Publications by authors named "Siti Safiah Mokhtar"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vitamin D deficiency attenuates endothelial function by reducing antioxidant activity and vascular eNOS expression in the rat microcirculation.

Microvasc Res 2021 Jul 26:104227. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (Health Campus), 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This study examined the effects of vitamin D deficiency on vascular function and tissue oxidative status in the microcirculation; and whether or not these effects can be ameliorated with calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite. Three groups (n = 10 each) of male Sprague Dawley rats were fed for 10 weeks with control diet (CR), vitamin D-deficient diet without (DR), or with oral calcitriol supplementation (0.15 μg/kg) for the last four weeks (DSR). After 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed; mesenteric arterial rings were studied using wire myograph. Oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured in the mesenteric arterial tissue. Vascular protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was determined by Western blotting. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of DR was lower than CR. eNOS expression and SOD activity were lower in mesenteric arterial tissue of DR compared to CR. Calcitriol supplementation to DSR did not ameliorate the above parameters; in fact, augmented endothelium-dependent contraction was observed. Serum calcium was higher in DSR compared to CR and DR. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency impaired microvascular vasodilation, associated with eNOS downregulation and reduced antioxidant activity. Calcitriol supplementation to vitamin D-deficient rats at the dosage used augmented endothelium-dependent contraction, possibly due to hypercalcaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2021.104227DOI Listing
July 2021

Current Status of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Type II Diabetes.

Molecules 2021 Jul 19;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a multifunctional role in lipid biosynthesis, calcium storage, protein folding, and processing. Thus, maintaining ER homeostasis is essential for cellular functions. Several pathophysiological conditions and pharmacological agents are known to disrupt ER homeostasis, thereby, causing ER stress. The cells react to ER stress by initiating an adaptive signaling process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the ER initiates death signaling pathways when ER stress persists. ER stress is linked to several diseases, such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Thus, its regulation can provide possible therapeutic targets for these. Current evidence suggests that chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia linked to type II diabetes disrupt ER homeostasis, thereby, resulting in irreversible UPR activation and cell death. Despite progress in understanding the pathophysiology of the UPR and ER stress, to date, the mechanisms of ER stress in relation to type II diabetes remain unclear. This review provides up-to-date information regarding the UPR, ER stress mechanisms, insulin dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the therapeutic potential of targeting specific ER stress pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307902PMC
July 2021

Potential Roles of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cellular Proteins Implicated in Diabesity.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 27;2021:8830880. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has evolved from protein synthesis, processing, and other secretory pathways to forming a foundation for lipid biosynthesis and other metabolic functions. Maintaining ER homeostasis is essential for normal cellular function and survival. An imbalance in the ER implied stressful conditions such as metabolic distress, which activates a protective process called unfolded protein response (UPR). This response is activated through some canonical branches of ER stress, i.e., the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Therefore, chronic hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased proinflammatory cytokines, and free fatty acids (FFAs) found in diabesity (a pathophysiological link between obesity and diabetes) could lead to ER stress. However, limited data exist regarding ER stress and its association with diabesity, particularly the implicated proteins and molecular mechanisms. Thus, this review highlights the role of ER stress in relation to some proteins involved in diabesity pathogenesis and provides insight into possible pathways that could serve as novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8830880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099518PMC
April 2021

Calcitriol Supplementation Ameliorates Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Vitamin D-Deficient Diabetic Rats by Upregulating the Vascular eNOS Protein Expression and Reducing Oxidative Stress.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 2;2021:3109294. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Diabetes mellitus contributes to macro- and microvascular complications, leading to adverse cardiovascular events. This study examined the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the vascular function and tissue oxidative status in the microcirculation of diabetic rats and to determine whether these effects can be reversed with calcitriol (active vitamin D metabolite) supplementation. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed for 10 weeks with control diet (DC) or vitamin D-deficient diet without (DD) or with oral calcitriol supplementation (0.15 g/kg) in the last four weeks (DDS) (10 rats each group). A nondiabetic rat group that received control diet was also included (NR). After 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed; mesenteric arterial rings with and without endothelium were studied using wire myograph. Western blotting of the mesenteric arterial tissue was performed to determine the protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the mesenteric arterial tissue were also measured. The DC group had significantly lower acetylcholine-induced relaxation and augmented endothelium-dependent contraction, with reduced eNOS expression, compared to NR rats. In mesenteric arteries of DD, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside-induced endothelium-independent relaxations were lower than those in DC. Calcitriol supplementation in DDS restored endothelium-dependent relaxation. Mesenteric artery endothelium-dependent contraction of DD was greater than DC; it was not affected by calcitriol supplementation. The eNOS protein expression and SOD activity were significantly lower while MDA levels were greater in DD compared to DC; these effects were not observed in DDS that received calcitriol supplementation. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency causes eNOS downregulation and oxidative stress, thereby impairing the vascular function and posing an additional risk for microvascular complications in diabetes. Calcitriol supplementation to diabetics with vitamin D deficiency could potentially be useful in the management of or as an adjunct to diabetes-related cardiovascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3109294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875614PMC
February 2021

Model for type 2 diabetes exhibits changes in vascular function and structure due to vascular oxidative stress and inflammation.

Biotech Histochem 2020 Sep 22:1-9. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

We used a type 2 diabetes rat model produced by a high fat diet (HFD) followed by low dose streptozotocin (STZ) to study diabetic vasculopathy. Animals were evaluated for early vascular structural changes, endothelial function, inflammation, lipid profile and oxidative stress. We used 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided equally into control and diabetic groups. Diabetic rats were fed an HFD for 4 weeks, injected intraperitoneally with STZ, then sacrificed at week 15. Aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), aortic superoxide dismutase (SOD), endothelial-dependent and independent relaxation and contraction, intima-media thickness (IMT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured. Histopathological characteristics also were assessed. Diabetic rats exhibited higher fasting blood glucose (FBG), low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglycerides compared to the control group. Aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation due to acetylcholine (ACh) was lower, while aortic endothelium-dependent contraction due to calcium ionophore and endothelium-independent contraction due to phenylephrine (PE) were higher for the diabetic group. eNOS expression was lower in the diabetic group compared to controls. IMT and MDA levels were increased, while SOD activity was decreased in the diabetic group compared to controls. TNF-α was higher in the diabetic group than for controls. Our type 2 diabetes model exhibited endothelial dysfunction associated with early vascular structural changes, dyslipidemia, increased vascular oxidative stress, and inflammation. Therefore, the model is suitable for studying diabetic atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2020.1823480DOI Listing
September 2020

Leaves Extract Reverts Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Rats by Improving Protein Expression of eNOS.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 14;2020:7572892. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Diabetes mellitus is associated with endothelial dysfunction; it causes progressive vascular damage resulting from an impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. In the diabetes state, presence of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance predisposes to endothelial dysfunction. , widely used as a traditional medicine for diabetes is reported to have hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the possibility of affecting the vascular endothelial function in diabetes remains unclear. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of methanolic leaves extract (CNME) on endothelial function in a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) rat model. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups ( = 12 per group): nondiabetic control, nondiabetic treated with four weeks of CNME (500 mg/kg/daily), untreated diabetic rats, diabetic treated with metformin (300 mg/kg/daily), and diabetic treated with CNME (500 mg/kg/daily). T2DM was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) to rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent relaxations and contractions of the thoracic aorta were determined using the organ bath. Aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was determined using Western blotting. Endothelial-dependent relaxation was reduced in diabetic rats. Both diabetic groups treated with CNME or metformin significantly improved the impairment in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation; this was associated with increased expression of aortic eNOS protein. CNME- and metformin-treated groups also reduced aortic endothelium-dependent and aortic endothelium-independent contractions in diabetics. Both of these diabetic-treated groups also reduced blood glucose levels and increased body weight compared to the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, improves endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and reduces endothelial-dependent contraction, thus ameliorating endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats. This may occur due to its effect on increasing eNOS protein expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7572892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448219PMC
May 2021

Vitamin D status and oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 May 30;64(7):60-69. Epub 2018 May 30.

Pharmacology Vascular Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (Health Campus), 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic that is gaining global concern. Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes induces the excess production of free radicals. The deleterious effects of excess free radicals are encountered by endogenous antioxidant defense system. Imbalance between free radicals production and antioxidants defense mechanisms leads to a condition known as "oxidative stress". Diabetes mellitus is associated with augmented oxidative stress that induced micro- and macrovascular complications, which presents a significant risk for cardiovascular events. Low vitamin D levels in the body have also been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes and enhanced oxidative stress. The article is to review available literature and summarize the relationship between oxidative stress and vitamin D levels in diabetes. We also review the effects of vitamin D analogs supplementation in improving oxidative stress in diabetics.
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May 2018

Reduced nitric oxide-mediated relaxation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the tail arteries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Feb 26;773:78-84. Epub 2016 Jan 26.

Pharmacology Vascular Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Diabetes is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations. The present study aimed to examine the role of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH), in the relaxation of ventral tail arteries of rats under diabetic conditions. Relaxations of tail arteries of control and diabetic rats were studied in wire myograph. Western blotting and immunostaining were used to determine the presence of proteins. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations were significantly smaller in arteries of diabetic compared to control rats (Rmax; 70.81 ± 2.48% versus 85.05 ± 3.15%). Incubation with the combination of non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin and potassium channel blockers, TRAM 34 and UCL 1684, demonstrated that NO-mediated relaxation was attenuated significantly in diabetic compared to control rats (Rmax; 48.47 ± 5.84% versus 68.39 ± 6.34%). EDH-type (in the presence of indomethacin and NO synthase inhibitor, LNAME) and prostacyclin-mediated (in the presence of LNAME plus TRAM 34 and UCL 1684) relaxations were not significantly reduced in arteries of diabetic compared to control rats [Rmax: (EDH; 17.81 ± 6.74% versus 34.16 ± 4.59%) (prostacyclin; 15.85 ± 3.27% versus 17.23 ± 3.75%)]. Endothelium-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside, salbutamol and prostacyclin were comparable in the two types of preparations. Western blotting and immunostaining indicated that diabetes diminished the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), while increasing those of COX-1 and COX-2. Thus, since acetylcholine-induced NO-mediated relaxation was impaired in diabetes because of reduced eNOS protein expression, pharmacological intervention improving NO bioavailability could be useful in the management of diabetic endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.01.013DOI Listing
February 2016

Endothelium dependent hyperpolarization-type relaxation compensates for attenuated nitric oxide-mediated responses in subcutaneous arteries of diabetic patients.

Nitric Oxide 2016 Feb 6;53:35-44. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Pharmacology Vascular Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Diabetes impairs endothelium-dependent relaxations. The present study evaluated the contribution of different endothelium-dependent relaxing mechanisms to the regulation of vascular tone in subcutaneous blood vessels of humans with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subcutaneous arteries were isolated from tissues of healthy controls and diabetics. Vascular function was determined using wire myography. Expressions of proteins were measured by Western blotting and immunostaining. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were impaired in arteries from diabetics compared to controls (P = 0.009). Acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxations [in the presence of an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COX; indomethacin) and small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers (UCL1684 and TRAM 34, respectively)] were attenuated in arteries from diabetics compared to controls (P < 0.001). However, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-type relaxations [in the presence of indomethacin and the NO synthase blocker, l-NAME] were augmented in arteries from diabetics compared to controls (P = 0.003). Endothelium-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside (NO donor) and salbutamol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) were preserved, but those to prostacyclin were attenuated in diabetics compared to controls (P = 0.017). In arteries of diabetics, protein expressions of endothelial NO synthase, prostacyclin synthase and prostacyclin receptors were decreased, but those of COX-2 were increased. These findings suggest that in human diabetes, the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations is caused by a diminished NO bioavailability; however, EDH appears to compensate, at least in part, for this dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2015.12.007DOI Listing
February 2016

Role of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarisation and prostacyclin in diabetes.

Malays J Med Sci 2015 Mar-Apr;22(2):8-17

Pharmacology Vascular Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

The endothelium plays a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by producing several vasodilating factors, including nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarisation (EDH); however, the balance between endothelial relaxing and contracting factors is disrupted in disease states such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Most reported studies of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes focused on the actions of NO; however, there is accumulating evidence demonstrating that in addition to NO, PGI2 and EDH are likely to contribute to the vasodilatation of blood vessels. EDH plays an important role as a regulator of vascular tone and reactivity in resistance and conduit arteries of animal models and humans. PGI2 only plays a minimal role in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation but may serve as an important compensatory mechanism in conditions in which NO and EDH activities are decreased. Further studies are needed to determine the exact roles of EDH and PGI2 in the development of endothelial dysfunction and clinical vasculopathy in humans with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438087PMC
May 2015

Reduced expression of prostacyclin synthase and nitric oxide synthase in subcutaneous arteries of type 2 diabetic patients.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2013 11;231(3):217-22

Pharmacology Vascular Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus.

Diabetic endothelial dysfunction is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. In this study, we measured the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostacyclin synthase (PGIS), and prostacyclin receptor (IP) in subcutaneous arteries of type-2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Subcutaneous arteries were dissected from tissues from seven diabetics (4 males and 3 females) and seven non-diabetics (5 males and 2 females) aged between 18 to 65 years, who underwent lower limb surgical procedures. Diabetics had higher fasting blood glucose compared to non-diabetics, but there were no differences in blood pressure, body mass index and age. Patients were excluded if they had uncontrolled hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, renal or hepatic failure and tumor. The relative expression levels of eNOS, COX-1, COX-2, PGIS and IP receptor were determined by Western blotting analysis, normalized with the β-actin level. Increased expression of COX-2 was observed in subcutaneous arteries of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, whereas the expression levels of eNOS and PGIS were significantly lower in diabetics. There were no significant differences in expression levels of COX-1 and IP receptor between the two groups. Immunohistochemical study of subcutaneous arteries showed that the intensities of eNOS and PGIS staining were lower in diabetics, with higher COX-2 staining. In conclusion, type-2 diabetes is associated with higher COX-2 expression, but lower eNOS and PGIS expression in subcutaneous arteries. These alterations may lead to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and thus these proteins may be potential targets for protection against the microvascular complications of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.231.217DOI Listing
November 2013
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