Publications by authors named "Slawomir Prucnal"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chlorine doping of MoSe flakes by ion implantation.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar 15;13(11):5834-5846. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany.

The efficient integration of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) into the current electronic device technology requires mastering the techniques of effective tuning of their optoelectronic properties. Specifically, controllable doping is essential. For conventional bulk semiconductors, ion implantation is the most developed method offering stable and tunable doping. In this work, we demonstrate n-type doping in MoSe flakes realized by low-energy ion implantation of Cl ions followed by millisecond-range flash lamp annealing (FLA). We further show that FLA for 3 ms with a peak temperature of about 1000 °C is enough to recrystallize implanted MoSe. The Cl distribution in few-layer-thick MoSe is measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. An increase in the electron concentration with increasing Cl fluence is determined from the softening and red shift of the Raman-active A phonon mode due to the Fano effect. The electrical measurements confirm the n-type doping of Cl-implanted MoSe. A comparison of the results of our density functional theory calculations and experimental temperature-dependent micro-Raman spectroscopy data indicates that Cl atoms are incorporated into the atomic network of MoSe as substitutional donor impurities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr08935dDOI Listing
March 2021

Electron Concentration Limit in Ge Doped by Ion Implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 20;13(6). Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany.

Controlled doping with an effective carrier concentration higher than 10 cm is a key challenge for the full integration of Ge into silicon-based technology. Such a highly doped layer of both p- and n type is needed to provide ohmic contacts with low specific resistance. We have studied the effect of ion implantation parameters i.e., ion energy, fluence, ion type, and protective layer on the effective concentration of electrons. We have shown that the maximum electron concentration increases as the thickness of the doping layer decreases. The degradation of the implanted Ge surface can be minimized by performing ion implantation at temperatures that are below -100 °C with ion flux less than 60 nAcm and maximum ion energy less than 120 keV. The implanted layers are flash-lamp annealed for 20 ms in order to inhibit the diffusion of the implanted ions during the recrystallization process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13061408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143048PMC
March 2020

Ultra-fast annealing manipulated spinodal nano-decomposition in Mn-implanted Ge.

Nanotechnology 2019 Feb 30;30(5):054001. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 150001, Harbin, People's Republic of China. Laboratory for Space Environment and Physical Science, Research Center of Basic Space Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001, Harbin, People's Republic of China. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden, Germany.

In the present work, millisecond-range flash lamp annealing is used to recrystallize Mn-implanted Ge. Through systematic investigations of structural and magnetic properties, we find that the flash lamp annealing produces a phase mixture consisting of spinodally decomposed Mn-rich ferromagnetic clusters within a paramagnetic-like matrix with randomly distributed Mn atoms. Increasing the annealing energy density from 46, via 50, to 56 J cm causes the segregation of Mn atoms into clusters, as proven by transmission electron microscopy analysis and quantitatively confirmed by magnetization measurements. According to x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the dilute Mn ions within Ge are in d electronic configuration. This Mn-doped Ge shows paramagnetism, as evidenced by the unsaturated magnetic-field-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism signal. Our study reveals how spinodal decomposition occurs and influences the formation of ferromagnetic Mn-rich Ge-Mn nanoclusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aaefb1DOI Listing
February 2019

On the insulator-to-metal transition in titanium-implanted silicon.

Sci Rep 2018 Mar 7;8(1):4164. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328, Dresden, Germany.

Hyperdoped silicon with deep level impurities has attracted much research interest due to its promising optical and electrical properties. In this work, single crystalline silicon supersaturated with titanium is fabricated by ion implantation followed by both pulsed laser melting and flash lamp annealing. The decrease of sheet resistance with increasing Ti concentration is attributed to a surface morphology effect due to the formation of cellular breakdown at the surface and the percolation conduction at high Ti concentration is responsible for the metallic-like conductivity. The insulator-to-metal transition does not happen. However, the doping effect of Ti incorporation at low concentration is not excluded, which might be responsible for the sub-bandgap optical absorption reported in literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22503-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5841356PMC
March 2018

Ion-Beam-Induced Atomic Mixing in Ge, Si, and SiGe, Studied by Means of Isotope Multilayer Structures.

Materials (Basel) 2017 Jul 17;10(7). Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Institute of Materials Physics, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany.

Crystalline and preamorphized isotope multilayers are utilized to investigate the dependence of ion beam mixing in silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), and silicon germanium (SiGe) on the atomic structure of the sample, temperature, ion flux, and electrical doping by the implanted ions. The magnitude of mixing is determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy provide information about the structural state after ion irradiation. Different temperature regimes with characteristic mixing properties are identified. A disparity in atomic mixing of Si and Ge becomes evident while SiGe shows an intermediate behavior. Overall, atomic mixing increases with temperature, and it is stronger in the amorphous than in the crystalline state. Ion-beam-induced mixing in Ge shows no dependence on doping by the implanted ions. In contrast, a doping effect is found in Si at higher temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations clearly show that ion beam mixing in Ge is mainly determined by the thermal spike mechanism. In the case of Si thermal spike, mixing prevails at low temperature whereas ion beam-induced enhanced self-diffusion dominates the atomic mixing at high temperature. The latter process is attributed to highly mobile Si di-interstitials formed under irradiation and during damage annealing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma10070813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5551856PMC
July 2017

Room-temperature short-wavelength infrared Si photodetector.

Sci Rep 2017 03 6;7:43688. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany.

The optoelectronic applications of Si are restricted to the visible and near-infrared spectral range due to its 1.12 eV-indirect band gap. Sub-band gap light detection in Si, for instance, has been a long-standing scientific challenge for many decades since most photons with sub-band gap energies pass through Si unabsorbed. This fundamental shortcoming, however, can be overcome by introducing non-equilibrium deep-level dopant concentrations into Si, which results in the formation of an impurity band allowing for strong sub-band gap absorption. Here, we present steady-state room-temperature short-wavelength infrared p-n photodiodes from single-crystalline Si hyperdoped with Se concentrations as high as 9 × 10 cm, which are introduced by a robust and reliable non-equilibrium processing consisting of ion implantation followed by millisecond-range flash lamp annealing. We provide a detailed description of the material properties, working principle and performance of the photodiodes as well as the main features in the studied wavelength region. This work fundamentally contributes to establish the short-wavelength infrared detection by hyperdoped Si in the forefront of the state-of-the-art of short-IR Si photonics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep43688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337967PMC
March 2017

Ultra-doped n-type germanium thin films for sensing in the mid-infrared.

Sci Rep 2016 06 10;6:27643. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden, Germany.

A key milestone for the next generation of high-performance multifunctional microelectronic devices is the monolithic integration of high-mobility materials with Si technology. The use of Ge instead of Si as a basic material in nanoelectronics would need homogeneous p- and n-type doping with high carrier densities. Here we use ion implantation followed by rear side flash-lamp annealing (r-FLA) for the fabrication of heavily doped n-type Ge with high mobility. This approach, in contrast to conventional annealing procedures, leads to the full recrystallization of Ge films and high P activation. In this way single crystalline Ge thin films free of defects with maximum attained carrier concentrations of 2.20 ± 0.11 × 10(20) cm(-3) and carrier mobilities above 260 cm(2)/(V·s) were obtained. The obtained ultra-doped Ge films display a room-temperature plasma frequency above 1,850 cm(-1), which enables to exploit the plasmonic properties of Ge for sensing in the mid-infrared spectral range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep27643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4901323PMC
June 2016

Synthesis, Morphological, and Electro-optical Characterizations of Metal/Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures.

Nano Lett 2016 06 13;16(6):3507-13. Epub 2016 May 13.

Institute of Solid State Electronics, TU Wien , Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien, Austria.

In this letter, we demonstrate the formation of unique Ga/GaAs/Si nanowire heterostructures, which were successfully implemented in nanoscale light-emitting devices with visible room temperature electroluminescence. Based on our recent approach for the integration of InAs/Si heterostructures into Si nanowires by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing, we developed a routine that has proven to be suitable for the monolithic integration of GaAs nanocrystallite segments into the core of silicon nanowires. The formation of a Ga segment adjacent to longer GaAs nanocrystallites resulted in Schottky-diode-like I/V characteristics with distinct electroluminescence originating from the GaAs nanocrystallite for the nanowire device operated in the reverse breakdown regime. The observed electroluminescence was ascribed to radiative band-to-band recombinations resulting in distinct emission peaks and a low contribution due to intraband transition, which were also observed under forward bias. Simulations of the obtained nanowire heterostructure confirmed the proposed impact ionization process responsible for hot carrier luminescence. This approach may enable a new route for on-chip photonic devices used for light emission or detection purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4901366PMC
June 2016

Temperature stable 1.3 μm emission from GaAs.

Opt Express 2012 Nov;20(23):26075-81

Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany.

Gallium arsenide has outstanding performance in optical communication devices for light source purposes. Different approaches have been done to realize the luminescence from GaAs matching the transmission window of optical fibers. Here we present the realization of quasi- temperature independent photoluminescence at around 1.3 μm from millisecond-range thermally treated GaAs. It is shown that the V(As) donor and X acceptor pairs are responsible for the 1.3 μm emission. The influence of the flash-lamp-annealing on the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) formation in the nitrogen and manganese doped and un-doped semi-insulating GaAs wafers were investigated. The concentration of DAP and the 1.3 μm emission can be easily tuned by controlling doping and annealing conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.20.026075DOI Listing
November 2012

InP nanocrystals on silicon for optoelectronic applications.

Nanotechnology 2012 Dec 9;23(48):485204. Epub 2012 Nov 9.

Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany.

One of the solutions enabling performance progress, which can overcome the downsizing limit in silicon technology, is the integration of different functional optoelectronic devices within a single chip. Silicon with its indirect band gap has poor optical properties, which is its main drawback. Therefore, a different material has to be used for the on-chip optical interconnections, e.g. a direct band gap III-V compound semiconductor material. In the paper we present the synthesis of single crystalline InP nanodots (NDs) on silicon using combined ion implantation and millisecond flash lamp annealing techniques. The optical and microstructural investigations reveal the growth of high-quality (100)-oriented InP nanocrystals. The current-voltage measurements confirm the formation of an n-p heterojunction between the InP NDs and silicon. The main advantage of our method is its integration with large-scale silicon technology, which allows applying it for Si-based optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/23/48/485204DOI Listing
December 2012

n-InAs nanopyramids fully integrated into silicon.

Nano Lett 2011 Jul 6;11(7):2814-8. Epub 2011 Jun 6.

Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany.

InAs with an extremely high electron mobility (up to 40,000 cm(2)/V s) seems to be the most suitable candidate for better electronic devices performance. Here we present a synthesis of inverted crystalline InAs nanopyramids (NPs) in silicon using a combined hot ion implantation and millisecond flash lamp annealing techniques. Conventional selective etching was used to form the InAs/Si heterojunction. The current-voltage measurement confirms the heterojunction diode formation with the ideality factor of η = 4.6. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements indicate a type-II band alignment of n-type InAs NPs on p-type silicon. The main advantage of our method is its integration with large-scale silicon technology, which also allows applying it for Si-based electronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl201178dDOI Listing
July 2011
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