Publications by authors named "Siyuan Li"

190 Publications

Morphological, cellular, and molecular basis of brain infection in COVID-19 patients.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Aug 11;119(35):e2200960119. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, 13083862, Brazil.

Although increasing evidence confirms neuropsychiatric manifestations associated mainly with severe COVID-19 infection, long-term neuropsychiatric dysfunction (recently characterized as part of "long COVID-19" syndrome) has been frequently observed after mild infection. We show the spectrum of cerebral impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, ranging from long-term alterations in mildly infected individuals (orbitofrontal cortical atrophy, neurocognitive impairment, excessive fatigue and anxiety symptoms) to severe acute damage confirmed in brain tissue samples extracted from the orbitofrontal region (via endonasal transethmoidal access) from individuals who died of COVID-19. In an independent cohort of 26 individuals who died of COVID-19, we used histopathological signs of brain damage as a guide for possible SARS-CoV-2 brain infection and found that among the 5 individuals who exhibited those signs, all of them had genetic material of the virus in the brain. Brain tissue samples from these five patients also exhibited foci of SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, particularly in astrocytes. Supporting the hypothesis of astrocyte infection, neural stem cell-derived human astrocytes in vitro are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection through a noncanonical mechanism that involves spike-NRP1 interaction. SARS-CoV-2-infected astrocytes manifested changes in energy metabolism and in key proteins and metabolites used to fuel neurons, as well as in the biogenesis of neurotransmitters. Moreover, human astrocyte infection elicits a secretory phenotype that reduces neuronal viability. Our data support the model in which SARS-CoV-2 reaches the brain, infects astrocytes, and consequently, leads to neuronal death or dysfunction. These deregulated processes could contribute to the structural and functional alterations seen in the brains of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2200960119DOI Listing
August 2022

Metformin Alleviates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Regulating the SIRT1/NF-κB/NLRP3 Pathway and Inhibiting Endothelial Cell Pyroptosis.

Front Pharmacol 2022 15;13:801337. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a devastating complication of numerous conditions, is often associated with high mortality. It is well known that endothelial cell (EC) damage and inflammation are vital processes in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of EC damage are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of pyroptosis in the initiation of ARDS and demonstrated that endothelial pyroptosis might play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ARDS. Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, exhibited a protective effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury, and we hypothesized that metformin alleviated LPS-induced lung injury inhibiting ECs pyroptosis. , male ICR mice were intratracheally injected with LPS, and metformin was previously administered intraperitoneally. Morphological properties of lung tissues were detected. We showed that metformin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NLRP3-stimulated pyroptosis induction, as shown by decreased levels of cleaved caspase-1, N-terminal fragment of GSDMD, and protein contents of IL-1β in lung tissues of mice exposed to LPS. LPS-induced expression of vascular adhesion molecules was also reduced after the treatment with metformin. , exposure of pulmonary ECs to LPS resulted in increased expression of NLRP3 and pyroptosis-associated indicators. By inhibiting the expression of NLRP3 with NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950, pyroptosis-related markers and vascular adhesion molecules were ameliorated. Moreover, metformin treatment significantly inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway and increased the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) both in LPS-stimulated lung tissues and pulmonary ECs. Administration of the selective SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide significantly reversed the protective effect of metformin against endothelial pyroptosis and lung injury in LPS-treated ECs and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Thus, these findings demonstrated that metformin alleviated LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting NF-κB-NLRP3-mediated ECs pyroptosis, possibly by upregulating the expression of SIRT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.801337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334876PMC
July 2022

Preparation of 2D Molybdenum Phosphide via Surface-Confined Atomic Substitution.

Adv Mater 2022 Jul 28:e2203220. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

The emerging nonlayered 2D materials (NL2DMs) are sparking immense interest due to their fascinating physicochemical properties and enhanced performance in many applications. NL2DMs are particularly favored in catalytic applications owing to the extremely large surface area and low-coordinated surface atoms. However, the synthesis of NL2DMs is complex because their crystals are held together by strong isotropic covalent bonds. Here, nonlayered molybdenum phosphide (MoP) with well-defined 2D morphology is synthesized from layered molybdenum dichalcogenides via surface-confined atomic substitution. During the synthesis, the molybdenum dichalcogenide nanosheet functions as the host matrix where each layer of Mo maintains their hexagonal arrangement and forms isotropic covalent bonds with P that substitutes S, resulting in the conversion from layered van der Waals material to a covalently bonded NL2DM. The MoP nanosheets converted from few-layer MoS are single crystalline, while those converted from monolayers are amorphous. The converted MoP demonstrates metallic charge transport and desirable performance in the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). More importantly, in contrast to MoS , which shows edge-dominated HER performance, the edge and basal plane of MoP deliver similar HER performance, which is correlated with theoretical calculations. This work provides a new synthetic strategy for high-quality nonlayered materials with well-defined 2D morphology for future exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202203220DOI Listing
July 2022

An Updated Meta-Analysis of DOACs vs. VKAs in Atrial Fibrillation Patients With Bioprosthetic Heart Valve.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 17;9:899906. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Ganzhou Hospital of Nanchang University, Ganzhou, China.

Background: Current guidelines recommend the utilization of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the optimal anticoagulation strategy for AF patients with bioprosthetic heart valves (BPHV) remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to explore the effect of DOACs versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in this population.

Methods: We systematically searched the PubMed and Embase databases until November 2021 for studies reporting the effect of DOACs versus VKAs in AF patients with BPHV. Adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using the random-effects model with an inverse variance method.

Results: We selected four randomized clinical trials and seven observational studies (2236 DOAC- and 6403 VKAs-users). Regarding the effectiveness outcomes, there were no significant differences between DOACs and VKAs in stroke or systemic embolism (RR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.50-1.08), ischemic stroke (RR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.76-1.55), all-cause death (RR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.86-1.12), and cardiovascular death (RR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.40-1.80). In terms of the safety outcomes, DOACs was associated with lower risks of major bleeding (RR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.59-0.82) and intracranial bleeding (RR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.26-0.70), but the risks of any bleeding (RR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.65-1.13) and gastrointestinal bleeding (RR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.73-1.17) are not significantly different when compared with VKAs. The subgroup analysis with follow-up as a covariate revealed that the DOACs had lower risks of SSE (RR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.37-0.94) and major bleeding (RR = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.58-0.81) in patients with a mean follow-up of more than 24 months, but no statistical differences were found in patients with the follow-up less than 24 months (SSE: RR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.92-1.32; major bleeding: RR = 0.91, 95%CI: 0.42-2.01).

Conclusions: In AF with BPHV, patients on DOACs experienced a reduced risk of major bleeding and intracranial bleeding compared with VKAs, while the risks of stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality were similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.899906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9248967PMC
June 2022

Carnosol alleviates sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction by mediating NF-κB pathway in aged rats.

Drug Dev Res 2022 Jul 4. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Anesthesia and Comfort Health Center, Xi'an International Medical Center Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) is a neurological disorder of unconsciousness due to cognitive regression after surgical anesthesia. However, the specific mechanism has not yet been clarified. Sevoflurane (SEV) is one of the most commonly used anesthetics in clinical practice, and how SEV mediates the generation of POCD is unclear. Carnosol, a natural ingredient, has been reported to have various beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory, immune enhancement, and so forth, but how it ameliorates SEV-mediated neurotoxicity remains unclear. This study aimed to induce a POCD model in aged rats by SEV and to elucidate how Carnosol ameliorated SEV-mediated neurotoxicity. The effects of Carnosol on the expression of inflammatory factors in rat hippocampus mediated by SEV were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction experiments; the effects of Carnosol on the expressions of Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein after SEV-mediated activation of rat microglia were clarified by immunofluorescence and Western blotting (WB); The effects of Carnosol on SEV-mediated neuronal apoptosis were studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and WB; the specific signaling pathways regulated by Carnosol were elucidated by WB. The results showed that Carnosol can improve the cognitive dysfunction and reduce neuroinflammation in aged rats induced by SEV; Carnosol can reduce the activation of microglia and inhibit neuronal apoptosis in aged rats induced by SEV; Carnosol can phosphorylate p65 and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha regulates the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway. Carnosol can attenuate SEV-induced neuroinflammation, prevent microglial activation and inhibit neuronal apoptosis by modulating the NF-κB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21963DOI Listing
July 2022

Engineering Fe and V Coordinated Bimetallic Oxide Nanocatalyst Enables Enhanced Polysulfides Mediation for High Energy Density Li-S Battery.

Small 2022 Jul 19;18(28):e2202557. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Zhejiang Province key Laboratory of Quantum Technology and Device, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries are expected to become the next-generation rechargeable energy storage devices owing to their high theoretical energy density, environmental benignity, and economic benefits. However, the undesirable lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) shuttling and sluggish redox kinetics of sulfur electrochemistry severely degenerate the wide-ranging electrochemical performances, hindering the commercialization process of Li-S batteries. Herein, a Fe and V coordinated bimetallic oxide FeVO (denote FVO) nanocatalyst with three-dimensional (3D) ordered structure is thoughtfully tailored and cooperated with the commercialized carbon nanotubes (CNT) to modify polypropylene (PP) separator for achieving high efficiencies of restraining the LiPSs shuttling and boosting the redox conversion of sulfur species. The Fe and V coordinated bimetallic oxide demonstrates enhanced anchoring and catalyzing activities toward sulfur species than single metal oxides of Fe and V with homometallic valence states due to the reconfiguration of the 3d-band. Impressively, the Li-S pouch cell with the FVO/[email protected] separator achieves an energy density up to 341 Wh kg . The bimetallic oxide nanocatalyst used in this work enlightens a new designing route toward the separator modification for the development of high energy density Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202202557DOI Listing
July 2022

Tiamulin inhibits TNF-α and alleviates psoriasis-like dermatitis.

J Dermatol Sci 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Institute of Dermatology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Skin Diseases and STIs, Genetic Skin Disease Center; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, 210042, China. Electronic address:

Background: TNF-α elicits a cascade amplification effect in psoriasis. Macromolecule drugs targeting TNF-α are widely used for the clinical treatment of psoriasis. However, there are currently no effective small-molecule inhibitors that can be used in the clinic.

Objective: Novel TNF-α inhibitor was identified via high-throughput screening (HTS) and its anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated.

Methods: Two cell death models were established to identify inhibitors of TNF-α through HTS from a library of 3256 compounds. The effect of the inhibitor of TNF-α was tested by HaCaT cells in vitro and IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse model in vivo.

Results: Tiamulin fumarate (TF) was identified as an effective inhibitor of TNF-α. TF significantly blocked the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT cells. Additionally, systemic and topical administration of TF improved IMQ-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in the mouse model.

Conclusion: Our study established a HTS method to identify TF as an inhibitor of TNF-α. The protective roles of TF in psoriasis-related inflammation reveal the potential therapeutic value of TF for psoriasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2022.05.006DOI Listing
May 2022

Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis for Better Understanding of Telomeric Zinc Finger-Associated Protein-Induced Pathogenesis in Cardiomyocytes.

Int Heart J 2022 ;63(3):566-577

School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University.

Telomere length is highly related to cardiovascular diseases. Telomeric zinc finger-associated protein (TZAP) directly binds to telomeric TTAGGG repeats via zinc finger domains and triggers the initiation of the telomere trimming process. However, proteomics analysis of TZAP in cardiomyocytes is slightly unknown. In our study, TZAP was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes, and then mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics research strategies, including Gene Ontology analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, subcellular localizations, predicted functional domains, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, were performed to explore TZAP-induced potential pathogenesis in cardiomyocytes. A total of 184 upregulated and 228 downregulated differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified among identified 5693 quantifiable proteins in TZAP-overexpressed cardiomyocytes. These DEPs were mainly distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. DEPs were enriched in biological processes including cardiac muscle cell contraction, acute inflammatory response, cell-cell junction assembly, and macromolecule biosynthetic process. They were enriched in 9 KEGG pathways, including Hippo signaling pathway, protein digestion and absorption, and cytokine receptor interaction, and enriched in 17 protein domains, including translation initiation factor 1A/IF-1, class I histocompatibility antigen, and zinc finger. PPI analysis indicated that TZAP interacted with NDUFC2, Gja1, and HDAC2. Further, as proteins closely related to cardiovascular function, the mRNA levels of BRD4, Gja1, HDAC2, MAP2K3, Plakophilin 4, and Syndecan 1 significantly decreased, while Trpm7, clusterin, and NDUFC2 remarkably increased in TZAP-overexpressed cardiomyocytes by RT-PCR assay, which were consistent with the proteomics analysis. Collectively, we provided candidate proteins and enrichment pathways in TZAP-overexpressed cardiomyocytes, which need further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.21-354DOI Listing
June 2022

A Nucleoporin NUP58 modulates responses to drought and salt stress in maize (Zea mays L.).

Plant Sci 2022 Jul 22;320:111296. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Synergetic Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops and National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450046, China. Electronic address:

Nuclear pore complex (NUP) is the main transport channel between cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, which plays an important role in stress response. The function of NUPs was widely reported in yeast and vertebrate but rarely in plants. Here, we identified a nuclear pore complex (ZmNUP58), that is tightly associated with drought and salt tolerance phenotype accompanied with phenotypic and physiological changes under drought and salt stress. The overexpression of ZmNUP58 in maize (Zea mays L.) significantly promotes both chlorophyll content and activities of antioxidant enzymes under drought- and salt-stressed conditions. RNA-Seq analysis showed that ZmNUP58 could regulate the expression of genes related to phytohormone synthesis and signaling, osmotic adjustment substances, antioxidant enzyme system, cell wall biosynthesis, glucose metabolism and aquaporin. The results provide novel insights into the regulatory role of ZmNUP58 in improving drought and salt tolerance through regulating phytohormone and other stress response genes in maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2022.111296DOI Listing
July 2022

Association of body mass index and prognosis in patients with HFpEF: A dose-response meta-analysis.

Int J Cardiol 2022 Aug 12;361:40-46. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although agreements regarding the negative effects of obesity on the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have been reached, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and adverse outcomes in HFpEF patients are still debatable. Therefore, we conducted the dose-response meta-analysis to investigate this relationship.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and Embase databases up to February 2022 for studies that evaluated the association between BMI and prognostic outcomes in patients with HFpEF. A cubic spline random-effects model was used to fit the potential dose-response curve. The effect estimates were expressed as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: A total of 11 studies involving 69,273 patients with HFpEF were included. The summary HR for all-cause mortality was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95) per 5 units increase in BMI, but the association was U-shaped (P < 0.01) with the nadir of risk at a BMI of 32-34 kg/m. The summary HR for HF hospitalization was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05-1.19) with a significant positive linear association (P = 0.54).

Conclusions: For patients with HFpEF, there was a positive linear association of BMI with HF hospitalization, while a U-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality was observed with the lowest event rate at a BMI of 32-34 kg/m.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.05.018DOI Listing
August 2022

A dual-signal electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of HPV16 E6 oncoprotein based on PdBP dendritic ternary nanospheres and MBSi-Chi nanocomposites.

Analyst 2022 May 17;147(10):2272-2279. Epub 2022 May 17.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, P.R. China.

Cervical cancer is a common cancer in women. HPV16 E6 oncoprotein is a reliable biomarker for cervical cancer. Although there are other methods for detecting E6 oncoprotein, the electrochemical method has more advantages, such as low cost, convenience and speed. In this study, a novel dual-signal electrochemical immunosensor for quick and sensitive detection of E6 oncoprotein based on a high efficiency catalyst and signal label was developed. Herein, to achieve quick detection, palladium-boron-phosphorus dendritic ternary nanospheres (PdBP NSs) not only acted as a catalyst to catalyze HO, but also as a support material to capture antibodies. Moreover, to realize sensitive detection, nanocomposites of mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with methylene blue and coated with chitosan (MBSi-Chi) were synthesized as a signal label, which can produce electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the label-free immunosensor exhibited a linear range of 100 fg mL to 4 ng mL with a detection limit of 72.8 fg mL (S/N = 3), and the sandwich-type immunosensor presented a linear range of 50 fg mL to 4 ng mL with a detection limit of 34.1 fg mL (S/N = 3). The as-prepared dual-signal immunosensor had desirable specificity, stability and repeatability, implying its potential applications in clinical laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an02120fDOI Listing
May 2022

SARS-CoV-2 productively infects primary human immune system cells in vitro and in COVID-19 patients.

J Mol Cell Biol 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Center of Research in Inflammatory Diseases, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with a hyperinflammatory state and lymphocytopenia, a hallmark that appears as both signature and prognosis of disease severity outcome. Although cytokine storm and sustained inflammatory state are commonly associated with immune cell depletion, it is still unclear whether direct SARS-CoV-2 infection of immune cells could also play a role in this scenario by harboring virus replication. We found that monocytes, as well as both B and T lymphocytes, were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, accumulating double-stranded RNA consistent with viral RNA replication and ultimately leading to expressive T cell apoptosis. In addition, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 was frequently detected in monocytes and B lymphocytes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The rates of SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COVID-19 patients increased over time from symptom onset, with SARS-CoV-2-positive monocytes, B cells, and CD4+ T lymphocytes also detected in post mortem lung tissue. These results indicated that SARS-CoV-2 infection of blood circulating leukocytes in COVID-19 patients might have important implications for disease pathogenesis and progression, immune dysfunction, and virus spread within the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjac021DOI Listing
April 2022

Salt-Assisted 2H-to-1T' Phase Transformation of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.

Adv Mater 2022 Jul 23;34(26):e2201194. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Phase engineering of nanomaterials (PEN) has demonstrated great potential in the fields of catalysis, electronics, energy storage and conversion, and condensed matter physics. Recently, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with unconventional metastable phases (e.g., 1T and 1T') have attracted increasing research interest due to their unique and appealing physicochemical properties. However, there is still a lack of a simple, universal, and controlled method for the preparation of large-scale and high-purity unconventional-phase TMD crystals, restricting their further fundamental study and practical applications. Here, a facile, one-step salt-assisted general strategy is reported for the controlled phase transformation of commercially available TMDs with conventional 2H phase, yielding a large amount of metastable 1T'-phase TMDs, including WS , WSe , MoS , and MoSe . It is found that the easily accessible metal salts, such as K C O ·H O, K CO , Na CO , Rb CO , Cs CO , KHCO , NaHCO , and NaC O , can be used to assist the 2H-to-1T' phase transformation, greatly simplifying the synthetic process for producing metastable 1T'-TMDs. Importantly, this method can also be used to prepare 1T'-TMD alloys, such as 1T'-WS Se . This newly developed strategy is robust and highly effective, which can also be used for the phase engineering of other materials with various polymorphs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202201194DOI Listing
July 2022

Efficient charge separation and transfer of a TaON/BiVO heterojunction for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

RSC Adv 2021 Apr 8;11(22):13269-13273. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Chemistry, Liaoning University Shenyang 110036 Liaoning China

The separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in semiconductors is the key point for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Here, an ideal TaON/BiVO heterojunction electrode was fabricated a simple hydrothermal method. As BiVO and TaON were in well contact with each other, high performance TaON/BiVO heterojunction photoanodes were constructed. The photocurrent of the 2-TaON/BiVO electrode reached 2.6 mA cm at 1.23 V RHE, which is 1.75 times as that of the bare BiVO. TaON improves the PEC performance by simultaneously promoting the photo-generated charge separation and surface reaction transfer. When a Co-Pi co-catalyst was integrated onto the surface of the 2-TaON/BiVO electrode, the surface water oxidation kinetics further improved, and a highly efficient photocurrent density of 3.6 mA cm was achieved at 1.23 V RHE. The largest half-cell solar energy conversion efficiency for Co-Pi/TaON/BiVO was 1.19% at 0.69 V RHE, corresponding to 6 times that of bare BiVO (0.19% at 0.95 V RHE). This study provides an available strategy to develop photoelectrochemical water splitting of BiVO-based photoanodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra00974eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8697503PMC
April 2021

Contrasting resistance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to atmospheric oxidation influenced by burning conditions.

Environ Res 2022 08 16;211:113107. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather & Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry of CMA, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) determines their lifetime, toxicity and consequent environmental and climate impacts. The residential solid fuel burning composes of a substantial fraction of PAH emissions; however, their oxidation rate is yet to be explicitly understood, which is complicated by the contrasting emission factors under different combustion conditions and their subsequent evolution in the atmosphere. Here we used a plume evolution chamber using ambient oxidants to simulate the evolution of residential solid fuel burning emissions under real-world solar radiation, and then to investigate the oxidation process of the emitted PAHs. Contrasting oxidation rate of PAHs was found to be influenced by particles with or without presence of substantial amount of black carbon (BC). In the flaming burning phase, which contained 46% of BC mass fraction and 8% of organic aerosol (OA) internally mixed with BC, the larger PAHs (with 4-7 rings) was rapidly oxidized 12% for every hour of evolution under solar radiation; however, the larger PAHs from smoldering phase tended to maintain unmodified during the evolution, when 95% of OA was externally mixed with only minor fraction of BC (<5%). This may be ascribed to the complex morphology of BC, allowing more exposure for the internally-mixed OA to the oxidants; in contrast with those externally-mixed OA which was prone to be coated by condensed secondary substances. This raises an important consideration about the particle mixing state in influencing the oxidation of PAHs, particularly the coating on PAHs which may extend their lifetime and environmental impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113107DOI Listing
August 2022

Combining multi-dimensional molecular fingerprints to predict the hERG cardiotoxicity of compounds.

Comput Biol Med 2022 05 11;144:105390. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

School of Life Sciences, Liaoning University, Shenyang, 110036, China; Technology Innovation Center for Computer Simulating and Information Processing of Bio-macromolecules of Liaoning Province, Shenyang, 110036, China; Engineering Laboratory for Molecular Simulation and Designing of Drug Molecules of Liaoning, Liaoning University, Shenyang, 110036, China; Shenyang Key Laboratory of Computer Simulating and Information Processing of Bio-macromolecules, Liaoning University, Shenyang, 110036, China. Electronic address:

Recently, drug toxicity has become a critical problem with heavy medical and economic burdens. Acquired long QT syndrome (acLQTS) is an acquired cardiac ion channel disease caused by drugs blocking the hERG channel. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid cardiotoxicity in drug design, and computer models have been widely used to fix this predicament. In this study, we collected a hERG inhibitor dataset containing 8671 compounds, and then, these compounds were featurized by traditional molecular fingerprints (including Baseline2D, ECFP4, PropertyFP, and 3DFP) and the newly proposed molecular dynamics fingerprint (MDFP). Subsequently, regression prediction models were established by using four machine learning algorithms based on these fingerprints and the combined multi-dimensional molecular fingerprints (MultiFP). After cross-validation and independent test dataset validation, the results show that the best model was built by the consensus of four algorithms with MultiFP, and this model bests recently published methods in terms of hERG cardiotoxicity prediction with a RMSE of 0.531 and a R of 0.653 on the test dataset. Feature importance analysis and correlation analysis identified some novel structural features and molecular dynamics features that are highly associated with the hERG inhibition of compounds. Our findings provide new insight into multi-dimensional molecular fingerprints and consensus models for hERG cardiotoxicity prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105390DOI Listing
May 2022

SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia phenotyping on imaging exams of patients submitted to minimally invasive autopsy.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Feb;10(3):140

Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

Background: Correlation between pathology and imaging of the new SARS-Cov-2 disease (COVID-19) is scarce. This study aimed to characterize SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia on imaging of patients submitted to minimally invasive autopsy (MIA).

Methods: This unicentric retrospective observational study included 46 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 who underwent MIA. All clinical chest images were reviewed and classified for the presence and grade of viral pneumonia, as well as disease evolution. On CT, phenotypes were described as consistent with mild, moderate, or severe viral pneumonia, with or without radiological signs of organizing pneumonia (OP). In severe pneumonia, CT could also be classified as diffuse progressive OP or radiological diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Specific features on CT were noted, including fibroproliferative signs that could indicate potential or initial fibrosis.

Results: MIA showed a heterogeneous panel of alterations, with a high prevalence of OP and acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP). Also, signs of interstitial fibrosis corresponded to the most prevalent pathological feature. Initial chest radiography (CXR) findings were mainly consistent with moderate or severe viral pneumonia. Most patients showed stability or improvement (reduction of opacities) on imaging. CTs were performed on 15 patients. Consolidations were found in most patients, frequently showing features consistent with an OP phenotype. Fibroproliferative changes were also prevalent on CT.

Conclusions: In this study, SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia showed heterogeneous radiological and pathological patterns. Signs of organization and potential or initial fibrosis were prevalent on both imaging and pathology. Imaging phenotyping may help to predict post-infection fibrosing interstitial pneumonitis in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-4354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8904976PMC
February 2022

Dexmedetomidine post-conditioning alleviates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by ferroptosis inhibition via SLC7A11/GPX4 axis activation.

Hum Cell 2022 May 25;35(3):836-848. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, No. 1000, Hefeng Road, Wuxi, 214125, China.

The SLC7A11/GPX4 axis plays an important role in ferroptosis during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of dexmedetomidine (DEX) post-conditioning on cardiac IRI and to explore whether the effect was achieved by SLC7A11/GPX4 signaling pathway regulation. Rat myocardial IRI was established by occluding the left anterior descending artery for 30 min followed by 2-h reperfusion. The infarct area was detected by diphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining; the cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. The levels of lipid peroxide biomarkers were measured to estimate the injury caused by lipid peroxide. HE staining and Sirius staining were utilized to assess myocardial damage and fibrosis. The mitochondrial morphology was observed by electron micrography. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were employed to measure the relative molecular characteristics. Our results showed that DEX administration at the beginning of reperfusion attenuated IRI-induced myocardial injury, alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibited the activation of SLC7A11/GPX4, and modulated the expression of ferroptosis-related proteins, including SLC7A11, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), ferritin heavy chain (FTH), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Conversely, the ferroptosis activator erastin partly suppressed the DEX-mediated cardio protection. Altogether, these results reveal that DEX inhibits ferroptosis by enhancing the expression of SLC7A11 and GPX4, thereby preventing cardiac I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-022-00682-9DOI Listing
May 2022

Investigation on the thermal blooming effect in a high power spectral beam combining fiber laser system.

Appl Opt 2022 Feb;61(4):954-959

We demonstrate the influence of the thermal blooming effect on the far-field beam quality in a seven-channel spectral beam combining system. Stimulated Raman scattering in the incident narrow-linewidth fiber amplifier is verified to be the dominant factor that induces thermal blooming in the beam combining system. When the power density of Raman light reaches only 180/, the peak intensity of the far-field beam reduces severely and the beam distribution profile spreads. We reveal that content in the atmosphere has a positive relationship with the thermal blooming effect and study the influence of the humidity on the thermal blooming effect. The influence of the optical path length on the thermal blooming effect is also revealed. The result shows that the focusing property of the far-field beam degrades gradually as the optical path length increases from 100 to 450 mm. The results are conducive to optimize the beam quality of spectral beam combining.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.447850DOI Listing
February 2022

Assessment of Eyelid Pressure Using a Novel Pressure Measurement Device in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Dry Eye Disease.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 7;9:833576. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To assess a novel eyelid pressure measurement device and study the relationship between eyelid pressure and ocular surface parameters of moderate-to-severe dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: The present study included 70 eyes of 35 moderate-to-severe DED patients. All subjects were subjected to the following examinations for DED assessment: Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear meniscus height (TMH), lipid layer thickness (LLT), number of partial blink (PB), total blink (TB) and partial blink rate (PBR), fluorescein tear breakup time (FBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), lid margin abnormality, meibum expression assessment (meibum score), meibomian gland dropout (MGd) and Schirmer I test. Pressure of the upper eyelid was measured thrice with the novel pressure measurement device. Repeatability of the device was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Safety of the device was evaluated by observing ocular adverse reactions of each subject prior to measurement, at day 1 and day 7 following measurement. Correlations between eyelid pressure and ocular surface parameters of moderate-to-severe DED were analyzed by using Pearson correlation coefficient and Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient.

Results: ICC of the measurement results in our study was 0.86. There was no abnormality presenting in all subjects recorded prior to measurement, 1 and 7 days following measurement. The eyelid pressure was significantly correlated with PBR (r = 0.286, = 0.016), FBUT (r = -0.331, = 0.005), CFS (r = 0.528, = 0.000), lid margin abnormality (r = 0.408, = 0.011) and MGd (r = 0.226, = 0.016) in moderate-to-severe DED patients, but not significantly correlated with OSDI score (r = 0.016, = 0.912), TMH (r = -0.002, = 0.988), meibum score (r = -0.196, = 0.317), LLT (r = 0.114, = 0.346), PB (r = 0.116, = 0.338), TB (r = 0.074, = 0.544), meibum score (r = -0.196, = 0.317) and Schirmer I test (r = 0.028, = 0.821).

Conclusion: The novel pressure measurement device exhibited good repeatability and safety in measuring eyelid pressure. Significant correlations were noted between the eyelid pressure and PBR, FBUT, CFS, lid margin abnormality and MGd in moderate-to-severe DED. The measurement of eyelid pressure combined with ocular surface parameters may be valuable for the assessment of DED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.833576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8858813PMC
February 2022

Benefits and Safety of Astaxanthin in the Treatment of Mild-To-Moderate Dry Eye Disease.

Front Nutr 2021 13;8:796951. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Lab, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

To evaluate the effect of astaxanthin in the treatment of mild-to-moderate dry eye disease (DED) in middle-aged and elderly patients. 120 eyes of 60 middle-aged and elderly patients with mild-to-moderate DED were enrolled in this prospective, one-group, quasi-experimental study. Six milligram Astaxanthin tablets (Weihong Haematococcus Pluvialis Astaxanthin, Hangzhou Xinwei Low Carbon Technology R&D Co., Ltd., China) were administered orally, twice daily for 30 ± 2 days. History of eye diseases, treatment, systemic disease, and medication before the test were recorded. In addition, the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), fluorescein break-up time (FBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) score, eyelid margin signs, meibomian gland (MG) expressibility, meibum quality, meibomian gland dropout (MGDR), Schirmer I test (SIt), tear meniscus height (TMH), bulbar conjunctiva congestion degree, blink frequency, incomplete blink rate, and thickness of tear film lipid layer were collected before treatment, 2 weeks after the initiation of treatment, and at the end of treatment. Visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior segment, fundus, discomfort symptoms and other adverse reactions were also monitored throughout the study to assess the safety. OSDI score, NIBUT, BUT, CFS score, eyelid margin signs, MG expressibility, meibum quality, and blink frequency improved significantly to varying degrees after treatment compared with those before the treatment ( < 0.05), while TMH, SIt, conjunctival congestion, the thickness of tear film lipid layer, MGDR, incomplete blink rate, VA and IOP did not differ ( > 0.05). Oral administration of astaxanthin improves the symptoms and signs of middle-aged and elderly patients with mild-to-moderate DED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.796951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8792747PMC
January 2022

Pre-operative embolization and excision of vagal schwannoma with rich vascular supply: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jan;101(4):e28760

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial of Peking University International Hospital, China.

Rationale: Schwannomas are benign tumors wrapped in the nerve sheath and can originate from the myelin sheath of the cranial nerve. In previous literature reports, most of the tumors were solid tumors, which can be removed only by surgery. This case report describes a unique case of vagal schwannoma, which, unlike previous cases, involves a dominant arterial supply, and discusses the pre-operative evaluation, relevant radiographic findings, and surgical process of the case in detail.

Patient Concerns: A 31-year-old woman sought treatment for pain in the left side of the neck when turning her head. A mass on the left side of the neck was found on enhanced computed tomography with a maximum diameter of 6.8 cm, along with multiple tortuous, thickened vascular shadows, and pressure on the left pharyngeal cavity.

Diagnosis: The pathological results showed schwannoma.

Interventions: Considering the unusual size of the tumor and thickened blood vessels revealed by pre-operative computed tomography, general anesthesia and biopsy were conducted first to confirm the diagnosis. Excessive bleeding occurred during the process; thus, the tumor was only partially removed before the wound closed after hemostasis. Digital subtraction angiography indicated that the tumor was supplied by multiple arteries, and the tumor was removed by pre-operative embolization plus intra-operative removal.

Outcomes: Combined with embolization and surgical resection, the tumor was completely removed, the nerve was partially preserved, and the patient had postoperative hoarseness.

Lesson: The present case indicates the possibility of vascularly supplied vagal schwannoma; thus, it is necessary to conduct pre-operative digital subtraction angiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000028760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8797582PMC
January 2022

YB-1 is a positive regulator of KLF5 transcription factor in basal-like breast cancer.

Cell Death Differ 2022 Jun 13;29(6):1283-1295. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a well-known oncogene highly expressed in various cancers, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Beyond its role as a transcription factor, YB-1 is newly defined as an epigenetic regulator involving RNA 5-methylcytosine. However, its specific targets and pro-cancer functions are poorly defined. Here, based on clinical database, we demonstrate a positive correlation between Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and YB-1 expression in breast cancer patients, but a negative correlation with that of Dachshund homolog 1 (DACH1). Mechanistically, YB-1 enhances KLF5 expression not only through transcriptional activation that can be inhibited by DACH1, but also by stabilizing KLF5 mRNA in a RNA 5-methylcytosine modification-dependent manner. Additionally, ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) mediated YB-1 phosphorylation at Ser102 promotes YB-1/KLF5 transcriptional complex formation, which co-regulates the expression of BLBC specific genes, Keratin 16 (KRT16) and lymphocyte antigen 6 family member D (Ly6D), to promote cancer cell proliferation. The RSK inhibitor, LJH685, suppressed BLBC cell tumourigenesis in vivo by disturbing YB-1-KLF5 axis. Our data suggest that YB-1 positively regulates KLF5 at multiple levels to promote BLBC progression. The novel RSK2-YB-1-KLF5-KRT16/Ly6D axis provides candidate diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for BLBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00920-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9177637PMC
June 2022

Synthetic aircraft RS image modelling based on improved conditional GAN joint embedding network.

Sci Rep 2022 01 10;12(1):320. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Key Laboratory of Spectral Imaging Technology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an, 710119, China.

Developing an efficient and quality remote sensing (RS) technology using volume and efficient modelling in different aircraft RS images is challenging. Generative models serve as a natural and convenient simulation method. Because aircraft types belong to the fine class under the rough class, the issue of feature entanglement may occur while modelling multiple aircraft classes. Our solution to this issue was a novel first-generation realistic aircraft type simulation system (ATSS-1) based on the RS images. It realised fine modelling of the seven aircraft types based on a real scene by establishing an adaptive weighted conditional attention generative adversarial network and joint geospatial embedding (GE) network. An adaptive weighted conditional batch normalisation attention block solved the subclass entanglement by reassigning the intra-class-wise characteristic responses. Subsequently, an asymmetric residual self-attention module was developed by establishing a remote region asymmetric relationship for mining the finer potential spatial representation. The mapping relationship between the input RS scene and the potential space of the generated samples was explored through the GE network construction that used the selected prior distribution z, as an intermediate representation. A public RS dataset (OPT-Aircraft_V1.0) and two public datasets (MNIST and Fashion-MNIST) were used for simulation model testing. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of ATSS-1, promoting further development of realistic automatic RS simulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03880-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8748831PMC
January 2022

Annual Incidences and Progressions of Myopia and High Myopia in Chinese Schoolchildren Based on a 5-Year Cohort Study.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022 01;63(1)

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To determine the annual incidences and rates of progression of myopia and high myopia in Chinese schoolchildren from grade 1 to grade 6 and explore the possible cause-specific risk factors for myopia.

Methods: From 11 randomly selected primary schools in Anyang city, central China, 2835 grade 1 students were examined with annual follow ups for 5 years. Students were invited to undergo a comprehensive examination, including cycloplegic autorefraction, ocular biometry, and standardized questionnaires.

Results: The mean spherical equivalent refraction decreased substantially from +0.94 ± 1.03 diopter (D) in grade 1 to -1.37 ± 2.08 D in grade 6, with rapid annual myopic shifts, especially for students in grades 3 through 6 (-0.51 to -0.59 D). The prevalence of myopia increased substantially, with the yearly incidence of myopia increasing from 7.8% in grade 1 and 2 to 25.3% in grades 5 and 6, and the incidence of high myopia increased from 0.1% to 1.0%. The 5-year incidence of myopia was lowest among children who has a baseline spherical equivalent refraction of greater than +2.00 D (4.4%), and increased to nearly 92.0% among children whose baseline spherical equivalent refraction was 0.00 to -0.50 D. The incidence of myopia was higher in children who had less hyperopic baseline refraction, two myopic parents, longer axial length, deeper anterior chamber, higher axial length-corneal radius of curvature ratio, and thinner lenses.

Conclusions: Both the annual incidence and progression rates of myopia and high myopia were high in Chinese schoolchildren, especially after grade 3. Hyperopic refraction of children should be monitored before primary school as hyperopia reserve to prevent the onset of myopia and high myopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.1.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8742535PMC
January 2022

Circulating exosomal hsa_circRNA_0039480 is highly expressed in gestational diabetes mellitus and may be served as a biomarker for early diagnosis of GDM.

J Transl Med 2022 01 3;20(1). Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Central Research Laboratory, The Second Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250033, People's Republic of China.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seriously affects the health of mothers and babies, and there are still no effective early diagnostic markers. Therefore, it is necessary to find diagnostic biomarkers for screening GDM in early pregnancy. Circular RNA (circRNA) is more stable than linear RNA, and can be encapsulated in exosomes and participate in the pathological process of various diseases, which makes it a better candidate biomarker for various diseases. In this study, we attempted to identify the exosomal circRNA biomarkers for detecting early GDM.

Methods: We performed microarray analysis to compare the plasma exosomal circRNA expression profiles of three GDM patients 48 h before and 48 h after delivery. The repeatability of the expression of circRNAs were randomly validated by RT-PCR analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the correlation between circRNAs and OGTT level. ROC curve was established to assess the diagnostic value of circRNAs for GDM at different stages.

Results: Plasma exosomal hsa_circRNA_0039480 and hsa_circRNA_0026497 were highly expressed in GDM patients before delivery (P < 0.05). The hsa_circRNA_0039480 expression was higher for GDM group than NGT group at different stages, and was also positively correlated with OGTT during the second trimester (P < 0.05). The expression of hsa_circRNA_0026497 was higher for GDM group during the third, and second trimesters. And there was a strong correlation between two circRNAs in GDM patients during the first-trimester (r = 0.496, P = 0.014). Hsa_circRNA_0039480 showed significant diagnostic value in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy (AUC = 0.704, P = 0.005; AUC = 0.898, P < 0.001 and AUC = 0.698, P = 0.001, respectively). Notably, the combination of hsa_circRNA_0039480 and hsa_circRNA_0026497 exhibited promising discriminative effect on GDM in the first trimesters (AUC = 0.754, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Plasma exosomal hsa_cirRNA_0039480 is highly expressed in GDM patients at different stages and may be served as a candidate biomarker for early detection of GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03195-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8722188PMC
January 2022

Inhibiting Dendrite Growth via Regulating the Electrified Interface for Fast-Charging Lithium Metal Anode.

ACS Cent Sci 2021 Dec 11;7(12):2029-2038. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Extreme fast charging (XFC), with a recharging time of 15 min, is the key to the mainstream adoption of battery electric vehicles. Lithium metal, in the meantime, has re-emerged as the ultimate anode because of its ultrahigh specific capacity and low electrochemical potential. However, the low lithium-ion concentration near the lithium electrode surface can result in uncontrolled dendrite growth aggravated by high plating current densities. Here, we reveal the beneficial effects of an adaptively enhanced internal electric field in a constant voltage charging mode in XFC via a molecular understanding of the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. With the same charging time and capacity, the increased electric field stress in dozens of millivolts, compared with that in a constant current mode, can facilitate Li migrating toward the negatively charged lithium electrode, mitigating Li depletion at the interface and thereby suppressing dendrites. In addition, more NO ions are involved in the solvation sheath that is constructed on the lithium electrode surface, leading to the nitride-enriched solid electrolyte interphase and thus favoring lower barriers for Li transport. On the basis of these merits, the Li||LiTiO battery runs steadily for 550 cycles with charging current peaks up to 27 mA cm, and the Li||S full cells exhibit extended life-spans charged within 12 min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.1c01014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8704041PMC
December 2021

Doping Pb in LaAlO to generate dual emission centers and an optical storage container for visible and near infrared persistent luminescence.

Dalton Trans 2022 Jan 17;51(3):1112-1122. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.

Defects play an important role in luminescence, not only as non-radiative transition centers to decrease the luminescence intensity, but also as useful centers for improving luminescence. Phosphors with unique characteristics can be designed by using effective defects combined with the luminescence center. Here, a novel phosphor of LaAlO:Pb was synthesized by a solid state reaction. Two kinds of defects, which are and Pb', were constructed by incorporation of Pb into LaAlO. Under UV excitation at 285 nm, the sample outputted a broad cyan emission at 460 nm that is related to the P-S transition of Pb, along with a weak near infrared (NIR) emission at 735 nm. However, only NIR emission at 735 nm can be found upon 211 nm excitation. The defect levels of and Pb' in the band gap are evidenced to be the contributor for the NIR output. Heating the sample resulted in a weakened cyan emission and an enhanced NIR output. Because the defects of and Pb' also act as the electron and hole traps, the sample outputted cyan and NIR afterglows after removing the irradiation source. Since the optical signal of LaAlO:Pb is sensitive to the excitation wavelength, temperature, and duration time, the multimodal luminescent phosphor may be used as a potential anti-counterfeiting material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt03421aDOI Listing
January 2022

Role of Different Doses of Ketamine in Postoperative Neurocognitive Function in Aged Mice Undergoing Partial Hepatectomy by Regulating the Bmal1/NMDA/NF-Κb Axis.

Eur Surg Res 2021 Dec 8:1-14. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: The current study set out to probe the function of different doses of ketamine in postoperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) in aged mice undergoing partial hepatectomy (PH) with the involvement of the brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1)/n-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) axis.

Methods: First, aged mice were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of ketamine prior to surgery, followed by hepatic lobectomy. Afterward, mice cognitive function was assessed. In addition, Bmal1 mRNA expression patterns were quantified, while NMDA 2B receptor, NF-κB p65, synapsin 1, and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95) levels were determined; the release of inflammatory factors was detected, and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 expression was measured to quantify microglia activation. In addition, Bmal1-knockout (Bmal1-KO) mice were intraperitoneally injected with a subanesthetic dose of ketamine to verify the mechanism of Bmal1 in regulating the NMDA 2B subunit (NR2B)/NF-κB axis to affect PH in aged patients.

Results: After PH, hippocampal-dependent memory was impaired, and synapsin 1 and PSD95 levels were downregulated. On the other hand, PH diminished Bmal1 expression but elevated NR2B and NF-κB p65 levels and anesthetic doses of ketamine further regulated the Bmal1/NMDA/NF-κB axis. In Bmal1-KO mice, the NMDA/NF-κB axis was activated, the release of inflammatory cytokines was promoted, and hippocampus-dependent memory was impaired, which were reversed by a subanesthetic dose of ketamine.

Conclusion: Altogether, findings obtained in our study indicated that a subanesthetic dose of ketamine activated Bmal1, downregulated the NMDA/NF-κB axis, and reduced inflammation and microglia activation to alleviate PND in aged mice undergoing PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000520210DOI Listing
December 2021
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