Publications by authors named "Slawomir Kusmia"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Validating pore size estimates in a complex microfiber environment on a human MRI system.

Magn Reson Med 2021 09 7;86(3):1514-1530. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Recent advances in diffusion-weighted MRI provide "restricted diffusion signal fraction" and restricting pore size estimates. Materials based on co-electrospun oriented hollow cylinders have been introduced to provide validation for such methods. This study extends this work, exploring accuracy and repeatability using an extended acquisition on a 300 mT/m gradient human MRI scanner, in substrates closely mimicking tissue, that is, non-circular cross-sections, intra-voxel fiber crossing, intra-voxel distributions of pore-sizes, and smaller pore-sizes overall.

Methods: In a single-blind experiment, diffusion-weighted data were collected from a biomimetic phantom on a 3T Connectom system using multiple gradient directions/diffusion times. Repeated scans established short-term and long-term repeatability. The total scan time (54 min) matched similar protocols used in human studies. The number of distinct fiber populations was estimated using spherical deconvolution, and median pore size estimated through the combination of CHARMED and AxCaliber3D framework. Diffusion-based estimates were compared with measurements derived from scanning electron microscopy.

Results: The phantom contained substrates with different orientations, fiber configurations, and pore size distributions. Irrespective of one or two populations within the voxel, the pore-size estimates (~5 μm) and orientation-estimates showed excellent agreement with the median values of pore-size derived from scanning electron microscope and phantom configuration. Measurement repeatability depended on substrate complexity, with lower values seen in samples containing crossing-fibers. Sample-level repeatability was found to be good.

Conclusion: While no phantom mimics tissue completely, this study takes a step closer to validating diffusion microstructure measurements for use in vivo by demonstrating the ability to quantify microgeometry in relatively complex configurations.
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September 2021

Spatially and Temporally Distinct Encoding of Muscle and Kinematic Information in Rostral and Caudal Primary Motor Cortex.

Cereb Cortex Commun 2020 4;1(1):tgaa009. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK.

The organizing principle of human motor cortex does not follow an anatomical body map, but rather a distributed representational structure in which motor primitives are combined to produce motor outputs. Electrophysiological recordings in primates and human imaging data suggest that M1 encodes kinematic features of movements, such as joint position and velocity. However, M1 exhibits well-documented sensory responses to cutaneous and proprioceptive stimuli, raising questions regarding the origins of kinematic motor representations: are they relevant in top-down motor control, or are they an epiphenomenon of bottom-up sensory feedback during movement? Here we provide evidence for spatially and temporally distinct encoding of kinematic and muscle information in human M1 during the production of a wide variety of naturalistic hand movements. Using a powerful combination of high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography, a spatial and temporal multivariate representational similarity analysis revealed encoding of kinematic information in more caudal regions of M1, over 200 ms before movement onset. In contrast, patterns of muscle activity were encoded in more rostral motor regions much later after movements began. We provide compelling evidence that top-down control of dexterous movement engages kinematic representations in caudal regions of M1 prior to movement production.
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April 2020

Cross-scanner and cross-protocol diffusion MRI data harmonisation: A benchmark database and evaluation of algorithms.

Neuroimage 2019 07 1;195:285-299. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

New York University, New York, NY, United States; imec-Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Diffusion MRI is being used increasingly in studies of the brain and other parts of the body for its ability to provide quantitative measures that are sensitive to changes in tissue microstructure. However, inter-scanner and inter-protocol differences are known to induce significant measurement variability, which in turn jeopardises the ability to obtain 'truly quantitative measures' and challenges the reliable combination of different datasets. Combining datasets from different scanners and/or acquired at different time points could dramatically increase the statistical power of clinical studies, and facilitate multi-centre research. Even though careful harmonisation of acquisition parameters can reduce variability, inter-protocol differences become almost inevitable with improvements in hardware and sequence design over time, even within a site. In this work, we present a benchmark diffusion MRI database of the same subjects acquired on three distinct scanners with different maximum gradient strength (40, 80, and 300 mT/m), and with 'standard' and 'state-of-the-art' protocols, where the latter have higher spatial and angular resolution. The dataset serves as a useful testbed for method development in cross-scanner/cross-protocol diffusion MRI harmonisation and quality enhancement. Using the database, we compare the performance of five different methods for estimating mappings between the scanners and protocols. The results show that cross-scanner harmonisation of single-shell diffusion data sets can reduce the variability between scanners, and highlight the promises and shortcomings of today's data harmonisation techniques.
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July 2019

Differentiation and quantification of fibrosis, fat and fatty fibrosis in human left atrial myocardium using ex vivo MRI.

PLoS One 2018 8;13(10):e0205104. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Institute of Cardiometabolism And Nutrition, La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Atrial fibrillation is associated with an atrial cardiomyopathy composed mainly of fibrosis and adipose tissue accumulation. We hypothesized that MRI, when used in an optimal ex vivo setting allowing high spatial resolution without motion artifacts, can help characterizing the complex 3D left atrial (LA) wall composition in human myocardial samples, as compared to histology.

Methods: This prospective case-control study was approved by the institutional review board. 3D MRI acquisitions including saturation-recovery T1 mapping and DIXON imaging was performed at 4.0 T on 9 human LA samples collected from patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Histological quantification of fibrosis and fat was obtained. MRI T1 maps were clustered based on a Gaussian Mixture Model allowing quantification of total, interstitial and fatty fibrosis components. Fat maps were computed from DIXON images and fat fractions were calculated. MRI measurements were performed on the same location as the histological analysis (plane) and on the entire sample volume (3D).

Results: High correlations and levels of agreement were observed between MRI and histology for total (r = 0.93), interstitial (r = 0.93) and fatty fibrosis (r = 0.98) and fat (r = 0.96). Native T1 correlated with the amount of fibrosis from MRI and histology. The 3D MRI total, interstitial and fatty fibrosis ranges were between 6% and 23%, 4% and 17.3%; and 1.4% and 19.7% respectively.

Conclusion: High Field ex vivo MRI was able to quantify different LA myocardial components with high agreement in 2D with histology and moreover to provide 3D quantification of such components whereas in vivo application remains a challenge.
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April 2019

DQF-MT MRI of connective tissues: application to tendon and muscle.

MAGMA 2013 Apr 23;26(2):203-14. Epub 2012 Sep 23.

IR4M UMR8081 CNRS Univ Paris-Sud, CIERM-Hôp Bicetre, 94275, Le Kremlin Bicetre, France.

Object: The sequence combining DQF (double quantum filtering) with magnetisation transfer (DQF-MT) was tested as an alternative to the DQF sequence for characterising tendon and muscle by MR imaging.

Materials And Methods: DQF-MT images of tendon-muscle phantoms were obtained at 4.7 T using ultra-short time to echo (UTE) methods in order to alleviate the loss of SNR due to the short T2 of the tissues. Two different sampling schemes of the k-space, Cartesian or radial, were employed. In vivo images of the human ankle on a clinical 1.5 T scanner are also presented. Parameters providing optimal tendon signal as well as optimal contrast between this tissue and muscle were determined.

Results: Two sets of parameters resulting in different contrasts between the tissues were found. For the first set (short creation time τ = 10 μs and magnetisation exchange time t LM = 100 ms), DQF-MT signals in muscle and tendon were detected, with that of the tendon being the larger one. For the second set (long creation time τ = 750 μs and magnetisation exchange time 10 μs < t LM < 100 ms), the DQF-MT signal was detected only in the tendon, and the decay of the double quantum coherence was slower than that observed for the first one, which allowed us to acquire DQF-MT MR images on a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner with minimal software interventions. In favourable conditions, the DQF-MT signal in the tendon could represent up to 10 % of the single-quantum signal.

Conclusion: Dipolar interaction within macromolecules such as collagen and myosin is at the origin of the DQF-MT signal observed in the first parameter set. This should enable the detection of muscle fibrosis.
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April 2013

Scaffold-aided repair of articular cartilage studied by MRI.

MAGMA 2008 May 13;21(3):177-85. Epub 2008 Mar 13.

Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Ul. Umultowska 85, Poznań 61-614, Poland.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of the noninvasive magnetic resonance techniques to monitor the scaffold-aided process of articular cartilage repair.

Materials And Methods: Defects of 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth were created in right knees of 30 adolescent white New Zealand rabbits. Fourteen rabbits were implanted with poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold trimmed to match the size and the shape of the defect (PLGA+ group). No procedure was applied to the remaining 16 animals (PLGA- group). Animals were sacrificed sequentially at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the surgery and magnetic resonance T (2)-weighted images (400 MHz) of the dissected bone plugs at eight different echo times were taken to derive T (2) relaxation time. The images and the T (2) time dependencies versus the tissue depth were statistically analyzed. Histological results of bone plugs were evaluated using semiquantitative histological scales.

Results: The results obtained for PLGA repair tissue were evaluated versus the PLGA- group and the healthy tissue harvested from the opposite knee (reference group), and compared with histological results (hematoxylin and eosin staining). The magnetic resonance images and T (2) relaxation time profiles taken 4 weeks after surgery for both the PLGA- and PLGA+ group did not reveal the tissue reconstruction. After 12 weeks of treatment T (2) time dependence indicates a slight reconstruction for PLGA+ group. The T (2) time dependence obtained for PLGA+ samples taken after 24 weeks of treatment resembled the one observed for the healthy cartilage, indicating tissue reconstruction in the form of fibrous cartilage. The tissue reconstruction was not observed for PLGA- samples.

Conclusion: The study revealed correlation between magnetic resonance and histology data, indicating the potential value of using MRI and spatial variation of T (2) as the noninvasive tools to evaluate the process of articular cartilage repair. It also suggested, that the PLGA scaffold-aided treatment could help to restore the proper architecture of collagen fibrils.
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May 2008