Publications by authors named "Siying Huang"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Observation of fluctuation-mediated picosecond nucleation of a topological phase.

Nat Mater 2021 Jan 5;20(1):30-37. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

European XFEL, Schenefeld, Germany.

Topological states of matter exhibit fascinating physics combined with an intrinsic stability. A key challenge is the fast creation of topological phases, which requires massive reorientation of charge or spin degrees of freedom. Here we report the picosecond emergence of an extended topological phase that comprises many magnetic skyrmions. The nucleation of this phase, followed in real time via single-shot soft X-ray scattering after infrared laser excitation, is mediated by a transient topological fluctuation state. This state is enabled by the presence of a time-reversal symmetry-breaking perpendicular magnetic field and exists for less than 300 ps. Atomistic simulations indicate that the fluctuation state largely reduces the topological energy barrier and thereby enables the observed rapid and homogeneous nucleation of the skyrmion phase. These observations provide fundamental insights into the nature of topological phase transitions, and suggest a path towards ultrafast topological switching in a wide variety of materials through intermediate fluctuating states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00807-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Brain structural and functional differences between pure menstrual migraine and menstrually-related migraine.

Sci Rep 2020 10 5;10(1):16454. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

College of Acupuncture and Tuina, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 37 Shierqiao Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The pathophysiological differences between menstrually-related migraine (MRM) and pure menstrual migraine (PMM) are largely unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential differences in brain structure and function between PMM and MRM. Forty-eight menstrual migraine patients (32 MRM; 16 PMM) were recruited for this study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied on structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) in resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) were calculated. No significant between-group difference was observed in the grey matter volume (GMV). MRM patients exhibited lower ALFF values at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) than PMM patients. Moreover, the MRM group showed significantly higher ReHo values in the DLPFC. Higher values in the mPFC were related to higher expression of calcitonin gene-associated peptide (CGRP) in the PMM group (r = 0.5, P = 0.048). Combined ALFF and ReHo analyses revealed significantly different spontaneous neural activity in the DLPFC and mPFC, between MRM and PMM patients, and ALFF values in the mPFC were positively correlated with CGRP expression, in the PMM group. This study enhances our understanding of the relationship between neural abnormalities and CGRP expression in individuals with PMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73399-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536204PMC
October 2020

Machine Learning-Based Radiomics Predicting Tumor Grades and Expression of Multiple Pathologic Biomarkers in Gliomas.

Front Oncol 2020 11;10:1676. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Radiology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: The grading and pathologic biomarkers of glioma has important guiding significance for the individual treatment. In clinical, it is often necessary to obtain tumor samples through invasive operation for pathological diagnosis. The present study aimed to use conventional machine learning algorithms to predict the tumor grades and pathologic biomarkers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

Methods: The present study retrospectively collected a dataset of 367 glioma patients, who had pathological reports and underwent MRI scans between October 2013 and March 2019. The radiomic features were extracted from enhanced MRI images, and three frequently-used machine-learning models of LC, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forests (RF) were built for four predictive tasks: (1) glioma grades, (2) Ki67 expression level, (3) GFAP expression level, and (4) S100 expression level in gliomas. Each sub dataset was split into training and testing sets at a ratio of 4:1. The training sets were used for training and tuning models. The testing sets were used for evaluating models. According to the area under curve (AUC) and accuracy, the best classifier was chosen for each task.

Results: The RF algorithm was found to be stable and consistently performed better than Logistic Regression and SVM for all the tasks. The RF classifier on glioma grades achieved a predictive performance (AUC: 0.79, accuracy: 0.81). The RF classifier also achieved a predictive performance on the Ki67 expression (AUC: 0.85, accuracy: 0.80). The AUC and accuracy score for the GFAP classifier were 0.72 and 0.81. The AUC and accuracy score for S100 expression levels are 0.60 and 0.91.

Conclusion: The machine-learning based radiomics approach can provide a non-invasive method for the prediction of glioma grades and expression levels of multiple pathologic biomarkers, preoperatively, with favorable predictive accuracy and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516282PMC
September 2020

Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists Alters Pancreatic and Hepatic Histology and Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in High-fat Diet Mouse Model.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2020 Sep 22. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian Province, China.

Background: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, and non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are obesity-associated complications. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist, has been approved for treatment of obesity. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of liraglutide on the complications through its regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

Methods: A high-fat diet mouse model was established in C57BL/6J mice. Two groups of mice were fed a high-fat diet with 60% fat for 16 weeks and control mice were fed standard chow. A four-week 0.6 mg/kg/day liraglutide treatment was started in one high-fat diet group after 12 weeks of the high-fat diet. After sacrificing the mice, pancreatic and hepatic tissues were prepared for western blot and immunohistochemistry for ER stress proteins, including activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), caspase 12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α (eIF2α), glucose regulated protein (GRP) 78 and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK).

Results: Liraglutide significantly decreased body weight gained by mice consuming a high-fat diet (27.6 g vs. 34.5 g, P<0.001), and levels of all ER proteins increased significantly in both the pancreas and liver (all P<0.05). Expression of most ER stress proteins in pancreatic tissue correlated with disease scores of NAFLD (all P<0.05). However, no significant differences were found in pancreatic ATF 4 expression between mice without NAFLD, and those with early non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrotic NASH (P=0.122).

Conclusion: Liraglutide reduces the severity of NAFPD and NAFLD may through regulating the ER stress pathway and downstream apoptosis signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1240-4936DOI Listing
September 2020

Interventions for cancer-related pain: Protocol of an umbrella systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov;98(45):e17844

College of Acupuncture and Moxibustion and Tuina, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.

Background: Several treatments are beneficial for patients with cancer-related pain (CRP), and there are numbers of systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness and safety of these treatments. However, the overall quality of the evidence has not been quantitatively assessed. The aim of this study is to overcome the inconclusive evidence about the interventions of CRP.

Methods: We will perform an umbrella systematic review to identify eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A comprehensive literature search will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library for systematic reviews, meta-analyses and RCTs. We will describe the general information of the RCTs for participants, interventions, outcome measurements, comparisons, and results. Network meta-analysis will be developed to determine the comparative effectiveness of the treatments.

Results: The result of this network meta-analysis will provide direct and indirect evidence of treatments for CRP.

Conclusion: The conclusion of our study will help clinicians and CRP patients to choose suitable treatment options.

Ethics And Dissemination: Formal ethical approval is not required, as the data are not individualized. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and/or presented at relevant conferences.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42019131721.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6855642PMC
November 2019

A Facile Approach towards Fluorescent Nanogels with AIE-Active Spacers.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 Jul 1;10(7). Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory for Preparation and Application of Ordered Structural Materials of Guangdong Province, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China.

A facile and efficient approach for design and synthesis of organic fluorescent nanogels has been developed by using a pre-synthesized polymeric precursor. This strategy is achieved by two key steps: (i) precise synthesis of core⁻shell star-shaped block copolymers with crosslinkable AIEgen-precursor (AIEgen: aggregation induced emission luminogen) as pending groups on the inner blocks; (ii) gelation of the inner blocks by coupling the AIEgen-precursor moieties to generate AIE-active spacers, and thus, fluorescent nanogel. By using this strategy, a series of star-shaped block copolymers with benzophenone groups pending on the inner blocks were synthesized by grafting from a hexafunctional initiator through atom transfer radical copolymerization (ATRP) of 4-benzoylphenyl methacrylate (BPMA) or 2-(4-benzoylphenoxy)ethyl methacrylate (BPOEMA) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and -butyldimethylsilyl-protected 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (ProHEMA) followed by a sequential ATRP to grow PMMA or PProHEMA. The pendent benzophenone groups were coupled by McMurry reaction to generate tetraphenylethylene (TPE) groups which served as AIE-active spacers, affording a fluorescent nanogel. The nanogel showed strong emission not only at aggregated state but also in dilute solution due to the strongly restricted inter- and intramolecular movement of TPE moiety in the crosslinked polymeric network. The nanogel has been used as a fluorescent macromolecular additive to fabricate fluorescent film.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10070722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403691PMC
July 2018

Association of the PHACTR1/EDN1 Genetic Locus With Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 01;73(1):58-66

Molecular Cardiology and Biophysics Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; St. Vincent's Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an increasingly recognized cause of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) afflicting predominantly younger to middle-aged women. Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of extracoronary vascular anomalies, especially fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and a low prevalence of coincidental cases of atherosclerosis. PHACTR1/EDN1 is a genetic risk locus for several vascular diseases, including FMD and coronary artery disease, with the putative causal noncoding variant at the rs9349379 locus acting as a potential enhancer for the endothelin-1 (EDN1) gene.

Objectives: This study sought to test the association between the rs9349379 genotype and SCAD.

Methods: Results from case control studies from France, United Kingdom, United States, and Australia were analyzed to test the association with SCAD risk, including age at first event, pregnancy-associated SCAD (P-SCAD), and recurrent SCAD.

Results: The previously reported risk allele for FMD (rs9349379-A) was associated with a higher risk of SCAD in all studies. In a meta-analysis of 1,055 SCAD patients and 7,190 controls, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50 to 1.86) per copy of rs9349379-A. In a subset of 491 SCAD patients, the OR estimate was found to be higher for the association with SCAD in patients without FMD (OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.33) than in SCAD cases with FMD (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.99). There was no effect of genotype on age at first event, P-SCAD, or recurrence.

Conclusions: The first genetic risk factor for SCAD was identified in the largest study conducted to date for this condition. This genetic link may contribute to the clinical overlap between SCAD and FMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.09.085DOI Listing
January 2019

Blood triglyceride levels are associated with DNA methylation at the serine metabolism gene PHGDH.

Sci Rep 2017 09 11;7(1):11207. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Efficient interventions to reduce blood triglycerides are few; newer and more tolerable intervention targets are needed. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying blood triglyceride levels variation is key to identifying new therapies. To explore the role of epigenetic mechanisms on triglyceride levels, a blood methylome scan was conducted in 199 individuals from 5 French-Canadian families ascertained on venous thromboembolism, and findings were replicated in 324 French unrelated patients with venous thromboembolism. Genetic context and functional relevance were investigated. Two DNA methylation sites associated with triglyceride levels were identified. The first one, located in the ABCG1 gene, was recently reported, whereas the second one, located in the promoter of the PHGDH gene, is novel. The PHGDH methylation site, cg14476101, was found to be associated with variation in triglyceride levels in a threshold manner: cg14476101 was inversely associated with triglyceride levels only when triglyceride levels were above 1.12 mmol/L (discovery P-value = 8.4 × 10; replication P-value = 0.0091). Public databases findings supported a functional role of cg14476101 on PHGDH expression. PHGDH catalyses the first step in the serine biosynthesis pathway. These findings highlight the role of epigenetic regulation of the PHGDH gene in triglyceride metabolism, providing novel insights on putative intervention targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09552-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5593822PMC
September 2017

Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children.

Environ Health Perspect 2016 06 8;124(6):868-74. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied.

Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6-13 years of age.

Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children's ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms.

Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior.

Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure.

Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-sectional study of Mexican children. Environ Health Perspect 124:868-874; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510067.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4892926PMC
June 2016
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