Publications by authors named "Sitra Tauscher-Wisniewski"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Single- and multiple-dose safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profiles of ASP0367, or bocidelpar sulfate, a novel modulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in healthy adults: Results from a phase 1 study.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Parexel International, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction/aims: ASP0367, or bocidelpar sulfate, is an orally administered small molecule that potently and selectively modulates PPARδ to address mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in diseases including primary mitochondrial myopathy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Objectives of this first-in-human trial were to evaluate the safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ASP0367 in healthy participants.

Methods: In this double-blind phase 1 study, adult participants were randomized to single or multiple ascending oral doses of ASP0367 or placebo; study duration was 1 and 14 days, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters under fed conditions were also evaluated.

Results: A total of 64 (single dose cohort) and 37 (multiple dose cohort) participants were included. Following single doses of 1-120 mg, ASP0367 was rapidly absorbed with median time to maximum plasma concentration (t ) of 1.50-2.24 hours under fasting conditions; ASP0367 concentrations declined in a multiphasic manner after reaching maximum plasma concentration. Under fed conditions, t was delayed 1.7 hours. Following multiple once-daily doses, mean half-life of ASP0367 10-75 mg ranged from 14.1-17.5 hours; steady state was reached after 4 days. Negligible accumulation was observed following repeated dosing. No participants receiving ASP0367 discontinued treatment, and all treatment-emergent adverse events were mild-to-moderate in severity; none were deemed drug-related. No clinically significant changes were observed on laboratory or electrocardiography evaluations. Treatment- and dose-dependent upregulation of six PPARδ target genes were observed with single and multiple doses of ASP0367.

Discussion: ASP0367, or bocidelpar sulfate, was well tolerated; rapid absorption, roughly dose-proportional bioavailability, and effects on PPARδ target genes were demonstrated in healthy adult participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.27436DOI Listing
October 2021

Onasemnogene abeparvovec gene therapy for symptomatic infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (STR1VE-EU): an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Neurol 2021 10;20(10):832-841

Novartis Gene Therapies, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Spinal muscular atrophy is a rare, autosomal recessive, neuromuscular disease caused by biallelic loss of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in motor neuron dysfunction. In this STR1VE-EU study, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of onasemnogene abeparvovec gene replacement therapy in infants with spinal muscular atrophy type 1, using broader eligibility criteria than those used in STR1VE-US.

Methods: STR1VE-EU was a multicentre, single-arm, single-dose, open-label phase 3 trial done at nine sites (hospitals and universities) in Italy (n=4), the UK (n=2), Belgium (n=2), and France (n=1). We enrolled patients younger than 6 months (180 days) with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 and the common biallelic pathogenic SMN1 exon 7-8 deletion or point mutations, and one or two copies of SMN2. Patients received a one-time intravenous infusion of onasemnogene abeparvovec (1·1 × 10 vector genomes [vg]/kg). The outpatient follow-up consisted of assessments once per week starting at day 7 post-infusion for 4 weeks and then once per month until the end of the study (at age 18 months or early termination). The primary outcome was independent sitting for at least 10 s, as defined by the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study, at any visit up to the 18 months of age study visit, measured in the intention-to-treat population. Efficacy was compared with the Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research (PNCR) natural history cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03461289 (completed).

Findings: From Aug 16, 2018, to Sept 11, 2020, 41 patients with spinal muscular atrophy were assessed for eligibility. The median age at onasemnogene abeparvovec dosing was 4·1 months (IQR 3·0-5·2). 32 (97%) of 33 patients completed the study and were included in the ITT population (one patient was excluded despite completing the study because of dosing at 181 days). 14 (44%, 97·5% CI 26-100) of 32 patients achieved the primary endpoint of functional independent sitting for at least 10 s at any visit up to the 18 months of age study visit (vs 0 of 23 untreated patients in the PNCR cohort; p<0·0001). 31 (97%, 95% CI 91-100) of 32 patients in the ITT population survived free from permanent ventilatory support at 14 months compared with six (26%, 8-44) of 23 patients in the PNCR natural history cohort (p<0·0001). 32 (97%) of 33 patients had at least one adverse event and six (18%) had adverse events that were considered serious and related to onasemnogene abeparvovec. The most common adverse events were pyrexia (22 [67%] of 33), upper respiratory infection (11 [33%]), and increased alanine aminotransferase (nine [27%]). One death, unrelated to the study drug, occurred from hypoxic-ischaemic brain damage because of a respiratory tract infection during the study.

Interpretation: STR1VE-EU showed efficacy of onasemnogene abeparvovec in infants with symptomatic spinal muscular atrophy type 1. No new safety signals were identified, but further studies are needed to show long-term safety. The benefit-risk profile of onasemnogene abeparvovec seems favourable for this patient population, including those with severe disease at baseline.

Funding: Novartis Gene Therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00251-9DOI Listing
October 2021

Clinical Trial and Postmarketing Safety of Onasemnogene Abeparvovec Therapy.

Drug Saf 2021 Oct 12;44(10):1109-1119. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Novartis Gene Therapies, Inc., Bannockburn, IL, USA.

Introduction: This is the first description of safety data for intravenous onasemnogene abeparvovec, the only approved systemically administered gene-replacement therapy for spinal muscular atrophy.

Objective: We comprehensively assessed the safety of intravenous onasemnogene abeparvovec from preclinical studies, clinical studies, and postmarketing data.

Methods: Single-dose toxicity studies were performed in neonatal mice and juvenile or neonatal cynomolgus nonhuman primates (NHPs). Data presented are from a composite of preclinical studies, seven clinical trials, and postmarketing sources (clinical trials, n = 102 patients; postmarketing surveillance, n = 665 reported adverse event [AE] cases). In clinical trials, safety was assessed through AE monitoring, vital-sign and cardiac assessments, laboratory evaluations, physical examinations, and concomitant medication use. AE reporting and available objective clinical data from postmarketing programs were evaluated.

Results: The main target organs of toxicity in mice were the heart and liver. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) inflammation was observed in NHPs. Patients exhibited no evidence of sensory neuropathy upon clinical examination. In clinical trials, 101/102 patients experienced at least one treatment-emergent AE. In total, 50 patients experienced serious AEs, including 11 considered treatment related. AEs consistent with hepatotoxicity resolved with prednisolone in clinical trials. Transient decreases in mean platelet count were detected but were without bleeding complications. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) was observed in the postmarketing setting. No evidence of intracardiac thrombi was observed for NHPs or patients.

Conclusions: Risks associated with onasemnogene abeparvovec can be anticipated, monitored, and managed. Hepatotoxicity events resolved with prednisolone. Thrombocytopenia was transient. TMA may require medical intervention. Important potential risks include cardiac AEs and DRG toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-021-01107-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473343PMC
October 2021

Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 antibodies in patients screened for treatment with onasemnogene abeparvovec.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 24;21:76-82. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Center for Gene Therapy, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

Spinal muscular atrophy is a progressive, recessively inherited monogenic neurologic disease, the genetic root cause of which is the absence of a functional gene. Onasemnogene abeparvovec (formerly AVXS-101) is an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 vector-based gene therapy that delivers a fully functional copy of the human gene. We report anti-adeno-associated virus serotype 9 antibody titers for patients with spinal muscular atrophy when they were screened for eligibility in the onasemnogene abeparvovec clinical trials (intravenous and intrathecal administration) and managed access programs (intravenous). Through December 31, 2019, 196 patients and 155 biologic mothers were screened for anti-adeno-associated virus serotype 9 binding antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of these, 15 patients (7.7%) and 23 biologic mothers (14.8%) had titers >1:50 on their initial screening tests. Eleven patients (5.6%) had elevated titers on their final screening tests. The low percentage of patients with exclusionary antibody titers indicates that most infants with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 should be able to receive onasemnogene abeparvovec. Retesting may identify patients whose antibody titers later decrease to below the threshold for treatment, and retesting should be considered for patients with anti-adeno-associated virus serotype 9 antibody titers >1:50.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.02.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973120PMC
June 2021

Onasemnogene abeparvovec gene therapy for symptomatic infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy in patients with two copies of SMN2 (STR1VE): an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Neurol 2021 04 17;20(4):284-293. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Center for Gene Therapy, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Neurology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 is a motor neuron disorder resulting in death or the need for permanent ventilation by age 2 years. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of onasemnogene abeparvovec (previously known as AVXS-101), a gene therapy delivering the survival motor neuron gene (SMN), in symptomatic patients (identified through clinical examination) with infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy.

Methods: STR1VE was an open-label, single-arm, single-dose, phase 3 trial done at 12 hospitals and universities in the USA. Eligible patients had to be younger than 6 months and have spinal muscular atrophy with biallelic SMN1 mutations (deletion or point mutations) and one or two copies of SMN2. Patients received a one-time intravenous infusion of onasemnogene abeparvovec (1·1 × 10 vector genomes per kg) for 30-60 min. During the outpatient follow-up, patients were assessed once per week, beginning at day 7 post-infusion for 4 weeks and then once per month until the end of the study (age 18 months or early termination). Coprimary efficacy outcomes were independent sitting for 30 s or longer (Bayley-III item 26) at the 18 month of age study visit and survival (absence of death or permanent ventilation) at age 14 months. Safety was assessed through evaluation of adverse events, concomitant medication usage, physical examinations, vital sign assessments, cardiac assessments, and laboratory evaluation. Primary efficacy endpoints for the intention-to-treat population were compared with untreated infants aged 6 months or younger (n=23) with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (biallelic deletion of SMN1 and two copies of SMN2) from the Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research (PNCR) dataset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03306277 (completed).

Findings: From Oct 24, 2017, to Nov 12, 2019, 22 patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 were eligible and received onasemnogene abeparvovec. 13 (59%, 97·5% CI 36-100) of 22 patients achieved functional independent sitting for 30 s or longer at the 18 month of age study visit (vs 0 of 23 patients in the untreated PNCR cohort; p<0·0001). 20 patients (91%, 79-100]) survived free from permanent ventilation at age 14 months (vs 6 [26%], 8-44; p<0·0001 in the untreated PNCR cohort). All patients who received onasemnogene abeparvovec had at least one adverse event (most common was pyrexia). The most frequently reported serious adverse events were bronchiolitis, pneumonia, respiratory distress, and respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Three serious adverse events were related or possibly related to the treatment (two patients had elevated hepatic aminotransferases, and one had hydrocephalus).

Interpretation: Results from this multicentre trial build on findings from the phase 1 START study by showing safety and efficacy of commercial grade onasemnogene abeparvovec. Onasemnogene abeparvovec showed statistical superiority and clinically meaningful responses when compared with observations from the PNCR natural history cohort. The favourable benefit-risk profile shown in this study supports the use of onasemnogene abeparvovec for treatment of symptomatic patients with genetic or clinical characteristics predictive of infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy type 1.

Funding: Novartis Gene Therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00001-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Hepatotoxicity following administration of onasemnogene abeparvovec (AVXS-101) for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy.

J Hepatol 2021 03 10;74(3):560-566. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Novartis International AG, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background & Aims: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, childhood-onset motor neuron disease. Onasemnogene abeparvovec (OA) is a gene therapy designed to address SMA's root cause. In pivotal mouse toxicology studies, the liver was identified as a major site of OA toxicity. Clinical data reflect elevations in serum aminotransferase concentrations, with some reports of serious acute liver injury. Prophylactic prednisolone mitigates these effects. Herein, we aim to provide pragmatic, supportive guidance for identification, management, and risk mitigation of potential drug-induced liver injury.

Methods: Data from 325 patients with SMA who had received OA through 31 December 2019, in 5 clinical trials, a managed access program (MAP), and a long-term registry (RESTORE), and through commercial use, were analyzed. Liver-related adverse events, laboratory data, concomitant medications, and prednisolone use were analyzed.

Results: Based on adverse events and laboratory data, 90 of 100 patients had elevated liver function test results (alanine aminotransferase, and/or aspartate aminotransferase, and/or bilirubin concentrations). Of these, liver-associated adverse events were reported for 34 of 100 (34%) and 10 of 43 (23%) patients in clinical trials and MAP/RESTORE, respectively. Two patients in MAP had serious acute liver injury, which resolved completely. While all events in the overall population resolved, prednisolone treatment duration varied (range: 33-229 days), with a majority receiving prednisolone for 60-120 days. More than 60% had elevations in either alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or bilirubin concentrations prior to dosing. Greater than 40% received potentially hepatotoxic concomitant medications.

Conclusions: Hepatotoxicity is a known risk associated with OA use. Practitioners should identify contributing factors and mitigate risk through appropriate monitoring and intervention.

Lay Summary: Onasemnogene abeparvovec is a type of medicine called a "gene therapy," which is used to treat babies and young children who have a rare, serious inherited condition called "spinal muscular atrophy" (SMA). It works by supplying a fully functioning copy of the survival motor neuron or SMN gene, which then helps the body produce enough SMN protein. However, it can cause an immune response that could lead to an increase in enzymes produced by the liver. This article provides information about the liver injury and how to prevent and recognize if it happens, so that it may be treated properly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.11.001DOI Listing
March 2021

Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist prodrugs LY2979165 and LY2140023 attenuate the functional imaging response to ketamine in healthy subjects.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 07 21;235(7):1875-1886. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.

Background: Aberrant glutamate neurotransmission, and in particular dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and represents a novel therapeutic target. Low-dose administration of the NMDA antagonist ketamine in healthy volunteers elicits a strong blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging signal that can be attenuated by pretreatment with single, therapeutically effective doses of marketed medicines interacting with the glutamate system.

Objective: To test the attenuation of the ketamine-induced BOLD signal by pretreatment with either a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 2/3 or a mGluR2 agonist in healthy volunteers METHODS: We used a ketamine challenge pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) paradigm to assess the modulatory effects of single acute doses of LY2140023 (pomaglumetad methionil), the methionine prodrug of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY404039 (10, 40, and 160 mg; N = 16 subjects) and of LY2979165, and the alanine prodrug of the selective orthosteric mGluR2 agonist 2812223 (20 and 60 mg; N = 16 subjects).

Results: A reduction in the ketamine-evoked BOLD phMRI signal relative to placebo was observed at the highest doses tested of both LY2140023 and LY2979165. A relationship was observed between reduction of the BOLD signal and increasing plasma levels of 2812223 in the LY2979165 cohort.

Conclusions: These results identify pharmacologically active doses of the group II mGluR agonist prodrugs LY2140023 and LY2979165 in humans. They also extend the classes of compounds that have been experimentally shown to reverse the ketamine-evoked phMRI signal in humans, further supporting the use of this method as a neuroimaging biomarker for assessing functional effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4877-9DOI Listing
July 2018

Evaluation of single and multiple doses of a novel mGlu2 agonist, a potential antipsychotic therapy, in healthy subjects.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2017 08 31;83(8):1654-1667. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, UK.

Aims: The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of single and multiple doses of a novel mGlu2 agonist were assessed in healthy males.

Methods: In two, Phase 1 investigator- and subject-blind, placebo-controlled studies, oral doses of prodrug LY2979165 were evaluated: single doses (20-150 mg, N = 30) and multiple once-daily (QD) doses (20-400 mg; N = 84), using a titration regimen. The plasma and urine PK of LY2979165 and active moiety, 2812223, were measured. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected to determine PK and neurotransmitter levels. Safety parameters were assessed throughout.

Results: Nausea and vomiting were dose limiting following single doses; dose titration allowed higher doses to be tested over 14 days. The most common adverse events related to LY2979165 were dizziness, vomiting, nausea, somnolence and headache. The plasma PK of 2812223 were approximately linear with minimal accumulation with QD dosing. Conversion of LY2979165 to 2812223 was extensive, with minimal LY2979165 measurable in plasma. There was no effect of food on the PK of LY2979165 and 2812223. After 60 mg LY2979165 single-dose, 2812223 exposure in CSF was approximately 2-6% and plasma exposure and peak concentrations were approximately four-fold higher than the mGlu2 agonist in vitro EC value. No consistent effects were observed on CSF neurotransmitter levels.

Conclusions: Oral doses of LY2979165 up to 60 mg as a single dose and up to 400 mg given as multiple QD doses, using a titration regimen, were well tolerated with linear PK. Overall, these data support further clinical evaluation of LY2979165.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5510079PMC
August 2017

Determining pharmacological selectivity of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist LY2456302 using pupillometry as a translational biomarker in rat and human.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2014 Oct 31;18(2). Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana (Drs Rorick-Kehn, Witcher, Lowe, Gonzales, Bell, Hard, Need, J. McKinzie, Statnick, Suico, D. McKinzie, Tauscher-Wisniewski, Mitch, and Wong); inVentiv Health Clinical, Ann Arbor, Michigan (Dr Weller); Covance Clinical Research Unit, Inc., Evansville, Indiana (Dr Stoltz).

Background: Selective kappa opioid receptor antagonism is a promising experimental strategy for the treatment of depression. The kappa opioid receptor antagonist, LY2456302, exhibits ~30-fold higher affinity for kappa opioid receptors over mu opioid receptors, which is the next closest identified pharmacology.

Methods: Here, we determined kappa opioid receptor pharmacological selectivity of LY2456302 by assessing mu opioid receptor antagonism using translational pupillometry in rats and humans.

Results: In rats, morphine-induced mydriasis was completely blocked by the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (3mg/kg, which produced 90% mu opioid receptor occupancy), while 100 and 300 mg/kg LY2456302 (which produced 56% and 87% mu opioid receptor occupancy, respectively) only partially blocked morphine-induced mydriasis. In humans, fentanyl-induced miosis was completely blocked by 50mg naltrexone, and LY2456302 dose-dependently blocked miosis at 25 and 60 mg (minimal-to-no blockade at 4-10mg).

Conclusions: We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of translational pupillometry in the context of receptor occupancy to identify a clinical dose of LY2456302 achieving maximal kappa opioid receptor occupancy without evidence of significant mu receptor antagonism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyu036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368892PMC
October 2014

Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic evaluation of single- and multiple-ascending doses of a novel kappa opioid receptor antagonist LY2456302 and drug interaction with ethanol in healthy subjects.

J Clin Pharmacol 2014 Sep 26;54(9):968-78. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

Lilly-NUS Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Accumulating evidence indicates that selective antagonism of kappa opioid receptors may provide therapeutic benefit in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. LY2456302 is a high-affinity, selective kappa opioid antagonist that demonstrates >30-fold functional selectivity over mu and delta opioid receptors. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of LY2456302 were investigated following single oral doses (2-60 mg), multiple oral doses (2, 10, and 35 mg), and when co-administered with ethanol. Plasma concentrations of LY2456302 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Safety analyses were conducted on all enrolled subjects. LY2456302 doses were well-tolerated with no clinically significant findings. No safety concerns were seen on co-administration with ethanol. No evidence for an interaction between LY2456302 and ethanol on cognitive-motor performance was detected. LY2456302 displayed rapid oral absorption and a terminal half-life of approximately 30-40 hours. Plasma exposure of LY2456302 increased proportionally with increasing doses and reached steady state after 6-8 days of once-daily dosing. Steady-state PK of LY2456302 were not affected by coadministration of a single dose of ethanol. No clinically important changes in maximum concentration (Cmax ) or AUC of ethanol (in the presence of LY2456302) were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.286DOI Listing
September 2014

Clinical outcomes from an open-label study of edivoxetine use in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2013 Apr;23(3):200-7

Lilly Research Laboratory, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes from an open label study of edivoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: This was a multi-cohort open-label study of edivoxetine consisting of a single-dose administration period (Part 1) and an open-label once daily (QD) dose long-term period (Part 2). Adolescents ages 12-17 years and children ages 6-11 years were enrolled in Part 1 and continued to Part 2 where they received 0.05 to 0.3 mg/kg edivoxetine QD for ≤12 months. Safety was assessed by adverse events, vital signs, weight, electrocardiograms, and laboratory tests. In Part 2, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Version IV-Parent Reported: Investigator Scored (ADHDRS-IV) and Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) scores were determined.

Results: Fifty-three patients enrolled in Part 1, and 49 continued to Part 2 with a mean exposure duration of 22 weeks. The 31 patients completing Part 2 then entered another long-term open-label study. One serious adverse event of mania was reported; all other treatment-emergent adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Nausea, decreased appetite, somnolence, increased blood pressure, and upper respiratory tract infection were most frequently reported (three events each). No clinically relevant changes were noted in the laboratory parameters. ADHDRS-IV total score, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscores, and CGI-ADHD-S scores were statistically significantly improved at endpoint compared with baseline.

Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that edivoxetine at doses ≤0.3 mg/kg/day is safe and may improve ADHD symptoms in pediatric patients. These results require confirmation in larger, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2012.0016DOI Listing
April 2013

Cortisol response to individualised graded insulin infusions: a reproducible biomarker for CNS compounds inhibiting HPA activation.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010 Dec;70(6):886-94

Department of Pharmacology, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Aim: To determine the potential of cortisol secretion, in response to a physiological stressor, as a biomarker for centrally active compounds targeting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis.

Methods: Cortisol response to hypoglycaemia was measured in 26 healthy males in two stages: firstly to derive an algorithm for individualized, graded insulin infusion rates to achieve defined hypoglycaemic targets over 3 h and secondly to determine the inter- and intra-subject variability of cortisol response to hypoglycaemia over two identical periods by measuring the maximum (t(max) ), time to maximum (C(max) ) response and cortisol area under the response curve (AUC).

Results: Hypoglycaemia induced a consistent cortisol response starting at approximately 1 h, corresponding to blood glucose concentrations of approximately 3.3 mmol l⁻¹, and peaking approximately 3 h after the start of infusion. The inter- and intra-subject coefficients of variation (CVs) of cortisol response were approximately 19 and 19% (AUC), 15 and 19 % (C(max) ) and 10 and 14% (t(max) ), respectively. The intra-subject CVs for the ratio of maximum cortisol response to baseline concentration and rate of initial cortisol response between study days were more variable (32.8% and 59.0%, respectively). The blood glucose-cortisol response model derived from the study was predictive of the individual observed cortisol responses, and estimated a blood glucose EC(50) associated with onset of the cortisol response of 3.3 mmol l⁻¹.

Conclusions: Gradual hypoglycaemia is an effective, reproducible and well-tolerated method of stimulating a cortisol response and may therefore be useful in assessing the neuroendocrine response to HPA axis inhibitors, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone-1 (CRH-1) antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03781.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3014072PMC
December 2010

N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a novel metabotropic glutamate 2 potentiator with potential anxiolytic/antidepressant properties: in vivo profiling suggests a link between behavioral and central nervous system neurochemical changes.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011 Jan 14;336(1):165-77. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Neuroscience Discovery Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, DC0510, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

The normalization of excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission through the activation of metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors may have therapeutic potential in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety/depression and schizophrenia. Here, we characterize the pharmacological properties of N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a structurally novel, potent, and selective allosteric potentiator of human and rat mGlu2 receptors (EC(50) = 23 and 13 nM, respectively). THIIC produced anxiolytic-like efficacy in the rat stress-induced hyperthermia assay and the mouse stress-induced elevation of cerebellar cGMP and marble-burying assays. THIIC also produced robust activity in three assays that detect antidepressant-like activity, including the mouse forced-swim test, the rat differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s assay, and the rat dominant-submissive test, with a maximal response similar to that of imipramine. Effects of THIIC in the forced-swim test and marble burying were deleted in mGlu2 receptor null mice. Analysis of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that THIIC had a sleep-promoting profile with increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) and decreased REM sleep. THIIC also decreased the dark phase increase in extracellular histamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and decreased levels of the histamine metabolite tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA) in rat cerebrospinal fluid. Collectively, these results indicate that the novel mGlu2-positive allosteric modulator THIIC has robust activity in models used to predict anxiolytic/antidepressant efficacy, substantiating, at least with this molecule, differentiation in the biological impact of mGlu2 potentiation versus mGlu2/3 orthosteric agonism. In addition, we provide evidence that sleep EEG and CSF t-MeHA might function as viable biomarker approaches to facilitate the translational development of THIIC and other mGlu2 potentiators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.172957DOI Listing
January 2011

N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a novel metabotropic glutamate 2 potentiator with potential anxiolytic/antidepressant properties: in vivo profiling suggests a link between behavioral and central nervous system neurochemical changes.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011 Jan 14;336(1):165-77. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Neuroscience Discovery Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, DC0510, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

The normalization of excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission through the activation of metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors may have therapeutic potential in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety/depression and schizophrenia. Here, we characterize the pharmacological properties of N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a structurally novel, potent, and selective allosteric potentiator of human and rat mGlu2 receptors (EC(50) = 23 and 13 nM, respectively). THIIC produced anxiolytic-like efficacy in the rat stress-induced hyperthermia assay and the mouse stress-induced elevation of cerebellar cGMP and marble-burying assays. THIIC also produced robust activity in three assays that detect antidepressant-like activity, including the mouse forced-swim test, the rat differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s assay, and the rat dominant-submissive test, with a maximal response similar to that of imipramine. Effects of THIIC in the forced-swim test and marble burying were deleted in mGlu2 receptor null mice. Analysis of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that THIIC had a sleep-promoting profile with increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) and decreased REM sleep. THIIC also decreased the dark phase increase in extracellular histamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and decreased levels of the histamine metabolite tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA) in rat cerebrospinal fluid. Collectively, these results indicate that the novel mGlu2-positive allosteric modulator THIIC has robust activity in models used to predict anxiolytic/antidepressant efficacy, substantiating, at least with this molecule, differentiation in the biological impact of mGlu2 potentiation versus mGlu2/3 orthosteric agonism. In addition, we provide evidence that sleep EEG and CSF t-MeHA might function as viable biomarker approaches to facilitate the translational development of THIIC and other mGlu2 potentiators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.172957DOI Listing
January 2011

N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a novel metabotropic glutamate 2 potentiator with potential anxiolytic/antidepressant properties: in vivo profiling suggests a link between behavioral and central nervous system neurochemical changes.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011 Jan 14;336(1):165-77. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Neuroscience Discovery Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, DC0510, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

The normalization of excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission through the activation of metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors may have therapeutic potential in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety/depression and schizophrenia. Here, we characterize the pharmacological properties of N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a structurally novel, potent, and selective allosteric potentiator of human and rat mGlu2 receptors (EC(50) = 23 and 13 nM, respectively). THIIC produced anxiolytic-like efficacy in the rat stress-induced hyperthermia assay and the mouse stress-induced elevation of cerebellar cGMP and marble-burying assays. THIIC also produced robust activity in three assays that detect antidepressant-like activity, including the mouse forced-swim test, the rat differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s assay, and the rat dominant-submissive test, with a maximal response similar to that of imipramine. Effects of THIIC in the forced-swim test and marble burying were deleted in mGlu2 receptor null mice. Analysis of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that THIIC had a sleep-promoting profile with increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) and decreased REM sleep. THIIC also decreased the dark phase increase in extracellular histamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and decreased levels of the histamine metabolite tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA) in rat cerebrospinal fluid. Collectively, these results indicate that the novel mGlu2-positive allosteric modulator THIIC has robust activity in models used to predict anxiolytic/antidepressant efficacy, substantiating, at least with this molecule, differentiation in the biological impact of mGlu2 potentiation versus mGlu2/3 orthosteric agonism. In addition, we provide evidence that sleep EEG and CSF t-MeHA might function as viable biomarker approaches to facilitate the translational development of THIIC and other mGlu2 potentiators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.172957DOI Listing
January 2011

Meta-analysis of aggression and/or hostility-related events in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine compared with placebo.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2007 Oct;17(5):713-8

Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

This meta-analysis assessed aggression and/or hostility-related events in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine (n = 376) compared with placebo (n = 255). Aggression and/or hostility-related events were identified in 2.1% of fluoxetine versus 3.1% of placebo-treated patients (p = 0.588). This analysis fails to support an association between fluoxetine treatment and increased risk of aggression and/or hostility-related events in children and adolescents compared with placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2006.0138DOI Listing
October 2007

Meta-analysis of aggression and/or hostility-related events in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine compared with placebo.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2007 Oct;17(5):713-8

Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

This meta-analysis assessed aggression and/or hostility-related events in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine (n = 376) compared with placebo (n = 255). Aggression and/or hostility-related events were identified in 2.1% of fluoxetine versus 3.1% of placebo-treated patients (p = 0.588). This analysis fails to support an association between fluoxetine treatment and increased risk of aggression and/or hostility-related events in children and adolescents compared with placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2006.0138DOI Listing
October 2007

Meta-analysis of aggression or hostility events in randomized, controlled clinical trials of atomoxetine for ADHD.

Biol Psychiatry 2007 Mar 25;61(5):713-9. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.

Background: We systematically examined potential aggression/hostility-related events in a meta-analysis of acute clinical trials of atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: Pediatric patients from 14 trials of atomoxetine were subdivided into a placebo-controlled (atomoxetine n = 1308, placebo n = 806) or active comparator databases (atomoxetine n = 566, methylphenidate n = 472). A third database comprised adult patients from placebo-controlled studies (atomoxetine n = 541, placebo n = 405). A computerized search of adverse events and comments identified patients with potential aggression/hostility events. Mantel-Haenszel incidence differences (MHID) were calculated.

Results: In the placebo-controlled database, we observed 21 atomoxetine and 9 placebo patients with reported aggression/hostility events, MHID of .6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -.4, 1.7). In the active comparator database, there were seven events in atomoxetine and four in methylphenidate patients, MHID = .2% (95% CI: -1.0,1.3). In the adult database, there were no events in 0 atomoxetine and one placebo patient, MHID = -.3% (95% CI: -.8, .2).

Conclusions: Aggression/hostility-related events occurred in less than 2% of patients and were more frequent in pediatric patients treated with atomoxetine versus placebo (risk ratio of 1.33; not statistically significant). The risk of aggression/hostility events was similar in patients treated with atomoxetine or methylphenidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.05.044DOI Listing
March 2007

Volumetric MRI measurement of caudate nuclei in antipsychotic-naive patients suffering from a first episode of psychosis.

J Psychiatr Res 2005 Jul 23;39(4):365-70. Epub 2004 Nov 23.

Department of Neuropsychiatry for Children and Adolescents, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies measuring basal ganglia volumes in first episode patients suggest that treatment with typical neuroleptics leads to alteration in these brain structures. However, caudate nuclei volumes (CNV) of untreated first-episode patients may even be smaller than in healthy controls. We investigated whether CNV of newly diagnosed neuroleptic-naive psychotic patients differ as compared to an age- and sex-matched healthy control group to detect possible treatment effects early in the course of this illness. Magnetic resonance images were acquired in 37 un-medicated psychotic patients and 37 healthy controls. Ten of the patients were re-examined after 12 weeks of treatment with the second generation antipsychotic quetiapine. Regions of interest (ROI) delineating the caudate nuclei bilaterally were drawn manually using Brain Image software. The neuroleptic-naive patients showed a mean CNV of 8.40 cc (SD=1.01) and the controls of 8.55 cc (SD=1.16). There was no significant difference between groups (F=.600; P=.441). In contrast to previous studies in patients treated with typical neuroleptics, this cross-sectional MRI study did not find significant differences in CNV of neuroleptic-naive first-episode patients compared to healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2004.10.001DOI Listing
July 2005

Quetiapine: an effective antipsychotic in first-episode schizophrenia despite only transiently high dopamine-2 receptor blockade.

J Clin Psychiatry 2002 Nov;63(11):992-7

Schizophrenia and Continuing Care Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: It has been suggested that transiently high dopamine-2 (D(2)) receptor occupancy by antipsychotic medication may be sufficient for inducing an antipsychotic response. We treated patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia with a single daily dose of quetiapine to achieve a transient daily peak of D(2) receptor blockade, to determine if this would lead to an antipsychotic response.

Method: Fourteen patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder were treated with quetiapine titrated to a single daily dose (mean +/- SD dose at the time of the positron emission tomography [PET] scan = 427 +/- 69 mg) for 12 weeks. Peak D(2) occupancy approximately 2 hours postdose and trough D(2) occupancy approximately 20 hours postdose were determined using PET and [(11)C]raclopride. Clinical symptoms and side effects were measured at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment phase.

Results: Quetiapine administration led to a mean peak D(2) occupancy of 62% +/- 10% 2 hours postdose, which declined to 14% +/- 8% approximately 20 hours postdose. Ten (71%) of 14 patients responded to treatment with quetiapine, scoring "much improved" or greater on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale. Plasma drug levels and peak D(2) occupancy were highly correlated (r = 0.84; p =.003), as were prolactin and plasma drug levels when measured 2.5 hours after drug administration (r = 0.60; p <.05). Mean weight gain for the 10 subjects who completed the 12-week study was 4.2 +/- 4.6 kg (9.3 +/- 10.2 lb). No clinically relevant motor side effects occurred during the trial.

Conclusion: Patients with a first episode of schizophrenia responded to treatment with a single daily dose of quetiapine despite only transiently high D(2) receptor occupancy. Our findings raise the question of whether continuously high D(2) blockade is necessary for obtaining an antipsychotic response. Future studies aimed at evaluating the relative merits of "transiently high" versus "continuously high" D(2) occupancy are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/jcp.v63n1106DOI Listing
November 2002

Caudate volume changes in first episode psychosis parallel the effects of normal aging: a 5-year follow-up study.

Schizophr Res 2002 Dec;58(2-3):185-8

Schizophrenia and Continuing Care Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.

We investigated whether the caudate nuclei volume (CNV) of 15 first episode psychosis patients increased after 5 years of treatment with either atypical antipsychotics or low doses of typical antipsychotics. Caudate volumes were measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 15 patients and 10 healthy controls. Both groups demonstrated a significant 9% decline in caudate volume. We were unable to replicate previous reports of caudate enlargement in patients receiving antipsychotic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(01)00406-6DOI Listing
December 2002

Striatal dopamine-2 receptor occupancy as measured with [123I]iodobenzamide and SPECT predicted the occurrence of EPS in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002 Jun 16;162(1):42-9. Epub 2002 May 16.

Department of General Psychiatry, University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Rationale: Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) are common with conventional antipsychotics. Clozapine and other novel antipsychotic substances with lower in vitro affinity for dopamine-2 (D(2)) receptors have a lower propensity to induce EPS.

Objective: We investigated whether striatal D(2) receptor occupancy predicted the occurrence of EPS with atypical antipsychotics and the typical neuroleptic haloperidol.

Methods: [(123)I]Iodobenzamide (IBZM) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) were used to quantify receptor occupancy in 71 patients treated with antipsychotics. EPS were rated according to the Simpson-Angus scale (SAS). EPS were deemed clinically relevant, if the SAS score was > or = 5 and/or anticholinergic medication was required. Patients received atypical antipsychotic monotherapy for at least 14 days with amisulpride ( n=2), clozapine ( n=6), haloperidol ( n=10), olanzapine ( n=6), quetiapine ( n=4), risperidone ( n=14), sertindole ( n=13), or zotepine ( n=16).

Results: The striatal D(2) receptor occupancy ranged from < 20% to almost saturation. The lowest occupancy was seen with quetiapine and clozapine, the highest with haloperidol. Twenty-two of 71 patients (29%) experienced clinically relevant EPS. These patients displayed significantly higher mean striatal D(2) receptor occupancy (77%) than those without EPS (61%; P=0.002). We found a positive correlation between the percentage of striatal D(2) receptor occupancy and the SAS score ( r=0.28; P=0.02), despite 18 of these patients receiving anticholinergics, thus lowering their SAS score.

Conclusions: Striatal D(2) receptor occupancy as measured with [(123)I]IBZM and SPECT predicted the occurrence of EPS in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol. In vivo imaging of brain receptors with SPECT may provide a useful clinical tool to titrate doses individually and avoid motor side effects in patients treated with novel antipsychotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-002-1082-6DOI Listing
June 2002

Brain serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in schizophrenia measured by positron emission tomography and [11C]WAY-100635.

Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002 Jun;59(6):514-20

PET Centre, Toronto, Ontario.

Background: Results of postmortem studies show an elevation in serotonin-1A (5-hydroxytryptamine-1A [5-HT(1A)]) receptor density in the prefrontal and temporal cortices of patients with schizophrenia. This study examined 5-HT(1A) receptors in vivo in patients with schizophrenia using positron emission tomography and [carbonyl-(11)C]-N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexane carboxamide ([(11)C]WAY-100635).

Methods: The 5-HT(1A) binding potential of 14 antipsychotic drug-naïve patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia was compared with that of 14 age-matched healthy controls. Positron emission tomography data were analyzed using 9 cortical regions of interest, which were delineated on a coregistered magnetic resonance image and transferred to the positron emission tomographic image, with the cerebellum as the reference region for a simplified reference tissue model. We also performed a voxel-wise comparison using statistical parametric mapping.

Results: The region of interest-based analysis revealed a significant mean +/- SD cortical 5-HT(1A) receptor binding potential increase of 7.1% +/- 6.4% in patients with schizophrenia (F = 2.975; P =.02); local differences were +20% in the left medial temporal cortex (F = 9.339;P =.005) and +13% in the right medio temporal cortex (F = 4.453; P =.045). There were no significant differences in regional tracer delivery or cerebellar [(11)C]WAY-100635 uptake. The voxel-based analysis also confirmed a group difference in the left medial temporal cortex.

Conclusions: The biological significance of elevated 5-HT(1A) receptor density in schizophrenia remains unclear. Given the location of 5-HT(1A) receptors on pyramidal cells, this elevation may reflect an abnormal glutamatergic network. Our finding needs to be viewed in light of preclinical evidence supporting a role for 5-HT(1A) receptors in mediating antipsychotic action and extrapyramidal adverse effects of drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.6.514DOI Listing
June 2002
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