Publications by authors named "Slobodan Cvetkovic"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Open Surgical Treatment of Acute Spontaneous Isolated Abdominal Aortic Dissection.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade; Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: The aim of this paper is to report our single-center experience in the open surgical treatment of acute spontaneous infrarenal isolated abdominal aortic dissection (siIAAD).

Methods: This was a single center retrospective study. Between January 2015 and 2020 ten patients were treated due to acute siIAAD with open surgery. There were no patients treated for chronic siIAAD in this time period. Patients who had concomitant thoracic aortic involvement were excluded from this report.

Results: The group consisted of 7 male and 3 female patients. History of hypertension was present in nine patients and six were active smokers. The abdominal/back pain was described in 9 patients, two had acute limb ischemia and three had aortic rupture. Median dissection length was 91 mm (65.7 - 106), median distance from the lowest renal artery was 30 mm (20.7 - 49.3) and median abdominal aortic diameter was 58.5 mm (32.5 - 66.2). Supracoeliac clamp was used in three cases with a ruptured aorta and suprarenal in two patients. The mean duration of proximal clamping time was 24.3 ± 7.49 min. One patient died of postoperative acute myocardial infarction, one suffered nonfatal pulmonary embolism and one had deep venous thrombosis. No aortic-related deaths and/or reinterventions occurred during the median follow-up of 32 months.

Conclusions: Acute siIAAD is a rare event which affects mostly male smokers with hypertension. Open surgery is a technically demanding procedure with acceptable complication rates and should be performed in specialized high-volume centers for the treatment of aortic disease. Future efforts to establish a multicenter registry to evaluate the prevalence of the disease and treatment options could provide better and more comprehensive guidelines for the treatment of acute siIAAAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.02.035DOI Listing
April 2021

Early and long-term results of open repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms: Comparison with a propensity score-matched cohort.

J Vasc Surg 2020 09 2;72(3):910-917. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Objective: The aim of our study was to compare early and long-term results of open repair of patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) with matched cohort of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

Methods: This retrospective single-center cohort study used prospectively collected data from an institutional registry from 1786 patients between 2009 and 2015. Patients with IAAA and AAA were matched by propensity score analysis controlling for demographics, baseline comorbidities, and AAA parameters in a 1:2 ratio. Patients were followed for 5 years.

Results: There were 76 patients with IAAA and 152 patients with AAA. Patients with IAAA had more common intraoperative lesion of intraabdominal organs (P = .04), longer in-hospital (P = .035) and intensive care (P = .048) stays and a higher in-hospital mortality rate (P = .012). There were four patients (5.26%) with in-hospital lethal outcome in IAAA there were no deaths in the AAA group. During the follow-up, there was no difference in survival (χ = 0.07; DF = 1; P = .80) and overall aortic related complications (χ = 1.25; DF = 1; P = .26); however, aortic graft infection was more frequent in IAAA group (P = .04).

Conclusions: Open repair of IAAA is challenging and comparing to AAA carries a higher perioperative risk and long-term infection rate, even in high-volume centers. The main causes of complications are intraoperative injury of adjacent organs, bleeding, and coronary events. Patients with AAA in a matched cohort showed equal long-term survival, which should be assessed in bigger registries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.040DOI Listing
September 2020

Treatment of pediatric vascular injuries: the experience of a single non-pediatric referral center.

Int Angiol 2019 Jun 15;38(3):250-255. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Pediatric peripheral vascular trauma carries significant risk of complications including limb loss and long-term invalidity. Mechanisms and types of morphological lesions are very diverse. The objectives of this study are to present the experience of a single vascular center in the surgical approach to pediatric vascular injuries, and to analyze the main challenges related to this clinical entity.

Methods: Over a period of 25 years, 17 pediatric peripheral vascular injuries were treated in our institution. Patient's age ranged between one day (newborn) and 15 years (mean: 10.7 years). There were five injuries of upper and 12 injuries of the lower extremity. Preoperative diagnosis was established by clinical examination (N.=4), ultrasonography (N.=1) and angiography (N.=12). Blunt trauma mainly caused arterial thrombosis while penetrating trauma caused arterial laceration or complete transection. Five patients had associated orthopedic injuries (29,4%). There were two posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms and two arterio-venous fistulas.

Results: There was no perioperative mortality. Vascular reconstructions included arterial suture (N.=4), thrombectomy + patch angioplasty (N.=1), termino-terminal anastomosis (N.=3), venous anatomic bypass (N.=6), PTFE graft reconstruction (N.=2), and venous extra-anatomic reconstruction (N.=1). Two patients had associated venous injury demanding both arterial and venous reconstruction. In the only case of war trauma treatment ended with limb loss. Other reconstructions presented good early and long-term patency.

Conclusions: Pediatric vascular injuries are extremely challenging issues. Treatment includes broad spectrum of different types of vascular reconstructions. It should be performed by vascular surgeon trained in open vascular treatment or pediatric surgeon with significant experience in vascular surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0392-9590.19.04124-5DOI Listing
June 2019

Treatment of a Patient with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Apr 24;40:295.e1-295.e4. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Serbian Clinical Centre, Belgrade, Serbia; Belgrade Medical School, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: The surgical tactics in cases of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and intra-abdominal malignancy are not uniform in the literature and are still a matter of debate. In this case report, we present a patient with coexisting AAA and primary liver cancer managed by simultaneous open AAA repair and liver resection After laparotomy and intraoperative liver ultrasonography that confirmed resectability of the tumor, aneurysm repair was performed with aorto-aortic tube grafting after interrenal cross-clamping Radiofrequency-assisted liver transection was performed to complete an anterior anatomic resection of liver segments VI and VII. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on a postoperative day 10.

Methods: This was prospective follow up of one patient.

Results: The patient is free from disease at 18-month follow-up.

Conclusions: The best treatment strategy for patients with AAA and malignant disease is still not clearly defined. Strategy selection is made individually according to the risk of rupture of AAA, general condition of the patient, experience of the teams that should perform the procedure and estimated life expectancy after resection of malignant disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2016.07.075DOI Listing
April 2017

Abdominal Aortic Surgery in the Presence of Inferior Vena Cava Anomalies: A Case Series.

Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Feb 22;39:137-142. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Left-sided inferior vena cava (LIVC) and duplicated inferior vena cava (DIVC) are rare asymptomatic congenital abnormalities. Unrecognized, these anomalies can be the source of major injuries and cause serious life-threatening bleeding complications especially during abdominal aortic surgery.

Methods: Retrospective data for patients with 2 major inferior vena cava (IVC) anomalies that underwent aortic surgery over a 13-year period were collected. Patient demographics, type of aortic disease and caval anomaly, surgical approach, type of aortic reconstruction associated with procedure on caval vein, postoperative complications, and in-hospital mortality were recorded.

Results: There were 9 patients with inferior vena cava (IVC) anomalies who underwent aortic surgery. All of them were men, with a median age of 66.2 years. Seven had an LIVC and 2 had DIVC. Five patients were operated on due to abdominal aortic aneurysm and 4 due to aortoiliac occlusive disease. In all patients, a midline transperitoneal aortic approach was performed. In 5 cases, the left IVC had to be temporarily resected and later reconstructed, and in the other 4 it was just mobilized. There were no postoperative complications except in one patient who developed deep vein thrombosis in the left calf; this was successfully treated with anticoagulant therapy.

Conclusion: Due to favorable results and low incidence of perioperative complications and in the absence of other associated abdominal pathology, we propose the midline transperitoneal approach with mobilization or temporary resection of LIVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2016.06.022DOI Listing
February 2017

Vacuum-assisted wound closure in vascular surgery--clinical and cost benefits in a developing country.

Vojnosanit Pregl 2016 Jan;73(1):9-15

Unlabelled: BACKGROUND/AIM. Surgical and chronic wounds in vascular patients might contribute to limb loss and death. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC)--Kinetic Concepts, Inc. (KCI), has been increasingly used in Western Europe and the U.S.A. clinical practice for 15 years. Advantages of this method are faster wound healing, wound approximation, lower wound related treatment costs and improved quality of life during treatment. Evidence related to the usage of VAC therapy in vascular patients and cost effectiveness of VAC therapy in a developing country are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore results of VAC therapy in vascular surgery comparing to conventional methods and to test cost effects in a developing country like Serbia.

Methods: All patients with wound infection or dehiscence operated at the tertiary vascular university clinic in the period from January 2011-January 2012, were treated with VAC therapy. The primary endpoint was wound closure, while secondary endpoints were hospital stay, the number of weekly dressings, costs of wound care, working time of medical personnel. The patients were divided into groups according to the wound type and location: wound with exposed synthetic vascular implant (25%), laparotomy (13%), foot amputation (29%), major limb amputation (21%), fasciotomy (13%). The results of primary and secondary endpoint were compared with the results of conventional treatment during the previous year.

Results: There was one death (1/42, 2.38%) and one limb loss (1/12, 2.38%) in the VAC group, and 8 deaths (8/38, 21.05%) and 5 (5/38, 13.15%) limb losses in the patients treated with conventional therapy. In the VAC group there was one groin bleeding (1/12, 2.38%), one groin reinfection (1/12, 2.38%) and one resistance to therapy with a consequent limb loss. Costs of hospital stay (p < 0.001) and nursing time (p < 0.001) were reduced with VAC therapy in the group with exposed graft.

Conclusion: VAC therapy is the effective method for care of complicated wounds in vascular surgery. Patients with infection of wound with the exposed synthetic graft significantly benefit form this therapy. Cost effectiveness of VAC therapy is applicable to a developing country scenario, however cautious selection of patients contributes to the effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/vsp131222127kDOI Listing
January 2016

Effect of IgM-Enriched Immunoglobulin as Adjunctive Therapy in a Patient Following Sepsis After Open Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2016 Jun 28;30(3):746-8. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade; School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2015.08.025DOI Listing
June 2016

Indirect surgical management of a penetrating vertebral artery injury.

Vascular 2014 Dec 25;22(6):468-70. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Introduction: Vertebral artery injury caused by penetrating neck trauma is a rare occurrence. Direct surgical repair is difficult due to anatomy and exposure. Proximal and distal ligation or/and embolization represent the most common management in cases which require intervention.

Case Report: A young man accidentally stabbed in the neck was admitted to the emergency department with active arterial bleeding from the wound. Immediate surgical exploration revealed an isolated injury of the left vertebral artery intraosseous segment. Lesion was managed by proximal segment ligature and distal Fogarty catheter balloon-tamponade. Postoperative angiography excluded the need for further interventions. Balloon-catheter was successfully extracted after 72 hours and patient discharged neurologically intact on postoperative day 7. Fourteen months later, there are no signs of vascular or neurologic complications.

Conclusion: Balloon-tamponade is a valuable technical adjunct in either temporizing or definitive management of surgically inaccessible vascular trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1708538114529278DOI Listing
December 2014

Popliteal artery injury following traumatic knee joint dislocation in a 14-year-old boy: a case report and review of the literature.

Vojnosanit Pregl 2014 Jan;71(1):87-90

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Introduction: Posterior knee joint dislocation associated with injury of the popliteal artery in children is an extremely rare condition. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are essential for limb salvage and function.

Case Report: We reported a 14-year-old boy who suffered traumatic displacement of the right knee and contusion of the popliteal artery during motorcycle accident. The diagnosis was confirmed using Doppler and duplex ultrasonography and digital substraction transfemoral arteriography. The urgent surgical procedure was performed using posterior approach to the popliteal artery. During the surgical exploration, rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament associated with thrombosed popliteal artery have been found. The damaged popliteal artery was resected and replaced with autologous saphenous vein graft. The last stage of the procedure was a transosseous femoral fixation of posterior circuate ligament. A 3-year-follow-up after the surgery demonstrated intact arterial perfusion and very good function of the knee with a minimal difference as compared with the contralateral knee.

Conclusion: Combined orthopedic and vascular injuries are very rare in children. They require combined treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/vsp1401087cDOI Listing
January 2014

[In situ replacement of infected vascular prosthesis with fresh arterial homograft: early and long-term results in 18 patients].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2013 Nov-Dec;141(11-12):750-7

Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Introduction: Graft infection is rightly considered one of the severest complications of vascular reconstruction. Treatment is non-standardized and associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. The choice of therapeutic modality depends upon variety of factors. One increasingly used option is in situ replacement of the infected prosthesis with the arterial allograft.

Objective: The aim of this prospective nonrandomized study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of fresh arterial allograft as in situ substitute for the infected vascular prosthesis.

Methods: During period of 2002-2005, 18 patients with the synthetic vascular graft infection underwent partial or complete prosthesis removal and secondary in situ reconstruction using the fresh arterial allograft, preserved under hypothermic conditions in buffered saline solution with an addition of antibiotics.

Results: In 14 male and 4 female patients, mean-aged 62 years, 8 aortic and 10 peripheral arterial infected prostheses were partially or completely replaced with the allograft. Operative mortality was 27.8% and amputation rate was 22.2%. Systemic sepsis at initial presentation and highly virulent nature of causative microorganisms were identified as significant negative prognostic factors (chi2 test, p < 0.05). During the long-term follow-up (mean 47 months), allograft aneurysm developed in three patients, requiring allograft explantation, followed in two cases by tertiary prosthetic reconstruction.

Conclusion: Substitution of the infected prosthesis with the arterial allograft could be successful if used selectively--for less virulent and localized infections of extracavitary grafts. Close follow-up is mandatory for timely diagnosis of late homograft lesions and its eventual replacement with more durable prosthetic material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh1312750pDOI Listing
October 2015

Steal phenomena in TEVAR, a reality after all.

Vascular 2014 Apr 23;22(2):157. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1708538113492726DOI Listing
April 2014

Endovascular aortic repair: first twenty years.

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2012 Nov-Dec;140(11-12):792-9

School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Endovascular aortic/aneurysm repair (EVAR) was introduced into clinical practice at the beginning of the nineties. Its fast development had a great influence on clinicians, vascular surgeons and interventional radiologists, educational curriculums, patients, industry and medical insurance. The aim of this paper is to present the contribution of clinicians and industry to the development and advancement of endovascular aortic repair over the last 20 years. This review article presents the development of EVAR by focusing on the contribution of physicians, surgeons and interventional radiologists in the creation of the new field of vascular surgery termed hybrid vascular surgery, and also the contribution of technological advancement by a significant help of industrial representatives--engineers and their counselors. This article also analyzes studies conducted in order to compare the successfulness of EVAR with up-to-now applied open surgical repair of aortic aneurysms, and some treatment techniques of other aortic diseases. During the first two decades of its development the EVAR method was rapidly progressing and was adopted concurrently with the expansion of technology. Owing to large randomized studies, early and long-term results indicate specific complications of this method, thus influencing further technological improvement and defining risk patients groups in whom the use of the technique should be avoided. Good results are insured only in centers, specialized in vascular surgery, which have on their disposal adequate conditions for solving all complications associated with this method.
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March 2013

[Intramural haematoma and penetrating aortic ulcer--outcome and treatment modalities: report of four cases].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2011 May-Jun;139(5-6):380-5

Introduction: Intramural haematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcers (PAU) are the frequent cause of acute aortic syndrome that is disclosed with a rising frequency due to the development of new diagnostic methods. Different symptoms contribute to clinical misdiagnosis, while changeable locations and unpersuasive diameter can lead the radiologists to underestimate such changes. The outcome of PAU and IMH differs, and for the time being there are no data on prognostic factors. The diversity of symptoms and disease course is presented in four cases with different manifestations, treatment and outcome.

Outline Of Cases: Two patients with IMH were treated conservatively due to the process extensiveness and its morphology. One patient had a complete restitution, while the other had progression of the disease. Other two patients with PAU were treated by surgery (stent graft implantation) according to the morphology and diameter of the aorta.

Conclusion: IMH and PAU should be suspected in patients with unclear clinical presentation (back and abdominal pains). Although outcome and complications of these diseases are well known, their incidence has not been fully studied. Endovascular treatment is less invasive and followed by a potentially lower rate of complications. However, usage of this method is justifiable only in patients with associated complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh1106380kDOI Listing
September 2011

Blunt injury of the innominate artery and left innominate vein.

Vascular 2011 Aug 8;19(4):223-5. Epub 2011 Jul 8.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Injuries to the branches of the aortic arch are rare and may be caused by blunt, penetrating, blast or iatrogenic trauma. Innominate vascular injury is a rare entity, particularly in blunt trauma. It is estimated that 71% of patients with innominate injuries die before arrival at the hospital. We report here a successfully managed case of a combined blunt trauma of the innominate artery and transection of the left innominate vein after blunt injury to the chest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/vasc.2010.cr0236DOI Listing
August 2011

Twenty years of experience in the treatment of spontaneous aorto-venous fistulas in a developing country.

World J Surg 2011 Aug;35(8):1829-34

Clinic for Vascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, 8, Koste Todorovica st., Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: One of the rare forms of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is the rupture into great abdominal veins such as the inferior vein cava (IVC), the iliac veins, or the left renal vein, with the formation of direct or indirect aorto-caval fistula (ACF). The purpose of the present study was to summarize 20 years of experience at a single referral center for vascular surgery in a developing country, and to discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment options, and outcome of patients with spontaneous aorto-venous fistulas (AVF) caused by ruptured aortic aneurysms.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective database review identified 50 patients treated in our institution for aorto-venous fistulas (AVF) caused by spontaneous AAA rupture in the 20 years 1991-2010. Pulsating abdominal mass and low back pain were the leading symptoms on admission in our patients. Signs of shock, congestive heart failure, or pelvic and lower extremity venous hypertension were present in 48%, 26%, and 75% of the patients, respectively. Diagnosis of AVF was based on physical examination, duplex ultrasonography, conventional angiography, or multislice computed tomography (MSCT). In 40% of the patients the presence of AVF has not been recognized before surgery. All patients were treated with open surgery.

Results: After proximal and distal bleeding control the fistula was closed with direct suture (92%) or patch angioplasty (8%). Aortic reconstruction followed with tubular (22%) or bifurcated (78%) synthetic graft. Six (12%) patients died. The causes of death were excessive intraoperative blood loss, myocardial infarction, left colon gangrene and multiple organ failure.

Conclusions: Spontaneous AVFs caused by aneurysmal rupture are not uncommon, and they require prompt surgical or endovascular treatment. Routine use of multislice CT in patients with acute aortic syndrome is probably the best way to the correct diagnosis of aorto-venous fistulas and planning of the optimal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-011-1128-1DOI Listing
August 2011

False traumatic aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas: retrospective analysis.

World J Surg 2011 Jun;35(6):1378-86

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Serbian Clinical Centre, 8 K. Todorovica Street, 11 000, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of false traumatic aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas as well as the outcomes of the patients.

Methods: A retrospective, 16-year survey has been conducted regarding the cases of patients who underwent surgery for false traumatic aneurysms (FTA) of arteries and traumatic arteriovenous fistulas (TAVF). Patients with iatrogenic AV fistulas and iatrogenic false aneurysms were excluded from the study. There were 36 patients with TAVF and 47 with FTA. In all, 73 (87.95%) were male, and 10 (12.05%) were female, with an average age of 36.93 years (13-82 years).

Results: In 25 (29.76%) cases TAVF and FTA appeared combat-related, and 59 (70.24%) were in noncombatants. The average of all intervals between the injury and surgery was 919. 8 days (1 day to 41 years) for FTA and 396.6 days (1 day to 9 years) for TAVF. Most of the patients in both groups were surgically treated during the first 30 days after injury. One patient died on the fourth postoperative day. There were two early complications. The early patency rate was 83.34%, and limb salvage was 100%. There were no recurrent AV fistulas that required additional operations.

Conclusions: Because of their history of severe complications, FTA and TAV fistulas require prompt treatment. The treatment is simpler if there is only a short interval between the injury and the operation. Surgical endovascular repair is mostly indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-011-1021-yDOI Listing
June 2011

Technical considerations for transabdominal aortic reconstruction with renal fusion and ectopia: case series.

Vascular 2010 Sep-Oct;18(5):269-74

Department of Vascular Surgery, Inastitute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, 8 K. Todorovica Street, Belgrade, Serbia.

Aortic diseases associated with renal anomalies can present special challenges during surgery of the abdominal aorta. The aim of this paper is evaluation of morbidity and definition of optimal management according to the clinical histories of 30 patients with horseshoe and ectopic kidneys who underwent surgical procedures on the abdominal aorta over a 20-year period. Twenty-two of them had horseshoe kidney and eight had ectopic kidney. Indications for surgery included aortic aneurysms in 25 patients and aortoiliac occlusive disease in 5. Preoperative diagnostics were performed in all cases by means of computed tomography and angiography (except in the cases with ruptures) associated with duplex ultrasonography. In patients with ectopic kidney a Carrel patch technique was used for the reimplantation of the renal arteries into the body of the bifurcated (four cases) or tubular (four cases) Dacron graft in five (62.5%) cases whereas aortorenal bypass with Dacron graft was obtained in three cases (37.5%). Sixteen patients from the horseshoe kidney group required renal revascularization (reimplantation using Carrel patch in 10 patients and aortorenal bypass using Dacron graft in 6 patients). Two patients, both with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms died after the operation. In other cases the average follow up period was 6.2 years (6 months to 17 years). In one case control, angiography after 6 months revealed an occluded left renal artery that was reimplanted by Carrel patch but without repercussions on the renal function. Aortic surgery in patients with renal anomalies can be safely performed without increased mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/6670.2010.00048DOI Listing
December 2010

[Endovascular repair of aortic aneurysm--preliminary results].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2009 Jan-Feb;137(1-2):10-7

Introduction: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been introduced into clinical practice at the beginning of the 90's of the last century. Because of economic, political and social problems during the last 25 years, the introduction of this procedure in Serbia was not possible.

Objective: The aim of this study was to present preliminary experiences and results of the Clinic for Vascular Surgery of the Serbian Clinical Centre in Belgrade in endovascular treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Methods: The procedure was performed in 33 patients (3 female and 30 male), aged from 42 to 83 years. Ten patients had a descending thoracic aorta aneurysm (three atherosclerotic, four traumatic--three chronic and one acute as a part of polytrauma, one dissected, two penetrated atherosclerotic ulcers), while 23 patients had the abdominal aortic aneurysm, one ruptured and two isolated iliac artery aneurysms. The indications for EVAR were isthmic aneurismal localisation, aged over 80 years and associated comorbidity (cardiac, pulmonary and cerebrovasular diseases, previous thoracotomy or multiple laparotomies associated with abdominal infection, idiopathic thrombocitopaenia). All of these patients had three or more risk factors. The diagnosis was established using duplex ultrasonography, angiography and MSCT. In the case of thoracic aneurysm, a Medtronic-Valiant endovascular stent graft was implanted, while for the abdominal aortic aneurysm Medtronic-Talent endovascular stent grafts with delivery systems were used. In three patients, following EVAR a surgical repair of the femoral artery aneurysm was performed, and in another three patients femoro-femoral cross over bypass followed implantation of aortouniiliac stent graft.

Results: During procedure and follow-up period (mean 1.6 years), there were: one death, one conversion, one endoleak type 1, six patients with endoleak type 2 that disappeared during the follow-up period, one early graft thrombosis. No other complications, including aneurysm expansion, collapse, deformity and migration of the endovascular stent grafts, were registered.

Conclusion: According to all medical and economic aspects, we recommend EVAR to treat acute traumatic thoracic aortic aneurysm, as well as in elderly and high-risk patients with abdominal or thoracic aneurysms, when open surgery is related to a significantly higher mortality and morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0902010dDOI Listing
May 2009

Carotid artery aneurysms: Serbian multicentric study.

Ann Vasc Surg 2007 Jan;21(1):23-9

Vascular Surgery Clinic, Dedinje Cardiovascular Institute, Belgrade, Serbia.

This multicentric Serbian study presents the treatment of 91 extracranial carotid artery aneurysms in 76 patients (13 had bilateral lesions). There were 61 (80.3%) male and 15 (19.7%) female patients, with an average age of 61.4 years. The aneurysms were caused by atherosclerosis in 73 cases (80.2%), trauma in six (6.6%), previous carotid surgery in six (6.6%), tuberculosis in one (1.1%), and fibromuscular dysplasia in five (5.5%). The majority (61 cases or 67%) of the aneurysms involved the internal carotid artery, 29 (31.9%) the common carotid artery bifurcation, and one (1.1%) the external carotid artery. Forty-five (49.4%) aneurysms were fusiform, while 46 (50.6%) were saccular. Twenty-nine (31.9%) cases were totally asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. The remainder presented with compression in 14 (15.4%) cases, stroke in 11 (12.1%) cases, transient ischemic attack in 33 (36.3%) cases, and rupture in four (4.4%) cases. In cases where the aneurysm involved the internal carotid artery, four surgical procedures were performed: aneurysmectomy with end-to-end anastomosis in 30 (33.0%) cases, aneurysmectomy with vein graft interposition in 20 (22.0%) cases, aneurysmectomy with anastomosis between external and internal carotid artery in eight (8.8%) cases, and aneurysmectomy followed by arterial ligature in three cases. One case of external carotid artery aneurysm also was treated by aneurysmectomy and ligature. Aneurysm replacement with Dacron graft was performed in 29 (31.9%) cases where common carotid artery bifurcation was involved. Two (2.2%) patients died after the operation due to a stroke. They had ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm treated by aneurysmectomy and ligature. Including these, a total of five (5.5%) postoperative strokes occurred. In two (2.2%) cases, transient cranial nerve injuries were found. Excluding the five patients who were lost to follow-up, 69 other surviving patients were followed from 2 months to 12 years (mean 5 years and 3 months). In this period, there were no new neurological events and all reconstructed arteries were patent. Three patients died more than 5 years after the operation, due to myocardial infarction. Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid arteries are rare vascular lesions that produce a high incidence of unfavorable neurological sequelae. Because of their varied etiology, location, and extension, different vascular procedures have to be used during repair of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms. In all of these procedures, an aneurysmectomy with arterial reconstruction is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2006.10.004DOI Listing
January 2007

[Anastomotic pseudoaneurysms].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2006 Mar-Apr;134(3-4):114-21

Anastomotic pseudoaneurysm is a form of false aneurysm, whose wall does not consist of all normal layers of arterial wall. Given the rising number of reconstructive vascular procedures, the increase of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm cases is expected. Therefore, identification of causes, clinical manifestations as well as factors which affect the outcome of operative treatment of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms is of great practical value. This retrospectively-prospective study included 87 surgically treated cases of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms in the period from 1991 to 2002. The most often localization of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms was the inguinal region (68-86.2%). In the majority of cases, they were caused by arterial degeneration in the anastomotic region--56 cases (65.9%) and infection--21 cases (24.7%). The most frequent manifestations of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms were bleeding due to rupture in 26 cases (29.9%) and chronic limb ischaemia in 22 cases (25.3%). An acute limb ischaemia was present in 17 cases (19.5%), the symptoms caused by local compression to the surrounding structures--in 9 cases (10.3%), and in 12 cases (13.8%), the only manifestation of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm was asymptomatic pulsatile mass. In 32 cases (36.8%), surgical treatment involved the resection of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm and graft interposition, whereas in 39 cases (44.8%), bypass procedure had to be performed after the resection. Comorbidity significantly increased mortality in the first 30 days. The use of Dacron graft in primary operation significantly improved early results of operative treatment. Absence of infection as the cause of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm is a statistically important prognostic factor of operative treatment, considering the graft patency, limb salvage, infection, need for reintervention and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0604114mDOI Listing
October 2006

[Surgical revascularisation of the heart in patients with chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy and leftventricular ejection fraction of less than 30%].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2005 Sep-Oct;133(9-10):406-11

Introduction: Patients suffering from chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) lower than 30% represent a difficult and controversial population for surgical treatment.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of surgical treatment on the early and long-term outcome of these patients.

Method: The patient population comprised 50 patients with LVEF < 30% (78% male, mean age: 58.3 years, range: 42-75 years) who underwent surgical myocardial revascularisation during the period 1995-2000. Patients with left ventricular aneurysms or mitral valve insufficiency were excluded from the study. The following echocardiography parameters were evaluated as possible prognostic indicators: LVEF, fraction of shortening (FS), left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters (LVEDD, LVESD) and volumes (LVEDV, LVESV), as well as their indexed values (LVESVI).

Results: Fifteen patients (30%) died during the follow-up, 2/50 intraoperatively (4%). The presence of diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, main left coronary artery disease, and three-vessel disease, correlated significantly with the surgical outcomes. The patient's age, family history, smoking habits, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, history of stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and renal failure, did not correlate with the mortality rate. A comparison of preoperative echocardiography parameters between survivors and non-survivors revealed significantly divergent LVEF, LVEDD, LVESD, LVEDV, LVESV, and LVESVI values. Preoperative LVESVI offered the highest predictive value (R = 0.595).

Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, stenosis of the main branch, and three-vessel disease, significantly affected the perioperative and long-term outcome of surgical revascularisation in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and LVEF < 30%. In survivors, LVEF, FS, and systolic and diastolic echocardiography parameters, as well as their indexed values, significantly improved after surgical revascularisation. LVESVI provided the highest predictive value for mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0510406vDOI Listing
May 2006

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: factors influencing early survival.

Ann Vasc Surg 2005 Jan;19(1):29-34

Department of Vascular Surgery, Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

In this study we aimed to define relevant prognostic predictors for the outcome of surgical treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. The study included 406 consecutive patients treated between January 1991 and December 2003. There were 337 (83%) male and 69 (17%) female patients aged 67 +/- 7.5 years. Fourteen (3.5%) patients had aortocaval fistula whereas 4 (0.98%) had primary aortorenteric fistula caused by aneurysm rupture into the inferior vena cava or duodenum. Reconstruction included interposition of a tube graft (215-53%), aortobiiliac bypass (134-33%), and aortobifemoral bypass (58-14.3%). Findings on admission that significantly correlated with both intraoperative (13.5%) and total operative mortality (48.3%) were systolic blood pressure <95 mmHg, low diuresis, unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, leukocytes >14 x 10(9)/L, hematocrit <0.29%, hemoglobin <100 g/L, urea> 11 mmol/L, and creatinine >180 micromol/L. Intraoperative determinants of increased mortality were aortic cross-clamping time >47 min, duration of surgery >200 min, intraoperative blood loss >3500 mL, diuresis <400 mL, arterial systolic pressure <97.5 mmHg, and the need for aortobifemoral bypass. Respiratory complications and multisystem organ failure were significantly associated with lethal outcome in the postoperative period. Surgical treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm was life-saving in 51.7% of patients. Variables significantly associated with mortality were unconsciousness, low systolic blood pressure, cardiac arrest, low diuresis, high urea and creatinine levels, signs of blood loss, and the need for aortobifemoral reconstruction. Short aortic cross-clamping and the total operation time, low intraoperative blood loss, and well-controlled diuresis and arterial pressure during surgery have improved survival. Therapeutic efforts should concentrate on intraoperative factors that are possible to correct, leading to better survival of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10016-004-0148-9DOI Listing
January 2005

Abdominal aortic surgery and horseshoe kidney.

Ann Vasc Surg 2004 Nov;18(6):725-8

Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, 8, K. Todorovića Street, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

Horseshoe kidney presents a special challenge during surgery of the abdominal aorta. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and define optimal management based on clinical histories of 15 patients with horseshoe kidney who underwent surgical procedures on the abdominal aorta over a 20-year period. There were 2 female and 13 male patients with an average age of 62.66 (50-75) years. The indications for surgery included aortic aneurysms in 10 patients and aortoiliac occlusive disease in 5. The horseshoe kidney was detected before surgery in 12 patients (80%) by ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography (CT) or excretory urography. Angiography revealed multiple or anomalous renal arteries in 8 of 12 patients studied preoperatively. At surgery, 10 patients (66.6%) were found to have multiple or anomalous renal arteries. Five patients (33.41%) were without multiple or anomalous renal arteries. Ten required renal revascularization (reimplantation with a Carrel patch in 7 patients and aortorenal bypass in 3). Two patients, both with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, died postoperatively. In the other 10 cases the average follow-up period was 5.3 years (6 months to 17 years). During this period there were no signs of graft occlusion, renovascular hypertension, or renal failure. From these results we conclude that aortic surgery can be performed safely in patients with horseshoe kidney without increased mortality. These patients require exact preoperative diagnosis (ultrasonography, CT scan, angiography), reimplantation of anomalous renal arteries, and preservation of the renal isthmus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10016-004-0076-8DOI Listing
November 2004

[Axillobifemoral bypass grafting].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2004 May-Jun;132(5-6):157-62

Introduction: Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF) means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF). This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons.

Objective: The objective of this paper is to show early and late results of AxFF bypass grafting as well as to show the indications for AxFF bypass.

Methods: The sample consisted of 37 patients. The procedure was performed in 28 patients who suffered from aortoiliac occlusive disease and who were at high risk due to the comorbidity--in one patient with the rupture of juxtarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta; in five patients with aortoenteric fistula, in two patients with latrogenic lesion of abdominal aorta and in one female patient with anus preternaturalis definitivus who was treated for rectovaginal fistula. Donor's right axillary artery was used in 26 cases (70.3%), and donor's left axillary artery was used in 9 cases (29.7%). Dacron graft was used in 34 patients and Polytetrafluoroethlylene graft was used in three patients. Simultaneously, profundoplastic was done in four patients and femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in three patients. In five patients who suffered from aortoenteric fistula, simultaneous intervention of gastrointerstinal system has been done. Chi2 test was used for statistical evaluation and life table method was used for verification of late graft patency.

Results: The rate of early postoperative mortality was 13.5%. The causes of death were: sepsis--1, MOFS--3, and infarct myocardium--1. The mean follow up period was 40.1 months, ranging from six months to 17 years. During the follow up period, an early graft thrombosis was identified in two and late graft occlusion was reported in four patients. As the cause of occlusion, the progression of occlusive disease of receptive artery was identified in three patients, while anastomotic neointimae hyperplasia of recipient artery was identified in one patient. Three patients died during the follow up period. As the cause of death, CVI was reported in two patients and malignancy of the urinary tract was found in one patient. The other complications were--artery angulation on the level of proximal anastomosis in one patient (Figure 1), false aneurysm in one patient, perigraft seroma in one patient and graft infection in three patients. Life table method has shown that cumulative rate of late graft patency is 80.39% after five years (Graph 1).

Discussion: Our results were analyzed and compared with the results of the study on 283 patients who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass (AFF) operation due to the aortoiliac occlusive disease. This study was completed in 1995 (18). The results showed that there was no statistically significant differences between AxFF and AFF group (p > 0.05), considering early mortality rate and late graft patency (Graph 2). The review of mortality and late patency rate after AxFF bypass grafting in a world well known studies has shown the similar results (Table 1). CONCLUSION The authors suggest that axilobifemoral bypass is indicated when there are contraindications or difficulties to perform anatomic reconstruction due to the abdomen condition (infection, adhesion, comorbidity) as well as in high risk patients with low life expectancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0406157dDOI Listing
November 2004

[Effect of preoperative factors on survival in patients with ruptured aneurysms of the abdominal aorta].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2003 Nov-Dec;131(11-12):432-6

Clinic of Vascular Surgery, Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

Between 1991-2001 total number of 1058 patients was operated at the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of Serbian Clinical Centre due to abdominal aortic aneurysm. Of this number, 288 patients underwent urgent surgical treatment because of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aim of this retrospective study was to show results of the early outcome of the surgical treatment of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, and to define relevant preoperative factors that influenced their survival. There were 83% male and 17% female patients in the study, mean aged 67 years. Intrahospital mortality that included intraoperative and postoperative deaths was 53.7%. Therefore, 46.3% patients survived surgical treatment and were released from hospital. Intraoperative mortality was 13.5%. Statistics showed that the gender and the age did not have any influence on mortality of our patients, as well as their co morbid conditions (p > 0.05). Clinical parameters at admission in hospital such as state of consciousness, systolic blood pressure, cardiac arrest and diuresis significantly influenced the outcome of treatment, as well as laboratory findings such as levels of hematocrit, hemoglobin, white blood cells, urea and creatinin (p < 0.05; p < 0.01). Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still remains one of the most dramatic surgical states with very high mortality reported. We assume that important preoperative factors that influence the outcome of surgical treatment can be defined, but there is no single parameter which can certainly predict the lethal outcome after surgery. Also, the presence of co morbid conditions does not significantly influence the outcome of treatment in these patients. Therefore, urgent operation should not be withheld in most of the patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0312432mDOI Listing
May 2004

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Predictors of survival in 229 consecutive surgical patients.

Herz 2004 Feb;29(1):123-9

Department of Vascular Surgery, Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.

Background And Purpose: A ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is one of the most urgent surgical conditions with high mortality. The aim of the present study was to define relevant prognostic predictors for the outcome of surgical treatment.

Patients And Methods: This study included 229 subsequent patients (83% males, 17% females, age 67.0 +/- 7.5 years) with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Before surgery, all patients underwent clinical examination, ultrasonography was performed in 78.6% (mean aneurysm diameter 73 mm, range 40-100 mm), computed tomography (CT) scan in 16.2%, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 0.9%, and angiography in 12.6% of patients. The aneurysm was infrarenal in 74%, juxtarenal in 12.3%, suprarenal in 6.8%, and thoracoabdominal in 6.8% of patients. Types of rupture were retroperitoneal (65%), intraperitoneal (26.8%), chronic (3.8%), rupture into vena cava inferior (3.2%), and into duodenum (0.6%). Reconstruction included interposition of Dacron graft (53%), aortobiiliac bypass (32.8%), and aortobifemoral bypass (14.2%).

Results: Findings on admission that significantly correlated with both intraoperative (13.5%) and total intrahospital mortality (53.7%) were: systolic blood pressure < 95 mmHg, low diuresis, unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, leukocytes > 14 x 10(9)/l, hematocrit < 0.29%, hemoglobin < 100 g/l, urea > 11 mmol/l, and creatinine > 180 micro mol/l. Intraoperative determinants of increased mortality were: aortic cross-clamping time > 47 min, duration of surgery > 200 min, intraoperative blood loss > 3,500 ml, diuresis < 400 ml, arterial systolic pressure < 97.5 mmHg, and the need for aortobifemoral bypass. Respiratory complications and multisystem organ failure were associated with a lethal outcome in the postoperative period.

Conclusion: Surgical treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm was life-saving in 46.3% of patients. Hypotension, low diuresis, high urea and creatinine levels, signs of blood loss, unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, and the need for aortobifemoral reconstruction predicted poor outcome. Short aortic cross-clamping and total operation time, low intraoperative blood loss, and well-controlled diuresis and arterial pressure during surgery have improved survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00059-004-2540-1DOI Listing
February 2004

[An obturator or "lateral" bypass in infected vascular prostheses in the groin?].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2002 Jan-Feb;130(1-2):27-32

Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Serbian Clinical Centre, Belgrade.

The infection of the previously implanted vascular graft at the groin, is associated with great mortality and morbidity rate [1]. The authors present a retrospective study in which they analyzed management of infected vascular prostheses at the groin, using obturator bypass in 26 cases, and "lateral" bypass in 15 cases. The indications for obturator bypass reconstructions included: 20 infections of aorto-femoral grafts, two infected pseudoaneurysms in the groin after PTA of the superficial femoral artery, and 4 infections of iliac-femoral grafts. The indications for lateral bypass reconstructions were: infections after aorto-femoral reconstructions--8 cases; infection after femoro-popliteal reconstructions--4 cases; infection after iliac-femoral reconstruction--2 patients, and one infected pseudoaneurysm in the groin after PTA of the superficial femoral artery. In 3 subjects obturator bypass was performed using extraperitoneal approach, while in other 23 patients transperitoneal approach was done by donor's artery. The obturator bypass was performed using a PTFE graft in 3 cases, and Dacron graft in 23. The donor's artery used for obturator bypass was a noninfected proximal part of aortofemoral graft in 20 cases, and iliac artery in 6 patients. The superficial femoral artery was recipient artery for obturator bypass in 3 cases, deep femoral artery in one case, and above the knee popliteal artery in 22 cases (Figure 1). In two patients transperitoneal approach to donors artery for "lateral" bypass has been used, and in 13 cases extraperitoneal. The proximal noninfected part of aorto femoral graft was used as a donor's artery for lateral bypass in 8 patients, while common iliac artery in 7 subjects. In 5 cases reconstructions were performed using PTFE grafts, in 3 using autologous saphenous vein grafts, and in 7 using Dacron grafts. The recipient artery for "lateral" bypass was deep femoral in 8 cases, superficial femoral in three patients and above the knee popliteal artery in 4 subjects. After both types of reconstruction, extirpation of infected grafts from the groin was performed (Figure 2). The control examination was performed using physical and Doppler ultrasonographic examinations, one, 3, 6, 12 months, and then every year after the operation. In cases with suspected graft infection or thrombosis, control angiography was also performed. One intraoperative perforation of the urinary bladder has been done accidentally during obturator bypass reconstruction. The mean follow-up period for patients with obturator bypasses was 2.3 years, while 2.1 years for patients with "lateral" bypasses. Comparing with "lateral" bypass, obturator bypass showed statistically significant lower (p < 0.05) 30-day mortality and early graft infection rate, as well as statistically significant better early and total limb salvage rate. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between obturator and "lateral" bypass procedures, having in mind, late graft infection rate, as well as early and late graft patency (Figures 3 and 4). In cases with infected vascular prostheses in the groin, the authors recommend obturator bypass comparing with "lateral" bypass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0202027dDOI Listing
August 2002