Publications by authors named "Siti Amrah Sulaiman"

59 Publications

Anti-inflammatory Properties of Stingless Bee Honey May Reduce the Severity of Pulmonary Manifestations in COVID-19 Infections.

Malays J Med Sci 2020 Mar 30;27(2):165-169. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2020.27.2.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409568PMC
March 2020

Tualang honey ameliorates viral load, CD4 counts and improves quality of life in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infected patients.

J Tradit Complement Med 2019 Oct 28;9(4):249-256. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Pharmacology Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

This is the first study to report on the effects of honey in asymptomatic HIV positive subjects in ameliorating CD4 count, viral load (VL) and quality of life (QOL). It is a randomized, controlled, open labelled study, comparing the effects of Tualang honey (TH) administration for six months at three different doses: 20 g (THL), 40 g (THI) or 60 g (THH) daily compared with control (no administered treatment, THC). Only asymptomatic HIV positive subjects (n=95) having CD4 count 250-600 cell/ml, not on antiretrovirals were enrolled. Blood, (together with QOL questionnaires administration) were investigated at baseline, three and six months (CD4 cell count) while VL was determined only at baseline and six months. Significant reductions in CD4 counts in THL and THC groups (p= 0.003 for both) were seen with no significant reductions in the CD4 counts in THI and THH groups (p=0.447 and 0.053 respectively). There was improvement in VL in THC and THI (130% and 32% respectively) and reductions in THL and THH (26% and 8% respectively). Within and between group analyses for VL indicated significant differences between THL and THH compared to THC. In addition, significant improvement in QOL of groups which received TH was noted. TH has the potential to improve the QOL (physical and psychological) and CD4 counts. There was a trend of lower VL in asymptomatic HIV subjects following TH administration thus supporting the possible role of TH in boosting the immune system by improving CD4 counts, causing VL reductions in HIV positive subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2018.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6702152PMC
October 2019

Clinical and Antibacterial Effects of Tualang Honey on Pseudomonas-induced Keratitis in Rabbit Eyes.

Cureus 2019 Mar 27;11(3):e4332. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, MYS.

Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of microbial keratitis that can cause a significant loss of visual acuity. Antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides, are clinically effective against Pseudomonas-induced keratitis, but their effectiveness has been conspicuously reduced as resistant pathogens have become more potent. This study sought to evaluate the clinical and antibacterial effects of tualang honey as an alternative therapeutic agent against Pseudomonas-induced keratitis. Methods We conducted a randomized control trial in which 30 rabbits were injected intrastromally with 1,000 colony-forming units (CFU) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the right eye of each rabbit (n = 30). The rabbits were then randomized into three groups of 10 rabbits each. Group A was treated with topical gentamicin 0.3%, group B was treated with topical tualang honey 30%, and group C received both treatments. The specified treatments were administered every two hours from 24 to 48 hours post injection, and subsequently every four hours for six days. Clinical examinations were performed on days one, two, three, five, and seven, and the mean results of slit lamp examinations (SLEs) were documented. On day seven after pseudomonas induction, the rabbits were euthanized and their corneas were harvested to determine the median CFU per cornea. Results There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean SLE scores (p = 0.209) or median CFU values (p = 0.820) between the three groups. Conclusion Topical gentamicin, topical tualang honey, and the combination of the two all showed similar clinical and antimicrobial effects in treating Pseudomonas-induced keratitis in rabbits. These findings should be verified in further studies with larger sample sizes and the addition of a control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6541235PMC
March 2019

Reinventing the Honey Industry: Opportunities of the Stingless Bee.

Malays J Med Sci 2018 Jul 30;25(4):1-5. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Integrative Medicine Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian Kelantan, Malaysia.

Honey is uniquely produced by honeybees ( sp.) and stingless bees ( sp.) and exhibits tremendous medicinal properties such as antimicrobial, anticarcinogen and antioxidant. However, it has not been included as a mainstream approach to disease management and has been disregarded in the modern pharmaceutical era. The stingless bee, which is known locally as in Malaysia, is an important species that is well adapted for tropical countries and has emerged as an alternative source of honey. The reinventing honey quality (RHQ) project was introduced in 2012 to empower growth in the stingless bee industry, which has a direct impact on the production of high-quality honey. The objectives of the project include transforming the industry into a sustainable source of income for beekeepers, while simultaneously catalysing bee conservation activities for plant and crop pollination, thus becoming a new medium for targeting socio-economies and ecology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2018.25.4.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422541PMC
July 2018

Tualang Honey Reduced Neuroinflammation and Caspase-3 Activity in Rat Brain after Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 15;2018:7287820. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The protective effect of tualang honey (TH) on neuroinflammation and caspase-3 activity in rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem after kainic acid- (KA-) induced status epilepticus was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated orally with TH (1.0 g/kg body weight) five times at 12 h intervals. KA (15 mg/kg body weight) was injected subcutaneously 30 min after last oral treatment. Rats were sacrificed at 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h after KA administration. Neuroinflammation markers and caspase-3 activity were analyzed in different brain regions 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h after KA administration. Administration of KA induced epileptic seizures. KA caused significant () increase in the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and increase in the caspase-3 activity in the rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem at multiple time points. Pretreatment with TH significantly () reduced the elevation of TNF-, IL-1, GFAP, AIF-1, and COX-2 level in those brain regions at multiple time points and attenuated the increased caspase-3 activity in the cerebral cortex. In conclusion, TH reduced neuroinflammation and caspase-3 activity after kainic acid- (KA-) induced status epilepticus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7287820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077521PMC
July 2018

Honey as a Potential Natural Antioxidant Medicine: An Insight into Its Molecular Mechanisms of Action.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 18;2018:8367846. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

Honey clasps several medicinal and health effects as a natural food supplement. It has been established as a potential therapeutic antioxidant agent for various biodiverse ailments. Data report that it exhibits strong wound healing, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects. It also retains immunomodulatory, estrogenic regulatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, and numerous other vigor effects. Data also show that honey, as a conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant to abate many of the diseases directly or indirectly associated with oxidative stress. In this review, these wholesome effects have been thoroughly reviewed to underscore the mode of action of honey exploring various possible mechanisms. Evidence-based research intends that honey acts through a modulatory road of multiple signaling pathways and molecular targets. This road contemplates through various pathways such as induction of caspases in apoptosis; stimulation of TNF-, IL-1, IFN-, IFNGR1, and p53; inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest; inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation, IL-1, IL-10, COX-2, and LOXs; and modulation of other diverse targets. The review highlights the research done as well as the apertures to be investigated. The literature suggests that honey administered alone or as adjuvant therapy might be a potential natural antioxidant medicinal agent warranting further experimental and clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8367846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822819PMC
September 2018

Oral Administration of Tualang and Manuka Honeys Modulates Breast Cancer Progression in Sprague-Dawley Rats Model.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 5;2017:5904361. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

Breast cancer has been recognized as the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Research has shown the importance of complementary and alternative therapies in cancer. In this study, we investigated the antitumoural therapeutic effects of Malaysian Tualang honey (TH) and Australian/New Zealand Manuka honey (MH) against breast cancer in rats. Thirty syngeneic virgin female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by the carcinogen 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) 80 mg/kg. The treatment started when first palpable tumour reached 10-12 mm in size by dividing rats into following groups: Group 0 (negative control); Group 1 (positive control); and Groups 2 and 3 which received 1.0 g/kg body weight/day of TH and MH, respectively, for 120 days. The data demonstrate that cancer masses in TH and MH treated groups showed a lower median tumour size, weight, and multiplicity compared with the nontreated positive control ( < 0.05). Treatment also showed a dramatic slower growth rate (up to 70.82%) compared with the nontreated control (0%) ( < 0.05). The antitumoural effect was mediated through modulation of tumour growth, tumour grading, estrogenic activity, and haematological parameters. Our findings demonstrate that systemic administration of TH and MH increases the susceptibility of expression of proapoptotic proteins (Apaf-1, Caspase-9, IFN-, IFNGR1, and p53) and decreases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (TNF-, COX-2, and Bcl-xL 1) in its mechanism of action. This highlights a potential novel role for TH and MH in alleviating breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/5904361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5396450PMC
April 2017

Antioxidant Properties and Cardioprotective Mechanism of Malaysian Propolis in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 2;2017:5370545. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh; Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP) has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats ( = 32) were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/5370545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312504PMC
February 2017

Tualang Honey Protects the Rat Midbrain and Lung against Repeated Paraquat Exposure.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017 3;2017:4605782. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Paraquat (PQ) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and a well-known pneumotoxicant that exerts its toxic effect via oxidative stress-mediated cellular injuries. This study investigated the protective effects of Tualang honey against PQ-induced toxicity in the midbrain and lungs of rats. The rats were orally treated with distilled water (2 mL/kg/day), Tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/day), or ubiquinol (0.2 g/kg/day) throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after the respective treatments, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (1 mL/kg/week) or PQ (10 mg/kg/week) once per week for four consecutive weeks. After four weekly exposures to PQ, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons in the midbrain were significantly decreased in animals from group PQ ( < 0.05). The lungs of animals from group PQ showed significantly decreased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Treatment with Tualang honey ameliorated the toxic effects observed in the midbrain and lungs. The beneficial effects of Tualang honey were comparable to those of ubiquinol, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that treatment with Tualang honey may protect against PQ-induced toxicity in the rat midbrain and lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/4605782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5239975PMC
March 2017

Effect of tualang honey against KA-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the cortex of rats.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Jan 9;17(1):31. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Administration of KA on rodents has resulted in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, and neuronal degeneration on selective population of neurons in the brain. The present study was undertaken to investigate the extent of neuroprotective effect conferred by Malaysian Tualang Honey (TH), an antioxidant agent, in the cerebral cortex of rats against KA-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in an animal model of KA-induced excitotoxicity.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control, KA-treated group, TH + KA-treated group, aspirin (ASP; anti-inflammatory agent) + KA-treated group and topiramate (TPM; antiepileptic agent) + KA-treated group. The animals were pretreated orally with drinking water, TH (1.0g/kg BW), ASP (7.5mg/kg BW) or TPM (40mg/kg BW), respectively, five times at 12 h intervals. KA (15mg/kg BW) was injected subcutaneously 30 min after last treatment to all groups except the control group (normal saline). Behavioral change was observed using an open field test (OFT) to assess the locomotor activity of the animals. Animals were sacrificed after 2 h, 24 h and 48 h of KA administration.

Results: KA significantly inflicted more neuronal degeneration in the piriform cortex and heightened the predilection to seizures as compared with the control animals. Pretreatment with TH reduced the KA-induced neuronal degeneration in the piriform cortex but failed to prevent the occurrence of KA-induced seizures. In the OFT, KA-induced animals showed an increased in locomotor activity and hyperactivity and these were attenuated by TH pretreatment. Furthermore, TH pretreatment significantly attenuated an increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and a decrease of total antioxidant status level enhanced by KA in the cerebral cortex.

Conclusion: These results suggest that pretreatment with TH has a therapeutic potential against KA-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration through its antioxidant effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1534-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5223557PMC
January 2017

Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 2c8-catalyzed Amodiaquine N-desethylation: Effect of Five Traditionally and Commonly Used Herbs.

Pharmacognosy Res 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):292-297

Centre of Excellence for Research in AIDS, Universiti Malaya, 59990 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism.

Materials And Methods: The selected herbs, such as Jack (ELJ), (LP), (EP), (AP), and (GB), were subjected to inhibition studies using an CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC), and K values were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition.

Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at K's of 2 and 4 times the K of quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a K6 times larger than quercetin K. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition.

Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition .

Summary: Herbs are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicines nowadays. In this study five commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia region, ELJ, LP, EP, AP and GB, were investigated for their inhibitory potency on CYP2C8, an important drug-metaboliz-ing human hepatic enzyme. All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylation, with potency order of LP > ELJ > GB >AP > EP. LP, ELJ and GB exhibited K values of 2, 4 and 6 times the K of quercetin, the positive control, indicating potent to moderate degree of enzyme inhibition. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. In summary, concurrent consumption of some herbs especially LP and ELJ may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition . : AQ: Amodiaquine, AP: , CYP: Cytochrome P450, DEAQ: Desethylamodiaquine, EP: , ELJ: , GB: , K: Inhibition constant, LP: , Vmax: Maximal velocity, K: Michaelis-Menten constant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.188886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004522PMC
October 2016

Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 17;2015:972623. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/972623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4697086PMC
January 2016

Antileukemic Effect of Tualang Honey on Acute and Chronic Leukemia Cell Lines.

Biomed Res Int 2015 3;2015:307094. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Complementary medicine using natural product as antitumor is on the rise. Much research has been performed on Tualang Honey and it was shown to have therapeutic potential in wound healing, and antimicrobial activity and be antiproliferative against several cancer models such as human osteosarcoma (HOS), human breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. To date, there was limited study on antileukemic properties of Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) Honey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antileukemic effect of Tualang Honey on acute and chronic leukemia cell lines. Leukemia cell lines (K562 and MV4-11) and human mononuclear cell isolated from peripheral blood were grown in RPM1 1640 culture medium. The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of Tualang Honey. After incubation, the evaluation of viability and apoptosis was performed. The morphological changes of leukemia cells were the presence of cytoplasmic blebs followed by apoptotic bodies and round shape of cells. IC50 against K562 and MV4-11 was determined. Tualang Honey gave 53.9% and 50.6% apoptosis activity on K562 and MV4-11, respectively, while on human mononuclear cell it was 37.4%. Tualang Honey has the apoptosis-inducing ability for acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (K562 and MV4-11) cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/307094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4647029PMC
September 2016

Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats.

Biomed Res Int 2015 15;2015:938782. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.

This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/938782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4484846PMC
April 2016

Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels.

Biomed Res Int 2015 3;2015:286051. Epub 2015 May 3.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/286051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433628PMC
March 2016

The relationship between telomere length and beekeeping among Malaysians.

Age (Dordr) 2015 Jun 2;37(3):9797. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, 16150, Malaysia.

The belief that beekeepers live longer than anyone else is present since ages. However, no research has been done to explore the longevity of life in beekeepers. Here, we investigated the telomere length in 30 male beekeepers and 30 male non-beekeepers and associated them with the longevity of life using Southern analysis of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) generated by Hinf I/Rsa I digestion of human genomic DNA using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay. Interestingly, we found that the telomere length of male beekeepers was significantly longer than those of male non-beekeepers with a p value of less than 0.05, suggesting that beekeepers may have longer life compared to non-beekeepers. We further found that the consumption of bee products for a long period and frequent consumption of bee products per day are associated with telomere length. An increase of year in consuming bee products is associated with a mean increase in telomere length of 0.258 kbp. In addition, an increase in frequency of eating bee products per day was also associated with a mean increase of 2.66 kbp in telomere length. These results suggested that bee products might play some roles in telomere length maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-015-9797-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450150PMC
June 2015

The effects of exposure to petrol vapours on growth, haematological parameters and oxidative markers in sprague-dawley male rats.

Malays J Med Sci 2015 Jan-Feb;22(1):23-31

Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Petrol is known to be hazardous to human health and is associated with various health effects, such as haematotoxicity and oxidative stress. Although Malaysia has adopted the European fuel quality standards in recent years in order to reduce petroleum pollutants and to improve air quality, gasoline with research octane number 95 (RON95), believed to contain benzene and other toxic substances, is still widely used all over the country. This study assessed the effect of RON95 gasoline on haemtological parameters of rats after 11 weeks of exposure.

Methods: A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (exposed to ambient air daily) and gasoline exposed (exposed to petrol fumes at 11.13 ± 1.1cm(3)/h for 6h daily, 6 days/week) groups. Body weight was monitored daily. At the end of 11 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, bone marrow was extracted for cytological examination, and blood samples were collected for a full blood picture examination, full blood counts and oxidative markers.

Results: The results show that gasoline inhalation was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the rate of weight gain and a reduction in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width. It was also observed that the inhalation of gasoline was associated with changes in the nuclei of megakaryocytes, hence causing an increase in the percentage of abnormal megakaryocytes with detached nuclei, hypo-lobulation and/or disintegration. However, the inhalation of gasoline did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in the erythrocytes.

Conclusion: This study shows that 11 weeks of inhaling RON95 petrol vapours caused adverse effects on weight gain, blood cell indices and bone marrow megakaryocytes, but did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in erythrocytes. The definitive effects of these changes on health require further confirmation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4390771PMC
April 2015

The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 12;2015:596109. Epub 2015 Feb 12.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides) extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/596109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342073PMC
March 2015

Comparison on the Effects and Safety of Tualang Honey and Tribestan in Sperm Parameters, Erectile Function, and Hormonal Profiles among Oligospermic Males.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 19;2014:126138. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, 15200 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Introduction. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tualang honey on sperm parameters, erectile function, and hormonal and safety profiles. Methodology. A randomized control trial was done using Tualang honey (20 grams) and Tribestan (750 mg) over a period of 12 weeks. Sperm parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were analyzed and erectile function was assessed using IIEF-5 questionnaire. Hormonal profiles of testosterone, FSH, and LH were studied. The volunteers were randomized into two groups and the outcomes were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results. A total of 66 participants were involved. A significant increment of mean sperm concentration (P < 0.001), motility (P = 0.015) and morphology (P = 0.008) was seen in Tualang honey group. In Tribestan group, a significant increment of mean sperm concentration (P = 0.007), and morphology (P = 0.009) was seen. No significant differences of sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were seen between Tualang honey and Tribestan group and similar results were also seen in erectile function and hormonal profile. All safety profiles were normal and no adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Tualang honey effect among oligospermic males was comparable with Tribestan in improving sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. The usage of Tualang honey was also safe with no reported adverse event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/126138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253697PMC
December 2014

The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients.

Lipids Health Dis 2014 Aug 27;13:139. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Institut Perubatan dan Pergigian Termaju, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst Malaysian women. Both the disease and its treatment can disrupt the lives of the woman and adversely affect all aspects of life and thus can alter a woman's quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

Methods: This was a prospective study of breast cancer patients admitted into the Oncology Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 60 patients with stage III and IV breast cancer allocated to either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30) using a simple random table. QOL was evaluated from the first cycle of chemotherapy to the sixth cycle, and data were collected using a validated Bahasa Malaysia version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR 23).

Results: The mean age of breast cancer patients was 50.2 (SD = 13.5) years. There were significant mean score differences for functioning and global QOL between groups (α < 0.01). The intervention group also had better scores for symptoms including fatigue, dyspnea, sleep difficulties, and loss of appetite compared to the control group. Although there are deteriorations for sexual enjoyment, the intervention group exhibited improvement in breast functioning and symptom scores for body image, sexual function, future perspective, breast symptoms, and systemic therapy side effects.

Conclusion: VCO consumption during chemotherapy helped improve the functional status and global QOL of breast cancer patients. In addition, it reduced the symptoms related to side effects of chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-13-139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4176590PMC
August 2014

Identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids in monofloral honey from Bangladesh by high performance liquid chromatography: determination of antioxidant capacity.

Biomed Res Int 2014 24;2014:737490. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/737490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090494PMC
March 2015

Determination of mineral, trace element, and pesticide levels in honey samples originating from different regions of Malaysia compared to manuka honey.

Biomed Res Int 2014 1;2014:359890. Epub 2014 Jun 1.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/359890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4058684PMC
February 2015

Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Acute Respiratory Symptoms in Malaysian Hajj Pilgrims.

J Immigr Minor Health 2015 Aug;17(4):1114-9

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia,

Respiratory illness were a major problem and caused high hospital admission during hajj seasons. One of the contributing cause to this illness is infection. Various measures had been implemented to reduce respiratory infections. The aim on the study is to determine the effect of influenza vaccination against acute respiratory illness among Malaysian Hajj pilgrims. This is an observational cohort study. Influenza vaccination was given to pilgrims at least 2 weeks prior to departure. The occurrence of symptoms for respiratory illness such as cough, fever, sore throat and runny nose was monitored daily for 6 weeks during pilgrimage using a health diary. A total of 65 vaccinated hajj pilgrims and 41 controls were analyzed. There was no significant difference in pattern of occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness by duration of pilgrimage as well as the number of symptoms between both groups. Hajj pilgrims have frequent respiratory symptoms. We were unable to document benefit from influenza vaccination, but our study was limited by a small sample size and lack of laboratory testing for influenza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-014-0059-yDOI Listing
August 2015

Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2014 May 29;14:176. Epub 2014 May 29.

Regenerative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kepala Batas, Penang 13200, Malaysia.

Background: Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed.

Methods: Forty New Zealand white rabbits were sensitized twice with mixture of OVA and aluminium hydroxide on days 1 and 14. Honey treatments were given from day 23 to day 25 at two different doses (25% (v/v) and 50% (v/v) of honey diluted in sterile phosphate buffer saline. In the aerosolised honey as a rescue agent group, animals were euthanized on day 28; for the preventive group, animals were further exposed to aerosolised OVA for 3 days starting from day 28 and euthanized on day 31. The effects of honey on inflammatory cell response, airway inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed for each animal.

Results: Histopathological analyses revealed that aerosolised honey resulted in structural changes of the epithelium, mucosa, and submucosal regions of the airway that caused by the induction with OVA. Treatment with aerosolised honey has reduced the number of airway inflammatory cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the goblet cell hyperplasia.

Conclusion: In this study, aerosolised honey was used to effectively treat and manage asthma in rabbits, and it could prove to be a promising treatment for asthma in humans. Future studies with a larger sample size and studies at the gene expression level are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which aerosolised honey reduces asthma symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048365PMC
May 2014

Polyphenols as key players for the antileukaemic effects of propolis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 19;2014:371730. Epub 2014 Mar 19.

Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Propolis (a bee product) which has a long history of medicinal use by humans has attracted a great deal of research interest in the recent time; this is due to its widely reported biological activities such as antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Crude form of propolis and its phenolic contents have both been reported to exhibit antileukaemic effects in various leukaemia cell lines. The ability of the polyphenols found in propolis to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis and differentiation in addition to inhibition of cell growth and proliferation makes them promising antileukaemic agents, and hence, they are believed to be a key to the antileukaemic effects of propolis in different types of leukaemia. This paper reviews the molecular bases of antileukaemic activity of both crude propolis and individual polyphenols on various leukaemia cell lines, and it indicates that propolis has the potential to be used in both treatment and prevention of leukaemia. This however needs further evaluation by in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies as well as clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/371730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977507PMC
June 2014

Two-year variations of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant contents in acacia honey.

Molecules 2013 Nov 27;18(12):14694-710. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules181214694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6270151PMC
November 2013

Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sourwood and other Malaysian honeys: a comparison with manuka honey.

Chem Cent J 2013 12;7:138. Epub 2013 Aug 12.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of four Malaysian monofloral types of honey (gelam, longan, rubber tree and sourwood honeys) compared to manuka honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content, were measured. A number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography.

Results: The mean pH, moisture content, EC and TDS of Malaysian honey were 3.90 ± 0.12, 17.01 ± 3.07%, 0.59 ± 0.17 mS/cm and 294.87 ± 81.96 ppm, respectively. The mean color and HMF level was 102.07 ± 41.77 mm Pfund and 49.51 ± 0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Sourwood honey contained the highest contents of phenolics (580.03 ± 0.38 mggalic acid/kg) and flavonoids (156.82 ± 0.47 mgcatechin/kg) with high DPPH radical scavenging activity (59.26 ± 3.77%) as well as ferric reducing power [648.25 ± 0.90 μM Fe (II)/100 g]. Sourwood honey also exhibited the highest color intensity. Several strong positive correlations were observed amongst the different antioxidant parameters and the various antioxidant tests.

Conclusion: This is the first time that the antioxidant potential of both sourwood and rubber tree honeys have been reported. Our results indicated that Malaysian honey (specifically sourwood honey and longan honey) is a good source of antioxidants compared to Manuka honey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-7-138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771408PMC
May 2014

Inhibitory effects of Tualang Honey on experimental breast cancer in rats: a preliminary study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(4):2249-54

Pharmacology Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The study was conducted to determine the effect of Malaysian jungle Tualang Honey (TH) on development of breast cancer induced by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) in rats. Forty nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 80 mg/kg DMBA then randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 served as a Control while Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg bodyweight/day of TH, respectively, for 150 days. Results showed that breast cancers in the TH-treated groups had slower size increment and smaller mean tumor size (≤ 2 cm3) compared to Controls (≤ 8 cm3). The number of cancers developing in TH-treated groups was also significantly fewer (P<0.05). Histological grading showed majority of TH-treated group cancers to be of grade 1 and 2 compared to grade 3 in controls. There was an increasing trend of apoptotic index (AI) seen in TH-treated groups with increasing dosage of Tualang Honey, however, the mean AI values of all TH-treated groups were not significantly different from the Control value (p>0.05). In conclusion, Tualang Honey exerted positive modulation effects on DMBA-induced breast cancers in rats in this preliminary study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.4.2249DOI Listing
October 2013

Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2013 Feb 23;13:43. Epub 2013 Feb 23.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia.

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples-acacia, pineapple and borneo honey-and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively.

Methods: The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples.

Results: Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of all the Malaysian honeys.

Conclusion: Although Malaysian honeys are of good quality, tualang honey contains the strongest antioxidant properties by far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-43DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3598513PMC
February 2013

A review of molecular mechanisms of the anti-leukemic effects of phenolic compounds in honey.

Int J Mol Sci 2012 Nov 15;13(11):15054-73. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Hematologic malignancies constitute about 9% of all new cases of cancers as reported via the GLOBOCAN series by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2008. So far, the conventional therapeutic and surgical approaches to cancer therapy have not been able to curtail the rising incidence of cancers, including hematological malignancies, worldwide. The last decade has witnessed great research interest in biological activities of phenolic compounds that include anticancer, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, among other things. A large number of anticancer agents combat cancer through cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, as well as through inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, or a combination of two or more of these mechanisms. Various phenolic compounds from different sources have been reported to be promising anticancer agents by acting through one of these mechanisms. Honey, which has a long history of human consumption both for medicinal and nutritional uses, contains a variety of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins and tannins. This paper presents a review on the molecular mechanisms of the anti-leukemic activity of various phenolic compounds on cell cycle, cell growth and proliferation and apoptosis, and it advocates that more studies should be conducted to determine the potential role of honey in both chemoprevention and chemotherapy in leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms131115054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509627PMC
November 2012