Publications by authors named "Sjoerd B Vos"

60 Publications

Patient-specific prediction of SEEG electrode bending for stereotactic neurosurgical planning.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 May 24;16(5):789-798. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

PURPOSE : Electrode bending observed after stereotactic interventions is typically not accounted for in either computer-assisted planning algorithms, where straight trajectories are assumed, or in quality assessment, where only metrics related to entry and target points are reported. Our aim is to provide a fully automated and validated pipeline for the prediction of stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) electrode bending. METHODS : We transform electrodes of 86 cases into a common space and compare features-based and image-based neural networks on their ability to regress local displacement ([Formula: see text]) or electrode bending ([Formula: see text]). Electrodes were stratified into six groups based on brain structures at the entry and target point. Models, both with and without Monte Carlo (MC) dropout, were trained and validated using tenfold cross-validation. RESULTS : mage-based models outperformed features-based models for all groups, and models that predicted [Formula: see text] performed better than for [Formula: see text]. Image-based model prediction with MC dropout resulted in lower mean squared error (MSE) with improvements up to 12.9% ([Formula: see text]) and 39.9% ([Formula: see text]), compared to no dropout. Using an image of brain tissue types (cortex, white and deep grey matter) resulted in similar, and sometimes better performance, compared to using a T1-weighted MRI when predicting [Formula: see text]. When inferring trajectories of image-based models (brain tissue types), 86.9% of trajectories had an MSE[Formula: see text] mm. CONCLUSION : An image-based approach regressing local displacement with an image of brain tissue types resulted in more accurate electrode bending predictions compared to other approaches, inputs, and outputs. Future work will investigate the integration of electrode bending into planning and quality assessment algorithms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-021-02347-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134306PMC
May 2021

Detection of covert lesions in focal epilepsy using computational analysis of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging data.

Epilepsia 2021 Mar 10;62(3):807-816. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Objective: To compare the location of suspect lesions detected by computational analysis of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging data with areas of seizure onset, early propagation, and interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) identified with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) in a cohort of patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy and radiologically normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.

Methods: We developed a method of lesion detection using computational analysis of multimodal MRI data in a cohort of 62 control subjects, and 42 patients with focal epilepsy and MRI-visible lesions. We then applied it to detect covert lesions in 27 focal epilepsy patients with radiologically normal MRI scans, comparing our findings with the areas of seizure onset, early propagation, and IEDs identified at SEEG.

Results: Seizure-onset zones (SoZs) were identified at SEEG in 18 of the 27 patients (67%) with radiologically normal MRI scans. In 11 of these 18 cases (61%), concordant abnormalities were detected by our method. In the remaining seven cases, either early seizure propagation or IEDs were observed within the abnormalities detected, or there were additional areas of imaging abnormalities found by our method that were not sampled at SEEG. In one of the nine patients (11%) in whom SEEG was inconclusive, an abnormality, which may have been involved in seizures, was identified by our method and was not sampled at SEEG.

Significance: Computational analysis of multimodal MRI data revealed covert abnormalities in the majority of patients with refractory focal epilepsy and radiologically normal MRI that co-located with SEEG defined zones of seizure onset. The method could help identify areas that should be targeted with SEEG when considering epilepsy surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16836DOI Listing
March 2021

Focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures are associated with widespread network abnormality in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2021 Mar 21;62(3):729-741. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Computational Neuroscience, Neurology, and Psychiatry Lab, Interdisciplinary Computing and Complex BioSystems Research Group, School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Objective: Our objective was to identify whether the whole-brain structural network alterations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS) differ from alterations in patients without FBTCS.

Methods: We dichotomized a cohort of 83 drug-resistant patients with TLE into those with and without FBTCS and compared each group to 29 healthy controls. For each subject, we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to construct whole-brain structural networks. First, we measured the extent of alterations by performing FBTCS-negative (FBTCS-) versus control and FBTCS-positive (FBTCS+) versus control comparisons, thereby delineating altered subnetworks of the whole-brain structural network. Second, by standardizing each patient's networks using control networks, we measured the subject-specific abnormality at every brain region in the network, thereby quantifying the spatial localization and the amount of abnormality in every patient.

Results: Both FBTCS+ and FBTCS- patient groups had altered subnetworks with reduced fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity compared to controls. The altered subnetwork in FBTCS+ patients was more widespread than in FBTCS- patients (441 connections altered at t > 3, p < .001 in FBTCS+ compared to 21 connections altered at t > 3, p = .01 in FBTCS-). Significantly greater abnormalities-aggregated over the entire brain network as well as assessed at the resolution of individual brain areas-were present in FBTCS+ patients (p < .001, d = .82, 95% confidence interval = .32-1.3). In contrast, the fewer abnormalities present in FBTCS- patients were mainly localized to the temporal and frontal areas.

Significance: The whole-brain structural network is altered to a greater and more widespread extent in patients with TLE and FBTCS. We suggest that these abnormal networks may serve as an underlying structural basis or consequence of the greater seizure spread observed in FBTCS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16819DOI Listing
March 2021

Automated quantitative MRI volumetry reports support diagnostic interpretation in dementia: a multi-rater, clinical accuracy study.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 15;31(7):5312-5323. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC), Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: We examined whether providing a quantitative report (QReport) of regional brain volumes improves radiologists' accuracy and confidence in detecting volume loss, and in differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), compared with visual assessment alone.

Methods: Our forced-choice multi-rater clinical accuracy study used MRI from 16 AD patients, 14 FTD patients, and 15 healthy controls; age range 52-81. Our QReport was presented to raters with regional grey matter volumes plotted as percentiles against data from a normative population (n = 461). Nine raters with varying radiological experience (3 each: consultants, registrars, 'non-clinical image analysts') assessed each case twice (with and without the QReport). Raters were blinded to clinical and demographic information; they classified scans as 'normal' or 'abnormal' and if 'abnormal' as 'AD' or 'FTD'.

Results: The QReport improved sensitivity for detecting volume loss and AD across all raters combined (p = 0.015* and p = 0.002*, respectively). Only the consultant group's accuracy increased significantly when using the QReport (p = 0.02*). Overall, raters' agreement (Cohen's κ) with the 'gold standard' was not significantly affected by the QReport; only the consultant group improved significantly (κ 0.41➔0.55, p = 0.04*). Cronbach's alpha for interrater agreement improved from 0.886 to 0.925, corresponding to an improvement from 'good' to 'excellent'.

Conclusion: Our QReport referencing single-subject results to normative data alongside visual assessment improved sensitivity, accuracy, and interrater agreement for detecting volume loss. The QReport was most effective in the consultants, suggesting that experience is needed to fully benefit from the additional information provided by quantitative analyses.

Key Points: • The use of quantitative report alongside routine visual MRI assessment improves sensitivity and accuracy for detecting volume loss and AD vs visual assessment alone. • Consultant neuroradiologists' assessment accuracy and agreement (kappa scores) significantly improved with the use of quantitative atrophy reports. • First multi-rater radiological clinical evaluation of visual quantitative MRI atrophy report for use as a diagnostic aid in dementia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07455-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Structural Brain Network Abnormalities and the Probability of Seizure Recurrence After Epilepsy Surgery.

Neurology 2021 02 22;96(5):e758-e771. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

From the Translational and Clinical Research Institute (N.S.), Faculty of Medical Sciences, and Computational Neuroscience, Neurology, and Psychiatry Lab (N.S., Y.W., N.M.d.S., P.N.T.), Interdisciplinary Computing and Complex BioSystems Group, School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne; NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre (Y.W., A.M., A.W.M., J.d.T., S.B.V., G.P.W., J.S.D., P.N.T.), UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square; Centre for Medical Image Computing (S.B.V.), University College London; Epilepsy Society MRI Unit (S.B.V., G.P.W., J.S.D), Chalfont St Peter, UK; and Department of Medicine (G.P.W.,), Division of Neurology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: We assessed preoperative structural brain networks and clinical characteristics of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify correlates of postsurgical seizure recurrences.

Methods: We examined data from 51 patients with TLE who underwent anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) and 29 healthy controls. For each patient, using the preoperative structural, diffusion, and postoperative structural MRI, we generated 2 networks: presurgery network and surgically spared network. Standardizing these networks with respect to controls, we determined the number of abnormal nodes before surgery and expected to be spared by surgery. We incorporated these 2 abnormality measures and 13 commonly acquired clinical data from each patient into a robust machine learning framework to estimate patient-specific chances of seizures persisting after surgery.

Results: Patients with more abnormal nodes had a lower chance of complete seizure freedom at 1 year and, even if seizure-free at 1 year, were more likely to relapse within 5 years. The number of abnormal nodes was greater and their locations more widespread in the surgically spared networks of patients with poor outcome than in patients with good outcome. We achieved an area under the curve of 0.84 ± 0.06 and specificity of 0.89 ± 0.09 in predicting unsuccessful seizure outcomes (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] 3-5) as opposed to complete seizure freedom (ILAE 1) at 1 year. Moreover, the model-predicted likelihood of seizure relapse was significantly correlated with the grade of surgical outcome at year 1 and associated with relapses up to 5 years after surgery.

Conclusion: Node abnormality offers a personalized, noninvasive marker that can be combined with clinical data to better estimate the chances of seizure freedom at 1 year and subsequent relapse up to 5 years after ATLR.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that node abnormality predicts postsurgical seizure recurrence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884990PMC
February 2021

Multivariate white matter alterations are associated with epilepsy duration.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 11;53(8):2788-2803. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

CNNP Lab, Interdisciplinary Computing and Complex BioSystems Group, School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Previous studies investigating associations between white matter alterations and duration of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown differing results, and were typically limited to univariate analyses of tracts in isolation. In this study, we apply a multivariate measure (the Mahalanobis distance), which captures the distinct ways white matter may differ in individual patients, and relate this to epilepsy duration. Diffusion MRI, from a cohort of 94 subjects (28 healthy controls, 33 left-TLE and 33 right-TLE), was used to assess the association between tract fractional anisotropy (FA) and epilepsy duration. Using ten white matter tracts, we analysed associations using the traditional univariate analysis (z-scores) and a complementary multivariate approach (Mahalanobis distance), incorporating multiple white matter tracts into a single unified analysis. For patients with right-TLE, FA was not significantly associated with epilepsy duration for any tract studied in isolation. For patients with left-TLE, the FA of two limbic tracts (ipsilateral fornix, contralateral cingulum gyrus) were significantly negatively associated with epilepsy duration (Bonferonni corrected p < .05). Using a multivariate approach we found significant ipsilateral positive associations with duration in both left, and right-TLE cohorts (left-TLE: Spearman's ρ = 0.487, right-TLE: Spearman's ρ = 0.422). Extrapolating our multivariate results to duration equals zero (i.e., at onset) we found no significant difference between patients and controls. Associations using the multivariate approach were more robust than univariate methods. The multivariate Mahalanobis distance measure provides non-overlapping and more robust results than traditional univariate analyses. Future studies should consider adopting both frameworks into their analysis in order to ascertain a more complete understanding of epilepsy progression, regardless of laterality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15055DOI Listing
April 2021

Network-based atrophy modeling in the common epilepsies: A worldwide ENIGMA study.

Sci Adv 2020 Nov 18;6(47). Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.

Epilepsy is increasingly conceptualized as a network disorder. In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we integrated neuroimaging and connectome analysis to identify network associations with atrophy patterns in 1021 adults with epilepsy compared to 1564 healthy controls from 19 international sites. In temporal lobe epilepsy, areas of atrophy colocalized with highly interconnected cortical hub regions, whereas idiopathic generalized epilepsy showed preferential subcortical hub involvement. These morphological abnormalities were anchored to the connectivity profiles of distinct disease epicenters, pointing to temporo-limbic cortices in temporal lobe epilepsy and fronto-central cortices in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Negative effects of age on atrophy further revealed a strong influence of connectome architecture in temporal lobe, but not idiopathic generalized, epilepsy. Our findings were reproduced across individual sites and single patients and were robust across different analytical methods. Through worldwide collaboration in ENIGMA-Epilepsy, we provided deeper insights into the macroscale features that shape the pathophysiology of common epilepsies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc6457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673818PMC
November 2020

Independent components of human brain morphology.

Neuroimage 2021 02 10;226:117546. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Quantification of brain morphology has become an important cornerstone in understanding brain structure. Measures of cortical morphology such as thickness and surface area are frequently used to compare groups of subjects or characterise longitudinal changes. However, such measures are often treated as independent from each other. A recently described scaling law, derived from a statistical physics model of cortical folding, demonstrates that there is a tight covariance between three commonly used cortical morphology measures: cortical thickness, total surface area, and exposed surface area. We show that assuming the independence of cortical morphology measures can hide features and potentially lead to misinterpretations. Using the scaling law, we account for the covariance between cortical morphology measures and derive novel independent measures of cortical morphology. By applying these new measures, we show that new information can be gained; in our example we show that distinct morphological alterations underlie healthy ageing compared to temporal lobe epilepsy, even on the coarse level of a whole hemisphere. We thus provide a conceptual framework for characterising cortical morphology in a statistically valid and interpretable manner, based on theoretical reasoning about the shape of the cortex.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836233PMC
February 2021

Resective surgery prevents progressive cortical thinning in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Brain 2020 12;143(11):3262-3272

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Focal epilepsy in adults is associated with progressive atrophy of the cortex at a rate more than double that of normal ageing. We aimed to determine whether successful epilepsy surgery interrupts progressive cortical thinning. In this longitudinal case-control neuroimaging study, we included subjects with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) before (n = 29) or after (n = 56) anterior temporal lobe resection and healthy volunteers (n = 124) comparable regarding age and sex. We measured cortical thickness on paired structural MRI scans in all participants and compared progressive thinning between groups using linear mixed effects models. Compared to ageing-related cortical thinning in healthy subjects, we found progressive cortical atrophy on vertex-wise analysis in TLE before surgery that was bilateral and localized beyond the ipsilateral temporal lobe. In these regions, we observed accelerated annualized thinning in left (left TLE 0.0192 ± 0.0014 versus healthy volunteers 0.0032 ± 0.0013 mm/year, P < 0.0001) and right (right TLE 0.0198 ± 0.0016 versus healthy volunteers 0.0037 ± 0.0016 mm/year, P < 0.0001) presurgical TLE cases. Cortical thinning in these areas was reduced after surgical resection of the left (0.0074 ± 0.0016 mm/year, P = 0.0006) or right (0.0052 ± 0.0020 mm/year, P = 0.0006) anterior temporal lobe. Directly comparing the post- versus presurgical TLE groups on vertex-wise analysis, the areas of postoperatively reduced thinning were in both hemispheres, particularly, but not exclusively, in regions that were affected preoperatively. Participants who remained completely seizure-free after surgery had no more progressive thinning than that observed during normal ageing. Those with postoperative seizures had small areas of continued accelerated thinning after surgery. Thus, successful epilepsy surgery prevents progressive cortical atrophy that is observed in TLE and may be potentially neuroprotective. This effect was more pronounced in those who remained seizure-free after temporal lobe resection, normalizing the rate of atrophy to that of normal ageing. These results provide evidence of epilepsy surgery preventing further cerebral damage and provide incentives for offering early surgery in refractory TLE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719024PMC
December 2020

A generative model of hyperelastic strain energy density functions for multiple tissue brain deformation.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Jan 9;16(1):141-150. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Purpose: Estimation of brain deformation is crucial during neurosurgery. Whilst mechanical characterisation captures stress-strain relationships of tissue, biomechanical models are limited by experimental conditions. This results in variability reported in the literature. The aim of this work was to demonstrate a generative model of strain energy density functions can estimate the elastic properties of tissue using observed brain deformation.

Methods: For the generative model a Gaussian Process regression learns elastic potentials from 73 manuscripts. We evaluate the use of neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin and 1-term Ogden meta-models to guarantee stability. Single and multiple tissue experiments validate the ability of our generative model to estimate tissue properties on a synthetic brain model and in eight temporal lobe resection cases where deformation is observed between pre- and post-operative images.

Results: Estimated parameters on a synthetic model are close to the known reference with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm between surface nodes for single and multiple tissue experiments. In clinical cases, we were able to recover brain deformation from pre- to post-operative images reducing RMSE of differences from 1.37 to 1.08 mm on the ventricle surface and from 5.89 to 4.84 mm on the resection cavity surface.

Conclusion: Our generative model can capture uncertainties related to mechanical characterisation of tissue. When fitting samples from elastography and linear studies, all meta-models performed similarly. The Ogden meta-model performed the best on hyperelastic studies. We were able to predict elastic parameters in a reference model on a synthetic phantom. However, deformation observed in clinical cases is only partly explained using our generative model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-020-02284-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822772PMC
January 2021

Thalamus and focal to bilateral seizures: A multiscale cognitive imaging study.

Neurology 2020 10 26;95(17):e2427-e2441. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

From the Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy (L.C., L.A.A., K.T., S.B.V., M.C., M.G., M.K.S., P.J.T., G.P.W., J.S.D., M.J.K.) and Neuroradiological Academic Unit (S.B.V.), UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London; MRI Unit (L.C., L.A.A., K.T., S.B.V., M.C., M.G., M.K.S., P.J.T., G.P.W., J.S.D., M.J.K.), Epilepsy Society, Chalfont St Peter, Buckinghamshire, UK; Departments of Bioengineering (L.C., X.H., D.S.B.), Physics and Astronomy (D.S.B.), Electrical and Systems Engineering (D.S.B.), Neurology (D.S.B.), and Psychiatry (D.S.B.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Centre for Medical Image Computing (S.B.V.), University College London, UK; Department of Neurology (M.G.), University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; Santa Fe Institute (D.S.B.), NM; Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology (G.P.W.), Queen's University, Kingston, Canada; and Department of Neurology (M.R.S.), Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To investigate the functional correlates of recurrent secondarily generalized seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using task-based fMRI as a framework to test for epilepsy-specific network rearrangements. Because the thalamus modulates propagation of temporal lobe onset seizures and promotes cortical synchronization during cognition, we hypothesized that occurrence of secondarily generalized seizures, i.e., focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS), would relate to thalamic dysfunction, altered connectivity, and whole-brain network centrality.

Methods: FBTCS occur in a third of patients with TLE and are a major determinant of disease severity. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 113 patients with drug-resistant TLE (55 left/58 right), who performed a verbal fluency fMRI task that elicited robust thalamic activation. Thirty-three patients (29%) had experienced at least one FBTCS in the year preceding the investigation. We compared patients with TLE-FBTCS to those without FBTCS via a multiscale approach, entailing analysis of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 12-derived measures of activation, task-modulated thalamic functional connectivity (psychophysiologic interaction), and graph-theoretical metrics of centrality.

Results: Individuals with TLE-FBTCS had less task-related activation of bilateral thalamus, with left-sided emphasis, and left hippocampus than those without FBTCS. In TLE-FBTCS, we also found greater task-related thalamotemporal and thalamomotor connectivity, and higher thalamic degree and betweenness centrality. Receiver operating characteristic curves, based on a combined thalamic functional marker, accurately discriminated individuals with and without FBTCS.

Conclusions: In TLE-FBTCS, impaired task-related thalamic recruitment coexists with enhanced thalamotemporal connectivity and whole-brain thalamic network embedding. Altered thalamic functional profiles are proposed as imaging biomarkers of active secondary generalization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682917PMC
October 2020

White matter abnormalities across different epilepsy syndromes in adults: an ENIGMA-Epilepsy study.

Brain 2020 08;143(8):2454-2473

Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425 SC, USA.

The epilepsies are commonly accompanied by widespread abnormalities in cerebral white matter. ENIGMA-Epilepsy is a large quantitative brain imaging consortium, aggregating data to investigate patterns of neuroimaging abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, including temporal lobe epilepsy, extratemporal epilepsy, and genetic generalized epilepsy. Our goal was to rank the most robust white matter microstructural differences across and within syndromes in a multicentre sample of adult epilepsy patients. Diffusion-weighted MRI data were analysed from 1069 healthy controls and 1249 patients: temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (n = 599), temporal lobe epilepsy with normal MRI (n = 275), genetic generalized epilepsy (n = 182) and non-lesional extratemporal epilepsy (n = 193). A harmonized protocol using tract-based spatial statistics was used to derive skeletonized maps of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity for each participant, and fibre tracts were segmented using a diffusion MRI atlas. Data were harmonized to correct for scanner-specific variations in diffusion measures using a batch-effect correction tool (ComBat). Analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and sex, examined differences between each epilepsy syndrome and controls for each white matter tract (Bonferroni corrected at P < 0.001). Across 'all epilepsies' lower fractional anisotropy was observed in most fibre tracts with small to medium effect sizes, especially in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule. There were also less robust increases in mean diffusivity. Syndrome-specific fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity differences were most pronounced in patients with hippocampal sclerosis in the ipsilateral parahippocampal cingulum and external capsule, with smaller effects across most other tracts. Individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and normal MRI showed a similar pattern of greater ipsilateral than contralateral abnormalities, but less marked than those in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Patients with generalized and extratemporal epilepsies had pronounced reductions in fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and external capsule, and increased mean diffusivity of the anterior corona radiata. Earlier age of seizure onset and longer disease duration were associated with a greater extent of diffusion abnormalities in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. We demonstrate microstructural abnormalities across major association, commissural, and projection fibres in a large multicentre study of epilepsy. Overall, patients with epilepsy showed white matter abnormalities in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule, with differing severity across epilepsy syndromes. These data further define the spectrum of white matter abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, yielding more detailed insights into pathological substrates that may explain cognitive and psychiatric co-morbidities and be used to guide biomarker studies of treatment outcomes and/or genetic research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567169PMC
August 2020

Clinical evaluation of automated quantitative MRI reports for assessment of hippocampal sclerosis.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jan 4;31(1):34-44. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC), University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuroradiological practice relies on visual assessment, but quantification of HS imaging biomarkers-hippocampal volume loss and T2 elevation-could improve detection. We tested whether quantitative measures, contextualised with normative data, improve rater accuracy and confidence.

Methods: Quantitative reports (QReports) were generated for 43 individuals with epilepsy (mean age ± SD 40.0 ± 14.8 years, 22 men; 15 histologically unilateral HS; 5 bilateral; 23 MR-negative). Normative data was generated from 111 healthy individuals (age 40.0 ± 12.8 years, 52 men). Nine raters with different experience (neuroradiologists, trainees, and image analysts) assessed subjects' imaging with and without QReports. Raters assigned imaging normal, right, left, or bilateral HS. Confidence was rated on a 5-point scale.

Results: Correct designation (normal/abnormal) was high and showed further trend-level improvement with QReports, from 87.5 to 92.5% (p = 0.07, effect size d = 0.69). Largest magnitude improvement (84.5 to 93.8%) was for image analysts (d = 0.87). For bilateral HS, QReports significantly improved overall accuracy, from 74.4 to 91.1% (p = 0.042, d = 0.7). Agreement with the correct diagnosis (kappa) tended to increase from 0.74 ('fair') to 0.86 ('excellent') with the report (p = 0.06, d = 0.81). Confidence increased when correctly assessing scans with the QReport (p < 0.001, η = 0.945).

Conclusions: QReports of HS imaging biomarkers can improve rater accuracy and confidence, particularly in challenging bilateral cases. Improvements were seen across all raters, with large effect sizes, greatest for image analysts. These findings may have positive implications for clinical radiology services and justify further validation in larger groups.

Key Points: • Quantification of imaging biomarkers for hippocampal sclerosis-volume loss and raised T2 signal-could improve clinical radiological detection in challenging cases. • Quantitative reports for individual patients, contextualised with normative reference data, improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence in a group of nine raters, in particular for bilateral HS cases. • We present a pre-use clinical validation of an automated imaging assessment tool to assist clinical radiology reporting of hippocampal sclerosis, which improves detection accuracy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07075-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755617PMC
January 2021

Peri-ictal hypoxia is related to extent of regional brain volume loss accompanying generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

Epilepsia 2020 08 19;61(8):1570-1580. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: Hypoxia, or abnormally low blood-oxygen levels, often accompanies seizures and may elicit brain structural changes in people with epilepsy which contribute to central processes underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The extent to which hypoxia may be related to brain structural alterations in this patient group remains unexplored.

Methods: We analyzed high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine brain morphometric and volumetric alterations in people with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) recorded during long-term video-electroencephalography (VEEG), recruited from two sites (n = 22), together with data from age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 43). Subjects were sub-divided into those with mild/moderate (GTCS-hypox-mild/moderate, n = 12) and severe (GTCS-hypox-severe, n = 10) hypoxia, measured by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO ) during VEEG. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and regional volumetry were used to assess group comparisons and correlations between brain structural measurements as well as the duration and extent of hypoxia during GTCS.

Results: Morphometric and volumetric alterations appeared in association with peri-GTCS hypoxia, including volume loss in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), thalamus, hypothalamus, vermis, cerebellum, parabrachial pons, and medulla. Thalamic and PAG volume was significantly reduced in GTCS patients with severe hypoxia compared with GTCS patients with mild/moderate hypoxia. Brainstem volume loss appeared in both hypoxia groups, although it was more extensive in those with severe hypoxia. Significant negative partial correlations emerged between thalamic and hippocampal volume and extent of hypoxia, whereas vermis and accumbens volumes declined with increasing hypoxia duration.

Significance: Brain structural alterations in patients with GTCS are related to the extent of hypoxia in brain sites that serve vital functions. Although the changes are associative only, they provide evidence of injury to regulatory brain sites related to respiratory manifestations of seizures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496610PMC
August 2020

Network reorganisation following anterior temporal lobe resection and relation with post-surgery seizure relapse: A longitudinal study.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 26;27:102320. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

CNNP lab(1), Interdisciplinary Complex Systems Group, School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: To characterise temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery-induced changes in brain network properties, as measured using diffusion weighted MRI, and investigate their association with postoperative seizure-freedom.

Methods: For 48 patients who underwent anterior temporal lobe resection, diffusion weighted MRI was acquired pre-operatively, 3-4 months post-operatively (N = 48), and again 12 months post-operatively (N = 13). Data for 17 controls were also acquired over the same period. After registering all subjects to a common space, we performed two complementary analyses of the subjects' quantitative anisotropy (QA) maps. 1) A connectometry analysis which is sensitive to changes in subsections of fasciculi. 2) A graph theory approach which integrates connectivity information across the wider brain network.

Results: We found significant postoperative alterations in QA in patients relative to controls measured over the same period. Reductions were primarily located in the uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus ipsilaterally for all patients. Larger reductions were associated with postoperative seizure-freedom in left TLE. Increased QA was mainly located in corona radiata and corticopontine tracts. Graph theoretic analysis revealed widespread increases in nodal betweenness centrality, which were not associated with patient outcomes.

Conclusion: Substantial alterations in QA occur in the months after epilepsy surgery, suggesting Wallerian degeneration and strengthening of specific white matter tracts. Greater reductions in QA were related to postoperative seizure freedom in left TLE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334605PMC
June 2020

Motor hyperactivation during cognitive tasks: An endophenotype of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2020 07 25;61(7):1438-1452. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Objective: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most common genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome. Myoclonus may relate to motor system hyperexcitability and can be provoked by cognitive activities. To aid genetic mapping in complex neuropsychiatric disorders, recent research has utilized imaging intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes). Here, we aimed to (a) characterize activation profiles of the motor system during different cognitive tasks in patients with JME and their unaffected siblings, and (b) validate those as endophenotypes of JME.

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional investigation included 32 patients with JME, 12 unaffected siblings, and 26 controls, comparable for age, sex, handedness, language laterality, neuropsychological performance, and anxiety and depression scores. We investigated patterns of motor system activation during episodic memory encoding and verb generation functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks.

Results: During both tasks, patients and unaffected siblings showed increased activation of motor system areas compared to controls. Effects were more prominent during memory encoding, which entailed hand motion via joystick responses. Subgroup analyses identified stronger activation of the motor cortex in JME patients with ongoing seizures compared to seizure-free patients. Receiver-operating characteristic curves, based on measures of motor activation, accurately discriminated both patients with JME and their siblings from healthy controls (area under the curve: 0.75 and 0.77, for JME and a combined patient-sibling group against controls, respectively; P < .005).

Significance: Motor system hyperactivation represents a cognitive, domain-independent endophenotype of JME. We propose measures of motor system activation as quantitative traits for future genetic imaging studies in this syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7681252PMC
July 2020

Hippocampal Shape Is Associated with Memory Deficits in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Ann Neurol 2020 07 28;88(1):170-182. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, University College London Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Cognitive problems, especially disturbances in episodic memory, and hippocampal sclerosis are common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but little is known about the relationship of hippocampal morphology with memory. We aimed to relate hippocampal surface-shape patterns to verbal and visual learning.

Methods: We analyzed hippocampal surface shapes on high-resolution magnetic resonance images and the Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery in 145 unilateral refractory TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, a validation set of 55 unilateral refractory TLE patients, and 39 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers.

Results: Both left TLE (LTLE) and right TLE (RTLE) patients had lower verbal (LTLE 44 ± 11; RTLE 45 ± 10) and visual learning (LTLE 34 ± 8, RTLE 30 ± 8) scores than healthy controls (verbal 58 ± 8, visual 39 ± 6; p < 0.001). Verbal learning was more impaired the greater the atrophy of the left superolateral hippocampal head. In contrast, visual memory was worse with greater bilateral inferomedial hippocampal atrophy. Postsurgical verbal memory decline was more common in LTLE than in RTLE (reliable change index in LTLE 27% vs RTLE 7%, p = 0.006), whereas there were no differences in postsurgical visual memory decline between those groups. Preoperative atrophy of the left hippocampal tail predicted postsurgical verbal memory decline.

Interpretation: Memory deficits in TLE are associated with specific morphological alterations of the hippocampus, which could help stratify TLE patients into those at high versus low risk of presurgical or postsurgical memory deficits. This knowledge could improve planning and prognosis of selective epilepsy surgery and neuropsychological counseling in TLE. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:170-182.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25762DOI Listing
July 2020

Shared hippocampal abnormalities in sporadic temporal lobe epilepsy patients and their siblings.

Epilepsia 2020 04 20;61(4):735-746. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: To examine the shared familial contribution to hippocampal and extrahippocampal morphological abnormalities in patients with sporadic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and their unaffected siblings.

Methods: We collected clinical, electrophysiological, and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 18 sporadic patients with TLE without lesions other than hippocampal sclerosis (12 right, 6 left), their 18 unaffected full siblings, and 18 matched healthy volunteers. We compared between-group differences in cortical thickness and volumes of five subcortical areas (hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, putamen, and pallidum). We determined the subregional extent of hippocampal abnormalities using surface shape analysis. All our imaging results were corrected for multiple comparisons using random field theory.

Results: We detected smaller hippocampal volumes in patients (right TLE: median right hippocampus 1.92 mL, interquartile range [IQR] 1.39-2.62, P < .001; left TLE: left hippocampus 2.05 mL, IQR 1.99-2.33, P = .01) and their unaffected siblings (right hippocampus 2.65 mL, IQR 2.32-2.80, P < .001; left hippocampus 2.39 mL, IQR 2.18-2.53, P < .001) compared to healthy controls (right hippocampus 2.94 mL, IQR 2.77-3.24; left hippocampus 2.71 mL, IQR 2.37-2.89). Surface shape analysis showed that patients with TLE had bilateral subregional atrophy in both hippocampi (right > left). Similar but less-pronounced subregional atrophy was detected in the right hippocampus of unaffected siblings. Patients with TLE had reduced cortical thickness in bilateral premotor/prefrontal cortices and the right precentral gyrus. Siblings did not show abnormalities in cortical or subcortical areas other than the hippocampus.

Significance: Our results demonstrate a shared vulnerability of the hippocampus in both patients with TLE and their unaffected siblings, pointing to a contribution of familial factors to hippocampal atrophy. This neuroimaging trait could represent an endophenotype of TLE, which might precede the onset of epilepsy in some individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16477DOI Listing
April 2020

Microstructural imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy: Diffusion imaging changes relate to reduced neurite density.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 28;26:102231. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Neuroimaging of Epilepsy Laboratory, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, UK.

Purpose: Previous imaging studies in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have examined the spatial distribution of changes in imaging parameters such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and cortical thickness. Multi-compartment models offer greater specificity with parameters more directly related to known changes in TLE such as altered neuronal density and myelination. We studied the spatial distribution of conventional and novel metrics including neurite density derived from NODDI (Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging) and myelin water fraction (MWF) derived from mcDESPOT (Multi-Compartment Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1/T2)] to infer the underlying neurobiology of changes in conventional metrics.

Methods: 20 patients with TLE and 20 matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging including a volumetric T1-weighted sequence, multi-shell diffusion from which DTI and NODDI metrics were derived and a protocol suitable for mcDESPOT fitting. Models of the grey matter-white matter and grey matter-CSF surfaces were automatically generated from the T1-weighted MRI. Conventional diffusion and novel metrics of neurite density and MWF were sampled from intracortical grey matter and subcortical white matter surfaces and cortical thickness was measured.

Results: In intracortical grey matter, diffusivity was increased in the ipsilateral temporal and frontopolar cortices with more restricted areas of reduced neurite density. Diffusivity increases were largely related to reductions in neurite density, and to a lesser extent CSF partial volume effects, but not MWF. In subcortical white matter, widespread bilateral reductions in fractional anisotropy and increases in radial diffusivity were seen. These were primarily related to reduced neurite density, with an additional relationship to reduced MWF in the temporal pole and anterolateral temporal neocortex. Changes were greater with increasing epilepsy duration. Bilaterally reduced cortical thickness in the mesial temporal lobe and centroparietal cortices was unrelated to neurite density and MWF.

Conclusions: Diffusivity changes in grey and white matter are primarily related to reduced neurite density with an additional relationship to reduced MWF in the temporal pole. Neurite density may represent a more sensitive and specific biomarker of progressive neuronal damage in refractory TLE that deserves further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063236PMC
February 2021

Computer-assisted planning for minimally invasive anterior two-thirds laser corpus callosotomy: A feasibility study with probabilistic tractography validation.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 13;25:102174. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, University College London, London, UK; Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK.

Background: Anterior two-thirds corpus callosotomy is an effective palliative neurosurgical procedure for drug-refractory epilepsy that is most commonly used to treat drop-attacks. Laser interstitial thermal therapy is a novel stereotactic ablative technique that has been utilised as a minimally invasive alternative to resective and disconnective open neurosurgery. Case series have reported success in performing laser anterior two-thirds corpus callosotomy. Computer-assisted planning algorithms may help to automate and optimise multi-trajectory planning for this procedure.

Objective: To undertake a simulation-based feasibility study of computer-assisted corpus callostomy planning in comparison with expert manual plans in the same patients.

Methods: Ten patients were selected from a prospectively maintained database. Patients had previously undergone diffusion-weighted imaging and digital subtraction angiography as part of routine SEEG care. Computer-assisted planning was performed using the EpiNav™ platform and compared to manually planned trajectories from two independent blinded experts. Estimated ablation cavities were used in conjunction with probabilistic tractography to simulate the expected extent of interhemispheric disconnection.

Results: Computer-assisted planning resulted in significantly improved trajectory safety metrics (risk score and minimum distance to vasculature) compared to blinded external expert manual plans. Probabilistic tractography revealed residual interhemispheric connectivity in 1/10 cases following computer-assisted planning compared to 4/10 and 2/10 cases with manual planning.

Conclusion: Computer-assisted planning successfully generates multi-trajectory plans capable of LITT anterior two-thirds corpus callosotomy. Computer-assisted planning may provide a means of standardising trajectory planning and serves as a potential new tool for optimising trajectories. A prospective validation study is now required to determine if this translates into improved patient outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994706PMC
January 2021

Hippocampal profiling: Localized magnetic resonance imaging volumetry and T2 relaxometry for hippocampal sclerosis.

Epilepsia 2020 02 24;61(2):297-309. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Epilepsy Society MRI Unit, Chalfont St Peter, UK.

Objective: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common cause of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy, and its accurate detection is important to guide epilepsy surgery. Radiological features of HS include hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal, which can both be quantified to help improve detection. In this work, we extend these quantitative methods to generate cross-sectional area and T2 profiles along the hippocampal long axis to improve the localization of hippocampal abnormalities.

Methods: T1-weighted and T2 relaxometry data from 69 HS patients (32 left, 32 right, 5 bilateral) and 111 healthy controls were acquired on a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Automated hippocampal segmentation and T2 relaxometry were performed and used to calculate whole-hippocampal volumes and to estimate quantitative T2 (qT2) values. By generating a group template from the controls, and aligning this so that the hippocampal long axes were along the anterior-posterior axis, we were able to calculate hippocampal cross-sectional area and qT2 by a slicewise method to localize any volume loss or T2 hyperintensity. Individual patient profiles were compared with normative data generated from the healthy controls.

Results: Profiling of hippocampal volumetric and qT2 data could be performed automatically and reproducibly. HS patients commonly showed widespread decreases in volume and increases in T2 along the length of the affected hippocampus, and focal changes may also be identified. Patterns of atrophy and T2 increase in the left hippocampus were similar between left, right, and bilateral HS. These profiles have potential to distinguish between sclerosis affecting volume and qT2 in the whole or parts of the hippocampus, and may aid the radiological diagnosis in uncertain cases or cases with subtle or focal abnormalities where standard whole-hippocampal measurements yield normal values.

Significance: Hippocampal profiling of volumetry and qT2 values can help spatially localize hippocampal MRI abnormalities and work toward improved sensitivity of subtle focal lesions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065164PMC
February 2020

The Effect of Vascular Segmentation Methods on Stereotactic Trajectory Planning for Drug-Resistant Focal Epilepsy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

World Neurosurg X 2019 Oct 5;4:100057. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Stereotactic neurosurgical procedures carry a risk of intracranial hemorrhage, which may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Vascular imaging is crucial for planning stereotactic procedures to prevent conflicts with intracranial vasculature. There is a wide range of vascular imaging methods used for stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) trajectory planning. Computer-assisted planning (CAP) improves planning time and trajectory metrics. We aimed to quantify the effect of different vascular imaging protocols on CAP trajectories for SEEG.

Methods: Ten patients who had undergone SEEG (95 electrodes) following preoperative acquisition of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MR + Gad), magnetic resonance angiography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRV + MRA), and digital subtraction catheter angiography (DSA) were identified from a prospectively maintained database. SEEG implantations were planned using CAP using DSA segmentations as the gold standard. Strategies were then recreated using MRV + MRA and MR + Gad to define the "apparent" and "true" risk scores associated with each modality. Vessels of varying diameter were then iteratively removed from the DSA segmentation to identify the size at which all 3 vascular modalities returned the same safety metrics.

Results: CAP performed using DSA vessel segmentations resulted in significantly lower "true" risk scores and greater minimum distances from vasculature compared with the "true" risk associated with MR + Gad and MRV + MRA. MRV + MRA and MR + Gad returned similar risk scores to DSA when vessels <2 mm and <4 mm were not considered, respectively.

Conclusions: Significant variability in vascular imaging and trajectory planning practices exist for SEEG. CAP performed with MR + Gad or MRV + MRA alone returns "falsely" lower risk scores compared with DSA. It is unclear whether DSA is oversensitive and thus restricting potential trajectories.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wnsx.2019.100057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804655PMC
October 2019

Naming fMRI predicts the effect of temporal lobe resection on language decline.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019 11 2;6(11):2186-2196. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Epilepsy Society MRI Unit, Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy, Chalfont St Peter, SL9 0LR, United Kingdom.

Objective: To develop language functional MRI (fMRI) methods that accurately predict postsurgical naming decline in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods: Forty-six patients with TLE (25 left) and 19 controls underwent two overt fMRI paradigms (auditory naming and picture naming, both with active baseline conditions) and one covert task (verbal fluency). Clinical naming performance was assessed preoperatively and 4 months following anterior temporal lobe resection. Preoperative fMRI activations were correlated with postoperative naming decline. Individual laterality indices (LI) were calculated for temporal (auditory and picture naming) and frontal regions (verbal fluency) and were considered as predictors of naming decline in multiple regression models, along with other clinical variables (age at onset of seizures, preoperative naming scores, hippocampal volume, age).

Results: In left TLE patients, activation of the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus during auditory naming and activation of left fusiform gyrus during picture naming were related to greater postoperative naming decline. Activation LI were the best individual predictors of naming decline in a multivariate regression model. For picture naming, an LI of higher than 0.34 gave 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity (positive predictive value (PPV) 91.6%). For auditory naming, a temporal lobe LI higher than 0.18 identified all patients with a clinically significant naming decline with 100% sensitivity and 58% specificity (PPV: 58.3%). No effect was seen for verbal fluency.

Interpretation: Auditory and picture naming fMRI are clinically applicable to predict postoperative naming decline after left temporal lobe resection in individual patients, with picture naming being more specific.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.50911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856622PMC
November 2019

Computer-Assisted Planning for Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG).

Neurotherapeutics 2019 10;16(4):1183-1197

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a diagnostic procedure in which multiple electrodes are stereotactically implanted within predefined areas of the brain to identify the seizure onset zone, which needs to be removed to achieve remission of focal epilepsy. Computer-assisted planning (CAP) has been shown to improve trajectory safety metrics and generate clinically feasible trajectories in a fraction of the time needed for manual planning. We report a prospective validation study of the use of EpiNav (UCL, London, UK) as a clinical decision support software for SEEG. Thirteen consecutive patients (125 electrodes) undergoing SEEG were prospectively recruited. EpiNav was used to generate 3D models of critical structures (including vasculature) and other important regions of interest. Manual planning utilizing the same 3D models was performed in advance of CAP. CAP was subsequently employed to automatically generate a plan for each patient. The treating neurosurgeon was able to modify CAP generated plans based on their preference. The plan with the lowest risk score metric was stereotactically implanted. In all cases (13/13), the final CAP generated plan returned a lower mean risk score and was stereotactically implanted. No complication or adverse event occurred. CAP trajectories were generated in 30% of the time with significantly lower risk scores compared to manually generated. EpiNav has successfully been integrated as a clinical decision support software (CDSS) into the clinical pathway for SEEG implantations at our institution. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study of a complex CDSS in stereotactic neurosurgery and provides the highest level of evidence to date.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-019-00774-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985077PMC
October 2019

The quantitative neuroradiology initiative framework: application to dementia.

Br J Radiol 2019 Sep 1;92(1101):20190365. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

1Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC), Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

There are numerous challenges to identifying, developing and implementing quantitative techniques for use in clinical radiology, suggesting the need for a common translational pathway. We developed the quantitative neuroradiology initiative (QNI), as a model framework for the technical and clinical validation necessary to embed automated segmentation and other image quantification software into the clinical neuroradiology workflow. We hypothesize that quantification will support reporters with clinically relevant measures contextualized with normative data, increase the precision of longitudinal comparisons, and generate more consistent reporting across levels of radiologists' experience. The QNI framework comprises the following steps: (1) establishing an area of clinical need and identifying the appropriate proven imaging biomarker(s) for the disease in question; (2) developing a method for automated analysis of these biomarkers, by designing an algorithm and compiling reference data; (3) communicating the results via an intuitive and accessible quantitative report; (4) technically and clinically validating the proposed tool pre-use; (5) integrating the developed analysis pipeline into the clinical reporting workflow; and (6) performing in-use evaluation. We will use current radiology practice in dementia as an example, where radiologists have established visual rating scales to describe the degree and pattern of atrophy they detect. These can be helpful, but are somewhat subjective and coarse classifiers, suffering from floor and ceiling limitations. Meanwhile, several imaging biomarkers relevant to dementia diagnosis and management have been proposed in the literature; some clinically approved radiology software tools exist but in general, these have not undergone rigorous clinical validation in high volume or in tertiary dementia centres. The QNI framework aims to address this need. Quantitative image analysis is developing apace within the research domain. Translating quantitative techniques into the clinical setting presents significant challenges, which must be addressed to meet the increasing demand for accurate, timely and impactful clinical imaging services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20190365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732931PMC
September 2019

Abnormal hippocampal structure and function in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and unaffected siblings.

Brain 2019 09;142(9):2670-2687

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most common genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome, characterized by a complex polygenetic aetiology. Structural and functional MRI studies demonstrated mesial or lateral frontal cortical derangements and impaired fronto-cortico-subcortical connectivity in patients and their unaffected siblings. The presence of hippocampal abnormalities and associated memory deficits is controversial, and functional MRI studies in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have not tested hippocampal activation. In this observational study, we implemented multi-modal MRI and neuropsychological data to investigate hippocampal structure and function in 37 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, 16 unaffected siblings and 20 healthy controls, comparable for age, gender, handedness and hemispheric dominance as assessed with language laterality indices. Automated hippocampal volumetry was complemented by validated qualitative and quantitative morphological criteria to detect hippocampal malrotation, assumed to represent a neurodevelopmental marker. Neuropsychological measures of verbal and visuo-spatial learning and an event-related verbal and visual memory functional MRI paradigm addressed mesiotemporal function. We detected a reduction of mean left hippocampal volume in patients and their siblings compared with controls (P < 0.01). Unilateral or bilateral hippocampal malrotation was identified in 51% of patients and 50% of siblings, against 15% of controls (P < 0.05). For bilateral hippocampi, quantitative markers of verticalization had significantly larger values in patients and siblings compared with controls (P < 0.05). In the patient subgroup, there was no relationship between structural measures and age at disease onset or degree of seizure control. No overt impairment of verbal and visual memory was identified with neuropsychological tests. Functional mapping highlighted atypical patterns of hippocampal activation, pointing to abnormal recruitment during verbal encoding in patients and their siblings [P < 0.05, familywise error (FWE)-corrected]. Subgroup analyses indicated distinct profiles of hypoactivation along the hippocampal long axis in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients with and without malrotation; patients with malrotation also exhibited reduced frontal recruitment for verbal memory, and more pronounced left posterior hippocampal involvement for visual memory. Linear models across the entire study cohort indicated significant associations between morphological markers of hippocampal positioning and hippocampal activation for verbal items (all P < 0.05, FWE-corrected). We demonstrate abnormalities of hippocampal volume, shape and positioning in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and their siblings, which are associated with reorganization of function and imply an underlying neurodevelopmental mechanism with expression during the prenatal stage. Co-segregation of abnormal hippocampal morphology in patients and their siblings is suggestive of a genetic imaging phenotype, independent of disease activity, and can be construed as a novel endophenotype of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6776114PMC
September 2019

Stereoelectroencephalography electrode placement: Detection of blood vessel conflicts.

Epilepsia 2019 09 22;60(9):1942-1948. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, University College London, London, UK.

Objective: Various forms of vascular imaging are performed to identify vessels that should be avoided during stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) planning. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard for intracranial vascular imaging. DSA is an invasive investigation, and a balance is necessary to identify all clinically relevant vessels and not to visualize irrelevant vessels that may unnecessarily restrict electrode placement. We sought to estimate the size of vessels that are clinically significant for SEEG planning.

Methods: Thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent 354 SEEG electrode implantations planned with computer-assisted planning and DSA segmentation between 2016 and 2018 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Intracranial positions of electrodes were segmented from postimplantation computed tomography scans. Each electrode was manually reviewed using "probe-eye view" with the raw preoperative DSA images for vascular conflicts. The diameter of vessels and the location of conflicts were noted. Vessel conflicts identified on raw DSA images were cross-referenced against other modalities to determine whether the conflict could have been detected.

Results: One hundred sixty-six vessel conflicts were identified between electrodes and DSA-identified vessels, with 0-3 conflicts per electrode and a median of four conflicts per patient. The median diameter of conflicting vessels was 1.3 mm (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.0-1.5 mm). The median depth of conflict was 31.0 mm (IQR = 14.3-45.0 mm) from the cortical surface. The addition of sulcal models to DSA, magnetic resonance venography (MRV), and T1 + gadolinium images, as an exclusion zone during computer-assisted planning, would have prevented the majority of vessel conflicts. We were unable to determine whether vessels were displaced or transected by the electrodes.

Significance: Vascular segmentation from DSA images was significantly more sensitive than T1 + gadolinium or MRV images. Electrode conflicts with vessels 1-1.5 mm in size did not result in a radiologically detectable or clinically significant hemorrhage and could potentially be excluded from consideration during SEEG planning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851756PMC
September 2019

Progressive Cortical Thinning in Patients With Focal Epilepsy.

JAMA Neurol 2019 Oct;76(10):1230-1239

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, University College London Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: It is controversial whether epilepsy is a static or progressive disease. Evidence of progressive gray matter loss in epilepsy would support early diagnosis, rapid treatment, and early referral for surgical interventions.

Objective: To demonstrate progressive cortical thinning in patients with focal epilepsy distinct from cortical thinning associated with normal aging.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A case-control neuroimaging study was conducted from August 3, 2004, to January 26, 2016, among 190 patients with focal epilepsy at a tertiary epilepsy referral center (epilepsy data) and 3 independent comparison cohorts matched for age and sex (healthy volunteer data; n = 141).

Exposures: Two or more high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans at least 6 months apart (mean [SD] interval, 2.5 [1.6] years).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Global and vertexwise rate of progressive cortical thinning.

Results: A total of 190 people with focal epilepsy (99 women and 91 men; mean [SD] age, 36 [11] years; 396 magnetic resonance imaging scans) were compared with 141 healthy volunteers (76 women and 65 men; mean [SD] age, 35 [17] years; 282 magnetic resonance imaging scans). Widespread highly significant progressive cortical thinning exceeding normal aging effects, mainly involving the bilateral temporal lobes, medial parietal and occipital cortices, pericentral gyri, and opercula, was seen in 146 individuals with epilepsy (76.8%; 95% CI, 58%-95%). The mean (SD) annualized rate of global cortical thinning in patients with epilepsy was twice the rate of age-associated thinning observed in healthy volunteers (0.024 [0.061] vs 0.011 [0.029] mm/y; P = .01). Progression was most pronounced in adults older than 55 years and during the first 5 years after the onset of seizures. Areas of accelerated cortical thinning were detected in patients with early onset of epilepsy and in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Accelerated thinning was not associated with seizure frequency, history of generalized seizures, or antiepileptic drug load and did not differ between patients with or without ongoing seizures. Progressive atrophy in temporal (n = 101) and frontal (n = 28) lobe epilepsy was most pronounced ipsilaterally to the epileptic focus but also affected a widespread area extending beyond the focus and commonly affected the contralateral hemisphere. For patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, accelerated cortical thinning was observed within areas structurally connected with the ipsilateral hippocampus.

Conclusions And Relevance: Widespread progressive cortical thinning exceeding that seen with normal aging may occur in patients with focal epilepsy. These findings appear to highlight the need to develop epilepsy disease-modifying treatments to disrupt or slow ongoing atrophy. Longitudinal cortical thickness measurements may have the potential to serve as biomarkers for such studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.1708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604082PMC
October 2019

Automated fiber tract reconstruction for surgery planning: Extensive validation in language-related white matter tracts.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 28;23:101883. Epub 2019 May 28.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Diffusion MRI and tractography hold great potential for surgery planning, especially to preserve eloquent white matter during resections. However, fiber tract reconstruction requires an expert with detailed understanding of neuroanatomy. Several automated approaches have been proposed, using different strategies to reconstruct the white matter tracts in a supervised fashion. However, validation is often limited to comparison with manual delineation by overlap-based measures, which is limited in characterizing morphological and topological differences. In this work, we set up a fully automated pipeline based on anatomical criteria that does not require manual intervention, taking advantage of atlas-based criteria and advanced acquisition protocols available on clinical-grade MRI scanners. Then, we extensively validated it on epilepsy patients with specific focus on language-related bundles. The validation procedure encompasses different approaches, including simple overlap with manual segmentations from two experts, feasibility ratings from external multiple clinical raters and relation with task-based functional MRI. Overall, our results demonstrate good quantitative agreement between automated and manual segmentation, in most cases better performances of the proposed method in qualitative terms, and meaningful relationships with task-based fMRI. In addition, we observed significant differences between experts in terms of both manual segmentation and external ratings. These results offer important insights on how different levels of validation complement each other, supporting the idea that overlap-based measures, although quantitative, do not offer a full perspective on the similarities and differences between automated and manual methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545442PMC
June 2020

Cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain volume alterations in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2019 04 14;60(4):718-729. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Objective: The processes underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) remain elusive, but centrally mediated cardiovascular or respiratory collapse is suspected. Volume changes in brain areas mediating recovery from extreme cardiorespiratory challenges may indicate failure mechanisms and allow prospective identification of SUDEP risk.

Methods: We retrospectively imaged SUDEP cases (n = 25), patients comparable for age, sex, epilepsy syndrome, localization, and disease duration who were high-risk (n = 25) or low-risk (n = 23), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 25) with identical high-resolution T1-weighted scans. Regional gray matter volume, determined by voxel-based morphometry, and segmentation-derived structure sizes were compared across groups, controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and sex.

Results: Substantial bilateral gray matter loss appeared in SUDEP cases in the medial and lateral cerebellum. This was less prominent in high-risk subjects and absent in low-risk subjects. The periaqueductal gray, left posterior and medial thalamus, left hippocampus, and bilateral posterior cingulate also showed volume loss in SUDEP. High-risk subjects showed left thalamic volume reductions to a lesser extent. Bilateral amygdala, entorhinal, and parahippocampal volumes increased in SUDEP and high-risk patients, with the subcallosal cortex enlarged in SUDEP only. Disease duration correlated negatively with parahippocampal volume. Volumes of the bilateral anterior insula and midbrain in SUDEP cases were larger the closer to SUDEP from magnetic resonance imaging.

Significance: SUDEP victims show significant tissue loss in areas essential for cardiorespiratory recovery and enhanced volumes in areas that trigger hypotension or impede respiratory patterning. Those changes may shed light on SUDEP pathogenesis and prospectively detect patterns identifying those at risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479118PMC
April 2019