Publications by authors named "Sitwat Zehra"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism TaqI (rs731236) and its association with the susceptibility to coronary artery disease among Pakistani population.

J Gene Med 2021 Aug 7:e3386. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Karachi Institute of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality in Pakistan and also worldwide. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the transcription of many genes and has a significant impact on inflammation and the morphology of cardiac cells. Genetic variation in the VDR gene such as the TaqI polymorphism (rs731236) may have an impact that causes adverse effects. Accordingly, it is important to determine possible association of the TaqI polymorphism (rs731236) with CAD.

Methods: The study included blood samples from 1016 subjects: 516 from CAD patients and 500 from age- and gender-matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted by standard salting out method. Targeted variation was amplified by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were examined and genotyped on agarose gel electrophoresis represented by an amplified product size of 148 bp followed by Sanger sequencing to validate variations.

Results: Serum vitamin levels, as observed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were found to be insufficient in both CAD patients (20.52 ± 0.06 ng/ml) and controls (21.6981 ± 0.05 ng/ml). The TaqI polymorphism (rs731236) T>C was found to be significantly associated with CAD (p < 0.0001). The odds ratio showed that the risk increases by 1.8-fold with variant C allele. Dominant, co-dominant and over dominant genetic model analyses suggested that the TC genotype might be a risk factor involved in the possible association with susceptibility to CAD.

Conclusions: The TaqI polymorphism (rs731236) in the coding region may affect the function of the receptor by altering the binding site, which might participate in an inflammatory response and increase the risk for developing susceptibility to CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgm.3386DOI Listing
August 2021

Growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, gut microflora and ghrelin gene expression analysis of broiler by supplementing natural growth promoters: A nutrigenomics approach.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 13;28(6):3438-3447. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In an epoch of escalating number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria, there is a dire need to develop efficient and novel feeding strategies for animal nutrition as alternatives to antibiotics. Here, implicating nutrigenomic approach, phytobiotics and organic acids were used to evaluate ghrelin gene expression levels, gut microflora composition, performance parameters and intestinal histomorphological changes in broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 315) were reared for 42 days and distributed randomly into five experimental groups; each with three replicates (21 birds per replicate). Experimental groups were control: basal diet only, antimicrobial growth promoter: 40 g/metric ton of basal diet (virginiamycin), organic acids: 4 kg/metric ton of basal diet, phytobiotics: 3 kg/metric ton of basal diet, combination: 7 kg/metric ton of basal diet (organic acids 4 kg and phytobiotics 3 kg metric ton of feed). Growth performance, histological and ghrelin gene expression analysis were executed on 21 and 42 days while, quantitative bacterial analysis of cecum and ileum was performed on day 42. Increased feed intake and body weight () were noticed in phytobiotics group. Addition of phytobiotics significantly improved () villus height and ratio of villus height/crypt depth in ileum, jejunum, and duodenum and down-regulated ghrelin gene expression levels. Total coliform and in cecal and ileal digesta were decreased significantly () in organic acids group. Correlation analysis revealed spp. were positively correlated to villus height/crypt depth ration in duodenum. The findings indicated the importance of gene-nutrient-microbiota interactions based on nutrigenomics approach. Hence, phytobiotics and organic acids might be suitable alternatives to antibiotics for improved performance and immunity, along with healthier meat production in poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176037PMC
June 2021

Enhanced modulation of gut microbial dynamics affecting body weight in birds triggered by natural growth promoters administered in conventional feed.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Oct 24;27(10):2747-2755. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

This study explored the effects of natural growth promoters (phytogenic feed additives and organic acids) on animal performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, gut microflora composition, and microbe-host interactions in broiler chickens over a 42-day feeding period. Two-hundred-fifty-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (i) control diets (CON); (ii) control diets + 40 g/tons antibiotic growth promoter (AB); (iii) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids (ORG); (iv) control diets + 3 kg/tons phytogenic feed additives (PHY); (v) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids + phytogenic feed additive combination (COM). A non-significant differences ( > ) were observed in broiler performance among treatments at 21 days of age; however, a gradually increasing body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio were observed at 42 days in treatments versus control group. Biochemical indices were non-significant ( > ) except for decreased cholesterol ( < ) and increased A/G ratio ( < ) recorded in the treatment groups. The addition of PHY and ORG improved total counts of spp. and spp. ( < ) as well as reduced caecal and ileal spp. and ( < ). Correlation analysis elucidated beneficial bacteria ( spp. and spp.) were positively and pathogenic bacteria ( spp. and ) were negatively correlated ( < ) with host weight gain. The findings indicated that dietary supplementation of PHY and ORG sustained balanced gut microflora, which in turn improved body weight. This study broadens the significance of using PHY and ORG as safe alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for achieving healthier and economical broiler production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499368PMC
October 2020

Association between obesity and risk of knee osteoarthritis.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Jan;33(1(Supplementary)):295-298

Dr. A. Q. Khan Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

The study was designed to investigate the association between obesity and the risk of knee osteoarthritis, recruiting 400 knee osteoarthritis patients and an equal number of controls. After the informed consent, diagnosed patients from Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi were included as "cases". Age-matched individuals without the disease were included as "controls". Sociodemographic data were taken from each participant. Characteristics were compared by odds ratio and chi-square using SPSS 20 software. Obesity (OR 3.29; 95% CI 2.40-4.51), female gender (OR 2.87; 95% CI 1.94-4.25) and family history (OR 3.61; 95% CI 2.69-4.85) were found to be significantly associated with osteoarthritis (p<0.001). Highest OR was found in case of stair climbing >10 flights/d (OR 6.08; 95% CI 4.16-8.89; p<0.001), whereas heavy lifting (>25 kg/d for > 4 hr) was observed as another major factor with OR of 5.24 (95% CI 3.54-7.75; p<0.001) that elevates the risk. The study concluded that obesity is significantly associated with osteoarthritis and obese individuals (BMI>25 kg/m2) are at high risk of disease development. Furthermore, family history, prolonged standing (>2 h/d for >1 yr), heavy lifting (>25 kg/d for > 4 hr), stair climbing (>10 flights/d) and sitting on the floor (>5 h/d) might also be associated with knee osteoarthritis.
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January 2020

Leptin as a predictor of anthropometric cutoff points for obesity.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Mar;32(2):483-490

Dow International Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

This study was conducted to find the association between leptin and adiposity indices. Secondly, to identify optimal threshold of various anthropometric indices for obesity, as assessed by 75th percentile of leptin levels, within a clinic sample of non-diabetic and diabetic Pakistani adults. Fasting serum leptin levels were compared with anthropometric markers of obesity in 164 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects (90 male, 74 female), aged 35 to 65 years. Obesity was defined by body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 in either sex. The cutoff point of leptin was taken as the 75th percentile in non-obese subjects. Diagnostic accuracy for detecting excess fatness was evaluated through receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses with leptin taken as reference test against anthropometric indices as test variables. The 75th percentile of leptin in male and female was 7.0ng/mL and 17.9ng/mL, respectively. Leptin levels were significantly higher in females (p<0.001) and had strong positive correlation (p<0.001) with most anthropometric indices of obesity in both sexes; hip circumference (HC) being most prominent among these. Largest area under ROC curve (AUC) was between WC and leptin (AUC=0.844; CI=0.764, 0.925) in males and BMI and leptin (AUC=0.832; CI=0.740, 0.923) in females. The optimum thresholds for obesity indices in our study were: BMI, WC and HC as 25 kg/m2, 96.25cm, 99.25cm for males; 27 kg/m, 95.50cm, 105.5cm for females, respectively. Leptin can be considered as a potential marker of obesity and may be used to identify obesity cutoffs in future demographic surveys. Longitudinal studies are required that include leptin in coronary artery disease risk assessment models.
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March 2019

Association analysis and allelic distribution of deletion in CC chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5Δ32) among breast cancer patients of Pakistan.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Apr 8;46(2):2387-2394. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, 75270, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

Chemokine CC receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a cell surface receptor that has high affinity for chemotropic cytokines called chemokines. The CCR5 gene contains a 32 base pairs (bp) deletion (CCR5Δ32). This deletion may result in a malformed and nonfunctional receptor, reported to be responsible for the development and dissemination of different cancers. CCR5Δ32 exists in two allelic forms i.e. deletion (D) and wild type (WT). This study aims to detect the role of CCR5Δ32 in breast cancer development. Blood samples were collected from breast cancer patients (330) and controls of same gender (306). Along with this histopathologically diagnosed malignant tissue samples were also excised from breast lesions of 100 patients. Genetic variations within the blood and tissue samples were examined by PCR then observed through gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Obtained DNA sequences were aligned and analyzed by MEGA6 software. Genotypic and association analyses were done by SPSS software version 17.0. Deletion of 32 bp in CCR5 gene has been analyzed. Genotypic variations of CCR5Δ32 are; homozygous wild type (WT/WT), heterozygous deletion (WT/D) and homozygous deletion (D/D). Statistical analyses of CCR5Δ32 data revealed that WT/D was significantly higher in blood samples of breast cancer patients (7.27% (24/330)) as compare to controls (1.30% (4/306)). In tumor tissue samples WT/WT being the most frequent genotype (99.00% (99/100)) with 1.00 (1/100) of D/D which suggested that it may be acquired. Hence, association analysis showed that CCR5Δ32 is positively associated with breast cancer in Pakistan (p < 0.001). The risk ratio of CCR5Δ32 was 5.6610 (95% confidence interval: 2.0377 to 15.7267) and odds ratio was calculated to be 6.0335 (95% confidence interval: 2.1288 to 17.0999) which signifies that deletion also increases the risk of breast cancer development. Moreover, association analyses also revealed that clinicopathological features do not have any impact on the CCR5Δ32 genotype of breast cancer. This suggests that deletion of 32 bp in CCR5 gene may be associated with breast cancer. CCR5 signals the activation and migration of immune cells at the site of tumor formation. Because of deletion; deformed CCR5 receptor might be unable to express and function properly which may subdue the immunity against cancer hence, leading to its progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04699-6DOI Listing
April 2019

Association and implications in triple negative and triple positive breast cancer: Relationship with sociodemographic and reproductive factors in Pakistan.

Pak J Med Sci 2018 Nov-Dec;34(6):1468-1472

Saima Saleem, Ph.D. The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background & Objectives: Triple negative and triple positive breast cancer have adverse effects than other types of breast cancer. However, triple negative has poor prognosis with short survival as compared with triple positive breast cancer. Good prognosis is one of the key factors for successful treatment trial. This study aimed to find out the association of sociodemographic and reproductive features like parity, menopause, number of child bearing as risk factors in the development and prognosis of triple negative and triple positive breast cancer.

Methods: This study is a part of an ongoing project which is being conducted in Karachi from 2013 to 2020. Informed consent from triple negative breast cancer (n=134) and triple positive breast cancer (n=87) patients were taken prior to their recruitment into the study. Demographic, anthropometric, reproductive and disease history of patients were recorded. Means, frequency distribution, data classification and association analyses were done by SPSS version 17.0.

Results: Statistical analyses revealed that delayed first child bearing age and lower number of children are associated with the development of triple negative breast cancer. However, no significant effect of these parameters has been observed on the outcomes of triple positive breast cancer.

Conclusions: Reproductive factors have more pathological implications than sociodemographic factors in both triple positive and triple negative breast cancer development. These findings might prove to be beneficial for effective and better breast cancer management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.346.15763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290238PMC
December 2018

Serum Interleukin-15 and its relationship with adiposity Indices before and after short-term endurance exercise.

Pak J Med Sci 2018 Sep-Oct;34(5):1125-1131

Prof. Masood Anwar Qureshi, PhD. Department of Physiology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: The myokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) is capable of modifying the metabolism of both skeletal and adipose tissue. This study compares the change in serum levels of IL-15 in obese and non-obese after a single session of submaximal exercise.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi, during Aug-Dec 2015, comprising of 133 medical students (aged 17-24 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by Queen's College Step Test. Blood was obtained both before and just after exercise and serum levels of IL-15 determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Mean serum level of IL-15 was 3.64±1.59 pg/mL. Higher levels of IL-15 were seen in lean subjects compared to overweight/obese, both before and after three minutes of exercise (all P<.001). The percent increase in IL-15 upon exercise was 12.7% higher in lean. Significant negative association was seen between interleukin-15 and adiposity, especially visceral fat ( = -.288, =.001).

Conclusion: Interleukin-15 correlates negatively with adiposity indices, especially visceral fat. With the proven benefit of IL-15 in terms of adipose tissue stores and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, endurance exercises, even of short duration, may possess therapeutic potential towards producing a healthier body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.345.15516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191778PMC
October 2018

Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Gene Deletions and Susceptibility to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in adults.

Pak J Med Sci 2018 May-Jun;34(3):666-670

Abid Azhar, DSc, PhD. The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: Biotransformation of xenobiotics are critical for their metabolism and removal from the body which is carried out by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Individuals carrying variants of genes that encode these enzymes have an altered ability to metabolize xenobiotics which may lead to an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of and gene deletions in causing predisposition to adult ALL.

Methods: The current case-control study involved 62 adult ALL patients and 62 age and gender matched healthy controls. Whole blood samples processed with standard phenol chloroform protocol for DNA isolation were genotyped using multiplex PCR approach for simultaneous identification of and deletions. The genotype frequency obtained for patients was compared to controls using odds ratio and chi-square.

Results: The null genotype frequency of and in a group of adult ALL patients from Pakistan were 47% and 11% respectively. Deletion of and did not show statistically significant association with adult ALL (=0.86 and =0.35 respectively). The combined deletion was observed in 2% patients and was not significantly associated with ALL in adults (=0.85).

Conclusions: The results reveal that homozygous null polymorphism of and genes does not influence ALL susceptibility among adult patients. Cancer susceptibility associated with polymorphism varies with ethnic and geographic differences. Therefore, further investigation on different populations is needed to understand the role of these genetic variations in modifying adult ALL risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.343.14911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041525PMC
July 2018

A Study on Gene Promoter Polymorphism in Healthy Pakistani population.

Pak J Med Sci 2017 Nov-Dec;33(6):1521-1524

Abid Azhar, PhD.Director General, The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University Of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background & Objective: Catalase (CAT) is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies HO into water and oxygen, consequently limiting the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. It has suggested that OMIM: gene promoter polymorphism is predominantly associated with different human disorders such as hypertension, cancers, diabetes, nephropathy, and other diseases accompanied by oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of mutant T allele frequency in healthy individuals.

Methods: The study group consisted of 110 healthy individuals were enrolled from Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE), Karachi, Pakistan, during the period of April 2010 to May 2013. DNA was isolated from leukocytes. Genotyping of gene promoter polymorphism was carried out using thermal cycler followed by RFLP. Blast N analysis was performed for the confirmation of gene sequences.

Results: In gene promoter polymorphism, wild type genotype (AA) was observed in 18.26% and alterered genotype (AT/TT) found in 81.74% cases.

Conclusions: Data demonstrates that frequency and distribution of mutant T allele was more prevalent as compared to wild type A allele in the study group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.336.13188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5768856PMC
March 2018

Association of single Nucleotide Missence Polymorphism Val109Asp of Omentin-1 gene and coronary artery disease in Pakistani population: Multicenter study.

Pak J Med Sci 2017 Sep-Oct;33(5):1128-1133

Dr. Abid Azhar, Ph.D. Director General, Dr. A. Q. Khan Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University Of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background & Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as in Pakistan. Recent studies have shown that the combination of obesity, insulin resistance and fluctuation in circulating adipocytokines levels is associated with the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Omentin-1 is recently found adipocytokine that is highly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. It has anti- inflammatory properties and is negatively correlated with ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between omentin-1 Val109Asp polymorphism and CAD in Pakistani population.

Methods: A total of 350 subjects were included in the study. Two hundred fifty were diagnosed with coronary artery disease while 100 served as healthy controls. PCR-RFLP was performed at Dr. A Q. Khan Institute of Biotechnology (KIBGE) to analyze Val109Asp polymorphism. In this, case control study SPSS software version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis. Continuous variables and categorical variables were presented as mean±SD or in percentage. Independent sample test and chi-square test was performed to compare the differences in means between cases and controls. Genotype distribution was analyzed by chi-square test and results were presented as percentage and frequency. Multivarible regression analysis indicated that Val109Asp SNP might be an independent risk factor for CAD susceptibility after adjustment for some well- known CAD risk factors including age, gender, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities. There was estimation of odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the correlation between genotypes and the risk of CAD. (p> 0.05). Genotype frequencies were compared by Chi-square test.

Results: There was prevalence of Omentin-1 Val109Asp polymorphism in both case and control groups. However, Val/Asp (heterozygous mutant) genotype was detected more frequently in patients with CAD, OR(95%)=1.921; CI=1.173-3.1469 in comparison of Asp/Asp and Val/Val genotypes.

Conclusion: Individuals having Val/Asp heterozygous gemotype of omentin-1 gene polymorphism are at more risk of developing CAD in Pakistani population, further studies are required in different populations and ethnicities to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.335.13110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673720PMC
November 2017

Cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with adiposity indices in young adults.

Pak J Med Sci 2017 May-Jun;33(3):659-664

Prof. Masood Anwar Qureshi, PhD. Department of Physiology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: This study investigated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and adiposity in young adults.

Methods: Data was collected from 133 students of a medical college of Pakistan. The study was conducted on young adults, aged 17-24 years, recruited from Jinnah Medical & Dental College, Karachi, between Aug-Dec, 2015. Queen's College Step Test was conducted to measure CRF and maximal oxygen uptake (VO) evaluated. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index, body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference) were taken to assess adiposity. Associations of VO and adiposity were analyzed.

Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 44% overall. The VO (ml/kg/min) of males and females was 55.41±9.45 and 39.91±3.14, respectively, the gender difference being highly significant (<0.001). Quartiles of VO showed strong inverse relationship between adiposity and VO obese individuals having low VO (1 quartile) and normal weight individuals having high VO (4 quartile). VO2max correlated greatest with body fat in males (r = -0.600; p<0.001), and waist circumference in females (r = -0.319; p=0.004).

Conclusion: The results indicate low CRF in young females and a strong inverse relationship between fitness levels and adiposity in young adults of both genders. Improving these parameters in our young population may prevent development of chronic non-communicable disease in later life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.333.12294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5510122PMC
August 2017

Neck circumference: A supplemental tool for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.

J Pak Med Assoc 2016 10;66(10):1221-1226

Department of Physiology, Dow International Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To explore the usefulness of neck circumference as a supplemental tool for diagnosing metabolic syndrome while identifying its cut-off values.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted at Dr. Essa's Laboratory and Diagnostic Centre, Karachi, from December 2014 to April 2015, and comprised subjects with and without metabolic syndrome aged between 35 and 65 years regardless of their diabetic status. Evaluation was done for metabolic syndrome by measuring anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters according to the criteria proposed by the International Diabetes Federation. Variables in both cases and controls were correlated with neck circumference and its cut-off values were determined for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Of the 215 subjects enrolled, 164(76.28%) were selected. Of them, 83(50.61%) were cases and 81(49.39%) were controls. Moreover, 90(55%) of them were men and 74(45%) were women. The overall mean age was 51.15±10.36 years (range: 35 to 65 years).The mean neck circumference was 36.13±2.14 cm and 31.59±1.18 cm in normal-weight men and women, respectively, compared with 40.0±2.13 cm and 35.75 ± 2.74 cm among obese men and women. The neck circumference correlated best with waist circumference in men (p=0.001) and with body surface area in women (p=0.001). The area under the curve of neck circumference for metabolic syndrome was 0.760 for men (p<0.001) and 0.631 for women (p<0.05). Optimal neck circumference cut-off points to determine metabolic syndrome were >38 cm for men and >34 cm for women. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 12.44 (95% confidence interval: 4.13-37.41) among male cases and controls compared to 3.34 (1.26-8.80) among women.

Conclusions: Neck circumference strongly correlated with adiposity indices and had a definite cut-off point. It can therefore be used as a useful adjunct for clinical screening of metabolic syndrome.
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October 2016

Fresh and aged human lymphocyte metaphase slides are equally usable for GTG banding.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2014 Sep;27(5):1255-9

The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

The identification of chromosomes for routine cytogenetic analysis is based on quality of metaphases and good banding pattern. Fresh slides of human lymphocytes have been shown to produce good bands for the identification of chromosomes morphology. G-bands by Trypsin using Giemsa (GTG) banding of aged slides is generally considered hard to get desired band pattern of chromosomes persistently. The current study is focused on GTG banding of aged slides. A total of 340 subjects including 290 primary infertile and 50 fertile were selected. The blood samples were drawn aseptically for cytogenetic analysis. Lymphocytes were cultured and GTG banding was done on 1440 glass slides. Giemsa trypsin banding of aged slides were done by adjusting average trypsin time for each month according to the slide age and metaphase concentration. Correlation analyses showed a significant and positive correlation between slide ageing and trypsin pre-treatment time. The results of this study suggest that, the fresh and aged human lymphocyte metaphases are equally usable for GTG banding.
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September 2014
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