Publications by authors named "Siti Hawa Ali"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Psychometric evaluation of a newly developed Elderly-Constipation Impact Scale.

PeerJ 2020 3;8:e8581. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Malaysia.

Background: Chronic constipation is a common symptom among the elderly, and it may affect their quality of life (QoL). A lack of available research focused on the elderly means that this effect is not well understood. This study aimed to develop and validate a new scale (Elderly-Constipation Impact Scale (E-CIS)) to measure the impact of chronic constipation on QoL among the elderly.

Methods: A pool of items was generated from a qualitative study, literature reviews, and expert reviews. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the original 40 items of the E-CIS and followed by 27 items for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A total of 470 elderly people with chronic constipation were involved.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.64 ± 6.57. Finally, only 22 items were indicated as appropriately representing the E-CIS, which were grouped into seven subscales: 'daily activities', 'treatment satisfaction', 'lack of control of bodily function', 'diet restriction', 'symptom intensity', 'anxiety' and 'preventive actions'. The scale was confirmed as valid (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.961, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.952 and chi-square/degree of freedom (chiSq/df) = 1.44) and reliable (Cronbach's alpha: 0.66-0.85, composite reliability (CR) = 0.699-0.851) to assess the impact of chronic constipation on the elderly's QoL.

Conclusions: The E-CIS is useful to measure the impact of chronic constipation on the elderly's QoL. A further test is needed to determine the validity and reliability of this scale in other elderly population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059755PMC
March 2020

Oral health and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy in northeastern peninsular Malaysia.

Spec Care Dentist 2020 Jan 27;40(1):62-70. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Cerebral Palsy Research Cluster, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Aims: To investigate the oral health and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy (CP).

Methods And Results: Oral health assessment included dental caries and dental plaque maturity scores (DPMS) while the nutritional assessment included children's height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), body mass index-for-age Z-score (BAZ), mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), nutrient intake, cariogenic food frequency (CFF) and daily sugar exposure (DSE). Ninety-three CP children were recruited. The prevalence of caries was 81.7% (95% CI: 72.7%-88.3%). The median (IQR) of the DMFT and dft scores were 0.5(4.0) and 3.0(8.0), respectively. Most of the participants had acid-producing plaque (90.3%), severely stunted (81.4%), and 45% were severely thin with acute malnutrition. Intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin D and total fat were below 77% of the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysian children (RNI 2017). Nine types of cariogenic foods/drinks were consumed moderately, and DSE indicated that 45% of the children were at moderate risk of dental caries.

Conclusion: Untreated dental caries, severe stunting and thinness were prevalent, and cariogenic foods/drinks were consumed moderately suggesting a moderate risk of caries. Therefore, controlling cariogenic food intake is crucial, but monitoring daily nutrient intake is needed for the optimum growth of children with CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scd.12436DOI Listing
January 2020

In-depth examination of issues surrounding the reasons for child marriage in Kelantan, Malaysia: a qualitative study.

BMJ Open 2019 09 3;9(9):e027377. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Health Informatics, School of Public Health in the Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Objective: To examine individual, familial, community and societal issues surrounding the reasons for child marriage in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Design: Qualitative study by means of semistructured interviews with women and key informants, using social-ecological model as a conceptual framework.

Setting: Interviews were conducted in Kota Bharu district, Kelantan, a northeast state in Peninsular Malaysia.

Participants: Eighteen women of reproductive age (18 to 44 years old) that experienced their first marriage below the age of 18, as well as five key informants, consisting of a government officer, a community leader, an officer from religious department and two mothers. The women were recruited from a reproductive health clinic. The key informants who had specialised knowledge related to child marriage were selectively chosen.

Results: Three themes emerged that aligned with the social-ecological model: immaturity in decision-making, family poverty and religious and cultural norms.

Conclusions: The findings imply that sex education and awareness-building activities regarding the consequences of child marriage must be implemented to eradicate child marriage in Malaysia. Such implementation must be coordinated as a team-based approach involving experts in such fields as law, religion, psychology, social-welfare and public health. In order to increase the awareness of child marriage consequences, the target for awareness must extend not only to the adolescent girls and their families, but also to the community and society at large by clearly communicating the negative consequences of and addressing the drivers for child marriage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731912PMC
September 2019

HIV-related characteristics among female partners of injecting drug users in Kelantan, Malaysia: a descriptive study.

AIDS Care 2015 4;27(3):301-6. Epub 2014 Dec 4.

a Women's Health Development Unit , Universiti Sains Malaysia , Kubang Kerian , Malaysia.

Kelantan, a northeastern state in Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the states that has been acutely hit by injecting drug user (IDU)-driven HIV epidemic, in addition to having a high number of infected women in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk factors, risk perception, and adoption of preventive behaviors among female partners of IDUs in Kelantan. Out of 101 women, the majority of them are from low socioeconomic background and have no other risk factors besides heterosexual HIV transmission from their male IDU partners. Although 45.5% have not been tested for HIV and more than half (53.5%) of them did not use condoms during sexual intercourse, only 44.6% of the women perceived themselves to be at risk of being infected with HIV. Most of the women (86.1%) were willing to undergo voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Female partners of IDUs continue to be vulnerable to HIV due to having sexual contact with IDUs, and also due to their socioeconomic position in the community. To prevent HIV transmission among female partners of IDUs, consolidating HIV prevention efforts from multiple approaches is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2014.985182DOI Listing
July 2015

Validity and reliability of the Malay version of WHO Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire.

J Interpers Violence 2013 Aug 18;28(12):2557-80. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

The Women's Health and Life Experiences questionnaire measures the prevalence, health implications, and risk factors for domestic violence. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of World Health Organization (WHO) Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire. Construct validity and reliability assessment of the Malay version of the questionnaire was done on 20 specific items that measure four types of intimate partner violence (IPV) act; controlling behaviors (CB), emotional violence (EV), physical violence (PV), and sexual violence (SV), which were considered as the domains of interest. Face-to-face interviewing method was used for data collection. A total of 922 women completed the interviews. The results showed that exploratory factor analysis of four factors with eigenvalues above 1 accounted for 63.83% of the variance. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that all items loaded above 0.40 and the majority of items loaded on factors that were generally consistent with the proposed construct. The internal consistency reliability was good. The Cronbach's α values ranged from 0.767 to 0.858 across domains. The Malay version of WHO Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure of women's health and experiences of IPV in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260513479029DOI Listing
August 2013

"I feel it is not enough…" Health providers' perspectives on services for victims of intimate partner violence in Malaysia.

BMC Health Serv Res 2013 Feb 18;13:65. Epub 2013 Feb 18.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: This study explores the views and attitudes of health providers in Malaysia towards intimate partner violence (IPV) and abused women and considers whether and how their views affect the provision or quality of services. The impact of provider attitudes on the provision of services for women experiencing violence is particularly important to understand since there is a need to ensure that these women are not re-victimised by the health sector, but are treated sensitively.

Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 54 health care providers responsible for providing services to survivors of IPV and working in health care facilities in two Northern States in Malaysia. A thematic framework analysis method was employed to analyse the emerging themes. Interviews were coded and managed by using NVIVO (N7), a qualitative software package.

Results: We found that when providers follow the traditional role of treating and solving IPV as "medical problem", they tend to focus on the physical aspect of the injury, minimise the underlying cause of the problem and ignore emotional care for patients. Providers frequently felt under-trained and poorly supported in their role to help women beyond merely treating their physical injuries. What emerged from the findings is that time shortages may well impact on the ability of medical officers to identify cases of abuse, with some saying that time limitations made it more difficult to detect the real problem behind the injury. However, data from the interviews seem to suggest that time constraints may or may not end up resulting in limited care, depending on the individual interest of medical professionals on violence issues.

Conclusions: Promoting empathetic health care provision is challenging. More awareness training and sensitisation could help, especially if courses focus on women's needs and strengths and how health providers can validate these and contribute to a longer term process of change for victims of violence. Clear guidance on how to record history of abuse, ask questions sensitively and validate experiences is also important together with training on good communication skills such as listening and being empathetic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3582493PMC
February 2013

An integrated health sector response to violence against women in Malaysia: lessons for supporting scale up.

BMC Public Health 2012 Jul 24;12:548. Epub 2012 Jul 24.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Malaysia has been at the forefront of the development and scale up of One-Stop Crisis Centres (OSCC) - an integrated health sector model that provides comprehensive care to women and children experiencing physical, emotional and sexual abuse. This study explored the strengths and challenges faced during the scaling up of the OSCC model to two States in Malaysia in order to identify lessons for supporting successful scale-up.

Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers, policy makers and key informants in 7 hospital facilities. This was complemented by a document analysis of hospital records and protocols. Data were coded and analysed using NVivo 7.

Results: The implementation of the OSCC model differed between hospital settings, with practise being influenced by organisational systems and constraints. Health providers generally tried to offer care to abused women, but they are not fully supported within their facility due to lack of training, time constraints, limited allocated budget, or lack of referral system to external support services. Non-specialised hospitals in both States struggled with a scarcity of specialised staff and limited referral options for abused women. Despite these challenges, even in more resource-constrained settings staff who took the initiative found it was possible to adapt to provide some level of OSCC services, such as referring women to local NGOs or community support groups, or training nurses to offer basic counselling.

Conclusions: The national implementation of OSCC provides a potentially important source of support for women experiencing violence. Our findings confirm that pilot interventions for health sector responses to gender based violence can be scaled up only when there is a sound health infrastructure in place - in other words a supportive health system. Furthermore, the successful replication of the OSCC model in other similar settings requires that the model - and the system supporting it - needs to be flexible enough to allow adaptation of the service model to different types of facilities and levels of care, and to available resources and thus better support providers committed to delivering care to abused women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412746PMC
July 2012

Factors associated with attitude toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2015 Mar 29;27(2):NP1549-56. Epub 2012 Jun 29.

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539512449856DOI Listing
March 2015

Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school in Kelantan, Malaysia.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2011 May;42(3):717-25

Department of Family Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.
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May 2011

One stop crisis centres: A policy analysis of the Malaysian response to intimate partner violence.

Health Res Policy Syst 2011 Jun 21;9:25. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Department of Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.

Background: This article aims to investigate the processes, actors and other influencing factors behind the development and the national scale-up of the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) policy and the subsequent health model for violence-response.

Methods: Methods used included policy analysis of legal, policy and regulatory framework documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations in two States of Malaysia.

Results: The findings show that women's NGOs and health professionals were instrumental in the formulation and scaling-up of the OSCC policy. However, the subsequent breakdown of the NGO-health coalition negatively impacted on the long-term implementation of the policy, which lacked financial resources and clear policy guidance from the Ministry of Health.

Conclusion: The findings confirm that a clearly-defined partnership between NGOs and health staff can be very powerful for influencing the legal and policy environment in which health care services for intimate partner violence are developed. It is critical to gain high level support from the Ministry of Health in order to institutionalise the violence-response across the entire health care system. Without clear operational details and resources policy implementation cannot be fully ensured and taken to scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-9-25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3141786PMC
June 2011

The development and design of an electronic patient record using open source web-based technology.

Health Inf Manag 2010;39(1):30-5

Coordinator of Health Informatics Unit, The School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
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December 2010

Professional Practice and Innovation: The Development and Design of an Electronic Patient Record Using Open Source Web-Based Technology.

Health Inf Manag 2010 Mar;39(1):30-35

Mohd Nazri Mat-Husin BSc(IT), IT Officer, The School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan MALAYSIA.

This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open-source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/183335831003900105DOI Listing
March 2010