.C., N.K.), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (N.K.), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Context: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted variability in intensity of care. We aimed to characterize intensity of care among hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Objectives: Examine the prevalence and predictors of admission code status, palliative care consultation, comfort-measures-only orders, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined data from an international registry of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. A proportional odds model evaluated predictors of more aggressive code status (i.e., Full Code) vs. less (i.e., Do Not Resuscitate, DNR). Among decedents, logistic regression was used to identify predictors of palliative care consultation, comfort measures only, and CPR at time of death.

Results: We included 29,923 patients across 179 sites. Among those with admission code status documented, Full Code was selected by 90% (n = 15,273). Adjusting for site, Full Code was more likely for patients who were of Black or Asian race (ORs 1.82, 95% CIs 1.5-2.19; 1.78, 1.15-3.09 respectively, relative to White race), Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.89, CI 1.35-2.32), and male sex (OR 1.16, CI 1.0-1.33). Of the 4951 decedents, 29% received palliative care consultation, 59% transitioned to comfort measures only, and 29% received CPR, with non-White racial and ethnic groups less likely to receive comfort measures only and more likely to receive CPR.

Conclusion: In this international cohort of patients with COVID-19, Full Code was the initial code status in the majority, and more likely among patients who were Black or Asian race, Hispanic ethnicity or male. These results provide direction for future studies to improve these disparities in care.
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June 2022

Association of latitude and altitude with adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19: The VIRUS registry.

World J Crit Care Med 2022 Mar 9;11(2):102-111. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, United States.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) course may be affected by environmental factors. Ecological studies previously suggested a link between climatological factors and COVID-19 fatality rates. However, individual-level impact of these factors has not been thoroughly evaluated yet.

Aim: To study the association of climatological factors related to patient location with unfavorable outcomes in patients.

Methods: In this observational analysis of the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: COVID-19 Registry cohort, the latitudes and altitudes of hospitals were examined as a covariate for mortality within 28 d of admission and the length of hospital stay. Adjusting for baseline parameters and admission date, multivariable regression modeling was utilized. Generalized estimating equations were used to fit the models.

Results: Twenty-two thousand one hundred eight patients from over 20 countries were evaluated. The median age was 62 (interquartile range: 49-74) years, and 54% of the included patients were males. The median age increased with increasing latitude as well as the frequency of comorbidities. Contrarily, the percentage of comorbidities was lower in elevated altitudes. Mortality within 28 d of hospital admission was found to be 25%. The median hospital-free days among all included patients was 20 d. Despite the significant linear relationship between mortality and hospital-free days (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.39 (1.04, 1.86), 0.025 for mortality within 28 d of admission; aOR = -1.47 (-2.60, -0.33), 0.011 for hospital-free days), suggesting that adverse patient outcomes were more common in locations further away from the Equator; the results were no longer significant when adjusted for baseline differences (aOR = 1.32 (1.00, 1.74), = 0.051 for 28-day mortality; aOR = -1.07 (-2.13, -0.01), 0.050 for hospital-free days). When we looked at the altitude's effect, we discovered that it demonstrated a non-linear association with mortality within 28 d of hospital admission (aOR = 0.96 (0.62, 1.47), 1.04 (0.92, 1.19), 0.49 (0.22, 0.90), and 0.51 (0.27, 0.98), for the altitude points of 75 MASL, 125 MASL, 400 MASL, and 600 MASL, in comparison to the reference altitude of 148 m.a.s.l, respectively. 0.001). We detected an association between latitude and 28-day mortality as well as hospital-free days in this worldwide study. When the baseline features were taken into account, however, this did not stay significant.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that differences observed in previous epidemiological studies may be due to ecological fallacy rather than implying a causal relationship at the patient level.
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March 2022

Dispensed Opioid Prescription Patterns, by Racial/Ethnic Groups, Among South Carolina Medicaid-Funded Children Experiencing Limb Fracture Injuries.

Acad Pediatr 2022 May-Jun;22(4):631-639. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatrics (W Basco), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.

Objective: To examine dispensed opioid prescription patterns for limb fractures across racial/ethnic groups in a pediatric population.

Methods: We used South Carolina's Medicaid claims data 2000 to 2018 for pediatric limb fracture cases (under age 19) discharged from the emergency department. The key independent variable was the child's race/ethnicity. The outcomes were: 1) whether the patient had a dispensed opioid prescription; and 2) whether dispensed opioid supply was longer than 5 days among cases with any dispensed opioid prescriptions. Logistic regression models were used to test the association between race/ethnicity and the outcomes. Covariates included age-at-service, gender, service year, and having multiple fracture injuries.

Results: Compared with non-Hispanic White cases (NHW), the odds of receiving dispensed opioid prescriptions were lower for cases of non-Hispanic Black (NHB) (OR = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71, 0.75), Asian (OR = 0.69; CI: 0.53, 0.90), Other/Unknown (OR = 0.86; CI: 0.80, 0.92), and Hispanic (OR = 0.84; CI: 0.79, 0.90) race/ethnicity. The odds of receiving >5 days of dispensed opioid prescription supply did not differ significantly among race/ethnic categories.

Conclusions: Our study confirms previous findings that as compared to NHW, the NHB children were less likely to receive dispensed opioid prescriptions. Also, it reveals that the different minority race/ethnic groups are not homogenous in their likelihoods of receiving dispensed opioid prescriptions after a limb fracture compared to NHW, findings underreported in previous studies. Children in the Other/Unknown race/ethnicity category have prescribing patterns different from those of other minority race/ethnic groups and should be analyzed separately.
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May 2022

HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Care Continuum Among Individuals Receiving Medication for Opioid Use Disorder, South Carolina, 2020-2021.

Am J Public Health 2022 01;112(1):34-37

Jamila Johnson, Carrie Baldwin, Michelle Bublitz, Smith F. Heavner, Prerana Roth, and Alain H. Litwin are with the Addiction Research Center, Prisma Health, Greenville, SC. Mirinda Ann Gormley is with the Department of Public Health Services, Clemson University, Clemson, SC. Susanne Bentley is with the Department of Medicine, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville.

We implemented the HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care continuum among individuals receiving medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD). We screened HIV-negative MOUD participants for PrEP eligibility by assessing injection drug use risk factors and sexual behaviors. Implementation of the PrEP care continuum was challenging; less than a third of MOUD participants were aware of PrEP, and very few initiated PrEP. Findings should promote the development of effective interventions to increase engagement in PrEP during MOUD treatment. (. 2022;112(1):34-37.
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January 2022

Metabolic Syndrome and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 12 1;4(12):e2140568. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Importance: Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are common comorbidities in patients with severe COVID-19, yet little is known about the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or death in patients with COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome.

Objective: To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of ARDS and death from COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicenter cohort study used data from the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Respiratory Illness Universal Study collected from 181 hospitals across 26 countries from February 15, 2020, to February 18, 2021. Outcomes were compared between patients with metabolic syndrome (defined as ≥3 of the following criteria: obesity, prediabetes or diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) and a control population without metabolic syndrome. Participants included adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 during the study period who had a completed discharge status. Data were analyzed from February 22 to October 5, 2021.

Exposures: Exposures were SARS-CoV-2 infection, metabolic syndrome, obesity, prediabetes or diabetes, hypertension, and/or dyslipidemia.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included ARDS, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and length of stay (LOS).

Results: Among 46 441 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 29 040 patients (mean [SD] age, 61.2 [17.8] years; 13 059 [45.0%] women and 15713 [54.1%] men; 6797 Black patients [23.4%], 5325 Hispanic patients [18.3%], and 16 507 White patients [57.8%]) met inclusion criteria. A total of 5069 patients (17.5%) with metabolic syndrome were compared with 23 971 control patients (82.5%) without metabolic syndrome. In adjusted analyses, metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of ICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.14-1.53]), invasive mechanical ventilation (aOR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.28-1.65]), ARDS (aOR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.12-1.66]), and mortality (aOR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.08-1.31]) and prolonged hospital LOS (median [IQR], 8.0 [4.2-15.8] days vs 6.8 [3.4-13.0] days; P < .001) and ICU LOS (median [IQR], 7.0 [2.8-15.0] days vs 6.4 [2.7-13.0] days; P < .001). Each additional metabolic syndrome criterion was associated with increased risk of ARDS in an additive fashion (1 criterion: 1147 patients with ARDS [10.4%]; P = .83; 2 criteria: 1191 patients with ARDS [15.3%]; P < .001; 3 criteria: 817 patients with ARDS [19.3%]; P < .001; 4 criteria: 203 patients with ARDS [24.3%]; P < .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risks of ARDS and death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The association with ARDS was cumulative for each metabolic syndrome criteria present.
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December 2021

Risk Factors for Critical Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Mortality in Hospitalized Young Adults: An Analysis of the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) Coronavirus Disease 2019 Registry.

Crit Care Explor 2021 Aug 20;3(8):e0514. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.

Importance: Even with its proclivity for older age, coronavirus disease 2019 has been shown to affect all age groups. However, there remains a lack of research focused primarily on the young adult population.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 and identify the risk factors associated with critical illness and mortality in hospitalized young adults.

Design Settings And Participants: A retrospective cohort study of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry. Patients 18-40 years old, hospitalized from coronavirus disease 2019 from March 2020 to April 2021, were included in the analysis.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Critical illness was defined as a composite of mortality and 21 predefined interventions and complications. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations with critical illness and mortality.

Results: Data from 4,005 patients (152 centers, 19 countries, 18.6% non-U.S. patients) were analyzed. The median age was 32 years (interquartile range, 27-37 yr); 51% were female, 29.4% Hispanic, and 42.9% had obesity. Most patients (63.2%) had comorbidities, the most common being hypertension (14.5%) and diabetes (13.7%). Hospital and ICU mortality were 3.2% (129/4,005) and 8.3% (109/1,313), respectively. Critical illness occurred in 25% ( = 996), and 34.3% ( = 1,376) were admitted to the ICU. Older age ( = 0.03), male sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.2-2.6]), and obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1-2.4]) were associated with hospital mortality. In addition to the above factors, the presence of any comorbidity was associated with critical illness from coronavirus disease 2019. Multiple sensitivity analyses, including analysis with U.S. patients only and patients admitted to high-volume sites, showed similar risk factors.

Conclusions: Among hospitalized young adults, obese males with comorbidities are at higher risk of developing critical illness or dying from coronavirus disease 2019.
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August 2021