Publications by authors named "Sirisha Senthil"

162 Publications

Ocular Surface Disease and Anti-Glaucoma Medications: Various features, Diagnosis, and Management Guidelines.

Semin Ophthalmol 2022 Aug 1:1-9. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

VST Glaucoma Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: Assessment of ocular surface in patients using anti-glaucoma medications (AGM) is rarely a priority for clinicians since glaucoma management targets intraocular pressure and preserves vision. This review summarizes the various adverse effects of topical AGM on the ocular surface and highlights the importance of ocular surface assessment in these patients.

Methods: A literature search of articles (English only) on the subject matter was conducted focusing on recent articles published in the past 5 years.

Results: The use of multiple anti-glaucoma medications in glaucoma patients increases patients' exposure to the drug and the preservatives present in these medications. Long-term use of these medications has deleterious effects on the conjunctiva, cornea, eyelids, and periocular tissues like trichiasis, entropion, symblepharon, forniceal shortening, punctate keratopathy, non-healing epithelial defects, and pannus. Treatment requires drug withdrawal or substitution by oral or topical non-preserved and less toxic preparations of AGMs. The ocular surface and symptoms can improve if the condition is diagnosed early and after drug withdrawal in over 90% of eyes. However, stopping or changing AGMs can often present with its own unique set of challenges in intra-ocular pressure control which may often need glaucoma surgery in close to 20% of eyes for IOP control.

Conclusion: Topical antiglaucoma medications (with their preservatives) can induce severe ocular surface and periorbital changes. Early identification and withdrawal of the offending drug/preservative can help to reverse the changes except in eyes with extensive cicatrization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2022.2094714DOI Listing
August 2022

Imaging of the Ciliary Body: A Major Review.

Semin Ophthalmol 2022 Jun 11:1-13. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

VST Centre for Glaucoma Services, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: We conducted a systematic search of literature to understand the various methods of imaging of the ciliary body.

Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched comprehensively and systematically to find studies related to the various modalities of ciliary body imaging.

Results: The various ciliary body parameters that have been described are Ciliary body thickness, Ciliary body length, ciliary muscle thickness, ciliary process length, ciliary muscle length, ciliary muscle anterior length, trabecular ciliary process distance and Iris ciliary process distance. The various angles which have been measured, which mostly have a significance in Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) are Iris ciliary angle, Trabecular ciliary angle, scleral ciliary process angle. Various authors have defined them in various ways with subtle differences. Plateau iris and PACG mechanisms, not forgetting malignant glaucoma are better understood with imaging of the ciliary body using the ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). The anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) imaging of the ciliary body has been described albeit with its own disadvantages. A few other fields dependant on the importance of ciliary body imaging are intravitreal injections, pars plana vitrectomy, measurements for implantable collamer lens (ICL) and of utmost importance, the differentiating features of ciliary body masses.

Conclusion: The UBM is still preferred over the ASOCT for imaging of the ciliary body. A lot of lacunae of knowledge still exists and consensus has to be reached on defining all the parameters universally. Future studies will be able to shed more light on the role of the ciliary body in the many ocular disorders mentioned in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2022.2085515DOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical characteristics of comorbid retinal dystrophies and primary angle closure disease.

Int Ophthalmol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

VST Center for Glaucoma Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: To assess the clinical characteristics of comorbid retinal dystrophies and primary angle closure disease.

Design: Retrospective study from January 1992 to June 2020.

Methods: This descriptive study included 92 eyes of 46 patients with comorbid retinal dystrophies and primary angle closure disease (PACD) that included eyes with primary angle closure suspect, primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma. Demographic profile, clinical characteristics of PACD and its association with retinal dystrophies are described.

Results: The study included 46 patients (92 eyes). Males were majority, 63%. Mean (± standard deviation) age when retinal dystrophy was diagnosed was 29.6 ± 9.4 years and PACD was diagnosed at 32.23 ± 7.92 years. Mean BCVA at presentation was 1.07 ± 0.87 log MAR [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87, 1.26]. Mean Intraocular pressure at diagnosis of glaucoma was 27 ± 16 mmHg (95% CI 23.5, 31.5 mmHg). The most common retinal dystrophy associated with PACD was retinitis pigmentosa (RP) followed by RP with retinoschisis. The hospital-based prevalence of PACD among all patients with RP and retinoschisis was 0.19% and 0.15% respectively. Laser peripheral iridotomy was performed in 74 eyes (80.5%). Glaucoma was managed medically in majority of the eyes (58 eyes, 63.04%) and minority required surgical management with trabeculectomy (11, 11.9%).

Conclusion: Retinitis pigmentosa is the most common retinal dystrophy associated with PACD. Comorbid PACD in eyes with retinal dystrophies was observed in second to third decade of life. This calls for screening for angle closure in eyes with retinal dystrophies from second decade onwards to identify the comorbid PACD and treat or refer them appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-022-02313-6DOI Listing
May 2022

Vitamin B12 deficiency in a large cohort of healthcare professionals across the network of an eyecare organization in India.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 05;70(5):1718-1721

The Cornea Institute, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: To evaluate Vitamin B12 levels in healthcare professionals at a tertiary eyecare centre in India.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among healthcare professionals working at a tertiary eyecare centre in India. The sample included 2,374 employees. Chemiluminescent immunoassay method (reference range, 211-911 pg/ml) was used to assess serum vitamin B12 levels. Effect of age and gender was analyzed in vitamin B12 normal and vitamin B12 deficient groups. To evaluate risk factors, questions related to vitamin B12 deficiency were asked to the study participants in a survey.

Results: The mean age of employees was 29.2 ± 0.7 years. Around 26% of them were vitamin B12 deficient. The proportion of males in the vitamin B12 deficient group (61.2%) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that of the vitamin B12 normal group (44.9%). There was no effect of age on vitamin B12 levels in both vitamin B12 normal and vitamin B12 deficient groups. Mean vitamin B12 levels in males (289.1 ± 22.2 pg/ml) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than that of females (338.7 ± 30.0 pg/ml).

Conclusion: This is the first such study on eyecare professionals. One-fourth of the eyecare professionals were vitamin B12 deficient. The proportion of males was higher in the vitamin B12 deficiency group. Males had lower vitamin B12 levels than females. Annual blood tests for vitamin B12 are recommended for timely diagnosis and management of vitamin B12 deficiency, particularly in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_2823_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332969PMC
May 2022

Glaucoma Evaluation and Management in Eyes With Boston Type 1 and Aurolab Keratoprostheses in an Indian Cohort.

Cornea 2022 May;41(5):552-561

The Cornea Institute, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India; and.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate glaucoma and its management in eyes with Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston-Kpro) and Aurolab keratoprosthesis (Auro-Kpro) in an Indian cohort.

Methods: This retrospective comparative case series included 175 eyes of 175 patients who underwent type 1 keratoprosthesis from 2009 until 2017; type 1 Boston-Kpro was performed in 107 eyes (107 patients) and Auro-Kpro in 68 eyes (68 patients). The eyes with <1-month follow-up were excluded, and hence, for the analysis of glaucoma, 62 eyes with Auro-Kpro and 99 eyes with Boston-Kpro were included. Progression was defined as the worsening of optic disc damage/progression by visual field/uncontrolled IOP needing additional medications or glaucoma surgery.

Results: The post-Kpro mean follow-up was 1.8 ± 1.7 years. After Kpro, overall glaucoma was noted in 61% of eyes (98/161). Preexisting glaucoma was noted in 28% of eyes (45/161), postoperative glaucoma was noted in 33% of eyes (53/161), and 39% of eyes (63/161) did not have glaucoma. Among those with preexisting glaucoma, 49% of eyes (22/45) progressed after Kpro implantation. The proportion of eyes with glaucoma in Auro-Kpro (56.5% of eyes) and Boston-Kpro (63.6% of eyes) was similar (P = 0.46). The Kaplan-Meier curve for cumulative survival (Kpro-retention rate) was similar in eyes with and without glaucoma (83% vs. 76% at 1 year, 72% vs. 70% at 2 years; P = 0.65). A higher number of prior intraocular surgeries (P = 0.04) was significantly associated with risk for postoperative glaucoma.

Conclusions: Glaucoma was seen in more than half of the eyes with type 1 keratoprosthesis. The presence of glaucoma did not seem to affect the retention of keratoprosthesis. A high rate of postoperative glaucoma and the progression of preexisting glaucoma need close monitoring and appropriate management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000002986DOI Listing
May 2022

Drug induced cicatrizing conjunctivitis: A case series with review of etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management.

Ocul Surf 2022 04 2;24:83-92. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Centre for Ocular Regeneration, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India; The Cornea Institute, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

Drug induced cicatrizing conjunctivitis (DICC) is defined as a disease in which conjunctival cicatrization develops as a response to the chronic use of inciting topical and, rarely, systemic medications. DICC accounts for up to one third of cases of pseudopemphigoid, a large group of cicatrizing conjunctival diseases sharing similar clinical features to those of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) but generally without the morbidity of progressive scarring or the need for systemic immunosuppression. The preservatives in topical anti-glaucoma medications (AGM) are the most frequently implicated inciting causes of DICC although topical antivirals, vasoconstrictors and mydriatics and some systemic drugs have been implicated. The literature review summarizes the classification, epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and treatment outcomes of DICC in the context of a case series of 23 patients (42 eyes) with AGM induced DICC, from India and the UK. In this series all subjects reacted to preserved AGM with one exception, who also reacted to non-preserved AGM. At diagnosis >70% of eyes showed punctal scarring, inflammation, and forniceal shortening. Pemphigoid studies were negative in the 19/23 patients in whom they were carried out. DICC can be classified as non-progressive, progressive with positive pemphigoid immunopathology or progressive with negative pemphigoid immunopathology. It is unclear whether progressive DICC is a stand-alone disease, or concurrent (or drug induced) ocular MMP. Progressive cases should currently be treated as ocular MMP. The diagnosis can be made clinically when there is rapid resolution of symptoms and inflammation, usually within 1-16 weeks, after withdrawal of suspected inciting medications, ideally by temporary substitution of oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. If the response to withdrawal is uncertain, or the progression of inflammation and scarring continues then patients must be evaluated to exclude concurrent (or drug induced) MMP, and other potential causes of CC, for which the treatment and prognosis is different. Management, in addition to withdrawing inciting medications, may require short-term treatment of conjunctival inflammation with steroids, treatment of associated corneal disease with contact lenses or surface reconstructive surgery, control of intra-ocular pressure with non-preserved AGM and, in some, surgery for glaucoma or for trichiasis and entropion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtos.2022.02.004DOI Listing
April 2022

Secondary developmental glaucoma in eyes with congenital aphakia.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Mar;70(3):834-836

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Pathology, University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, Chicago, United States.

Purpose: To describe the clinical spectrum and management of glaucoma in congenital aphakia.

Methods: The demographics and clinical spectrum of eyes with congenital aphakia with and without glaucoma were compared, and management outcomes of congenital aphakia cases with glaucoma were studied retrospectively between April 2000 and June 2020.

Results: There were a total of 168 eyes (84 subjects) with a diagnosis of congenital aphakia, of which 29 eyes of 18 subjects were diagnosed with glaucoma. Corneal opacity was the presenting complaint in 26/29 eyes with glaucoma and 139/139 eyes without glaucoma. The (interquartile range (IQR)) horizontal corneal diameterwas 10.5mm (IQR, 9.0-12.5) and 8mm (IQR, 5-10) in eyes with and without glaucoma (P = 0.01), respectively. The median (IQR) axial length was 17.5mm (IQR, 13.5-19.5) and 15mm (IQR, 14-16) mm in eyes with and without glaucoma (P = 0.03), respectively. Nineteen eyes with glaucoma had adequate intraocular pressure (IOP) control with one medication. Three eyes underwent transscleral diode cyclophotocoagulation and maintained IOP without medications. Three eyes underwent trabeculectomy and trabeculotomy, trabeculectomy followed by penetrating keratoplasty, and trabeculectomy, respectively, of which two eyes became phthisical. At the last follow-up, the median (IQR) IOP was 14 mm Hg (IQR, 14-17) Hg. The median(IQR) follow-up duration was 4.53 months (IQR, 2.03- 48.06).

Conclusion: One-fifth of the eyes with congenital aphakia had secondary developmental glaucoma. The corneal diameter and axial lengths were higher in the eyes with glaucoma compared to eyes without glaucoma. Medical management is the preferred short-term mode of IOP control. Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation may be preferred over surgical intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1782_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114612PMC
March 2022

Comparison of long-term outcomes of trabeculectomy and risk factors for failure in eyes post penetrating keratoplasty or Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Mar;70(3):827-833

VST Centre for Glaucoma, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of trabeculectomy, graft survival, and risk factors for failure in post penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) eyes.

Methods: We reviewed charts of eyes that underwent trabeculectomy for post keratoplasty glaucoma PK [25 eyes] and DSEK [14 eyes] between 1993 and 2019. The demographics, clinical features, and surgical outcomes were evaluated. Success of trabeculectomy was defined as complete when the intraocular pressure (IOP) was >5 and ≤21 mmHg without antiglaucoma medications (AGM) and qualified with AGM. Clear and compact graft was considered for graft success.

Results: Median (interquartile range [IQR] preoperative IOP in post-PK eyes and post-DSEK eyes was comparable, 32 (28-38) vs. 31.5 (25-36) mmHg, P = 0.38). Median number of preoperative AGMs was comparable (P = 0.78). Median postoperative follow-up was longer in post-PK, compared with post-DSEK, 2.5 (1.3-3.3) vs. 1 (0.3-2.9) years (P = 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for complete and qualified success of trabeculectomy at 3 years were 23.7% and 73.3%, respectively, for PK and 45.8% and 71.6%, respectively, for DSEK. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for graft survival were 91.8% up to 3 years for PK and 100% until 2 years and 77.8% at 3 years for DSEK. Higher IOP prior to trabeculectomy was a risk factor for failure of trabeculectomy (P = 0.03) and older age was a risk factor for graft failure (P = 0.05) in PK eyes. Number of prior corneal surgeries (P = 0.05) was associated with failure of trabeculectomy and graft failure in post-DSEK eyes.

Conclusion: Trabeculectomy had moderate qualified success in post-PK and DSEK eyes at 3 years. Higher pretrabeculectomy IOP and higher number of prior corneal surgeries were significantly associated with failure of trabeculectomy in PK and DSEK eyes, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1213_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114594PMC
March 2022

Long-term outcomes and risk factors for failure of glaucoma filtering surgery in eyes with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and steroid-induced glaucoma.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Mar;70(3):820-825

Glaucoma Department, VST Center for Glaucoma Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: To report outcomes and assess the risk factors for failure of trabeculectomy (trab), trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C (trabMMC), and combined trabeculectomy with cataract extraction (CT) in vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) eyes with steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG).

Methods: Trab was performed in 45 eyes of 30 subjects, trabMMC in 36 eyes of 25 subjects, and CT in 34 eyes of 27 subjects. Success was complete when intraocular pressure (IOP) was between 6 and 21 mm Hg without anti-glaucoma medications (AGM) and qualified with AGM.

Results: Median age (14 vs. 16.3 and 17.4 years) was significantly less in the trab cohort (P = 0.007). Majority (88%-93%) were male (P = 0.78). Preoperatively, median duration of steroid usage was >2 years (P = 0.52), mean IOP (32, 29.4, and 28.4; P = 0.26) and median cup:disc ratio (CDR) (0.9; P = 0.27) were similar in the three groups. Complete success (76%, 71%, and 66% at 5 years; P = 0.91), and qualified success (88%, 97%, and 94% at 5 years; P = 1.0) with trab, trabMMC, and CT, respectively, were similar. Preoperative factors significantly associated with qualified failure (multiple logistic regression) were older children, longer duration of VKC, longer duration and mixed type of steroid use (all P < 0.001) and larger CDR (P < 0.02). At the last follow-up, 38% in trab, 33% in trabMMC, and 50% eyes in CT were blind (visual acuity ≤20/400 and/or visual field ≤10°) due to glaucoma (P = 0.33).

Conclusion: The surgical success for all three types of surgery was similar at 5-years. Chronic VKC and long-term steroid use were associated with surgical failure. The majority had advanced disease and a significant proportion were blind due to glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1897_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114571PMC
March 2022

Outcomes of trabeculectomy in eyes with refractory acute primary angle-closure in Indian eyes.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb;70(2):580-584

VST Glaucoma Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: To report the outcomes of trabeculectomy in eyes with refractory acute primary angle-closure attack.

Methods: Patients with acute primary angle-closure attack and who underwent trabeculectomy for medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure within 2 months of presentation were retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcome was intraocular pressure (IOP). Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity, number of antiglaucoma medication (AGM), complications, and risk factors for failure of trabeculectomy.

Results: Thirty-five eyes of 31 patients with median (interquartile range) follow-up of 3 (0.5, 9) years were included in the study. Median age at presentation was 55 (47, 60) years. Median duration of symptoms at presentation was 10 (4, 16) days and median time from presentation to surgery was 13 (6, 25) days. Median IOP reduced from 42 (36, 46) to 13 (12, 16) mmHg (P < 0.001) and median number of AGM reduced from 3 (1, 3) to 0 (0, 0) after trabeculectomy at the end of 1 year. The probability of complete and qualified success was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72%-95%) and was 97% (95% CI: 81%-99%) at 1 year, respectively. Failure was noted in six eyes. Subsequent cataract surgery was needed in 13 eyes (37%) with a median duration from trabeculectomy being 6.75 (1, 11) years. None of the preoperative, intraoperative, or postoperative factors tested were associated with failure (P > 0.10 for all associations on Cox proportional hazard regression analysis).

Conclusion: In medically unresponsive cases of acute primary angle-closure attack, primary trabeculectomy seems safe and effective in Indian eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1065_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9023994PMC
February 2022

Outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation and risk factors for graft failure in eyes with Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

Int Ophthalmol 2022 Aug 27;42(8):2335-2345. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

VST Glaucoma Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, L V Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500034, India.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) in eyes with Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) and glaucoma and evaluate the risk factors for failure.

Methods: Retrospective interventional study included 27 eyes (27 subjects) that underwent AGV implantation following DSEK. The main outcome measure was AGV success, defined as IOP between 6 and 21 mmHg with or without topical antiglaucoma medications (AGMs). Secondary outcome measure was graft survival. Graft failure was defined as corneal edema for ≥ 1 month or irreversible graft opacity requiring intervention.

Results: Eighteen eyes (66.7%) had anterior chamber tube and 9 eyes (33.3%) had sulcus tube placement. Median follow-up was 1.2 years (interquartile range, IQR, 0.5-2.5 years). Following AGV implantation, the median IOP decreased significantly (p < 0.0001), median number of AGMs reduced significantly (p < 0.001) and median visual acuity was maintained (p = 0.76). Cumulative success probability of AGV was 75.8 ± 10.6% at 1 year, and 75.8 ± 10.6% at 2 years. For 24 clear grafts before AGV, estimates of success post-AGV were 100% at 1 year, 77.8 ± 10% at 2 years and 51.9 ± 16.4% at 3 years. Postoperative tube intervention was a borderline significant risk factor for graft failure (p = 0.05) with hazards ratio of 7.2; however, tube location was not associated with failure.

Conclusions: AGV can be considered an effective surgical option for IOP control in eyes with DSEK and glaucoma. However, high risk of long-term graft failure in these eyes needs to be considered specially those eyes needing tube intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-022-02231-7DOI Listing
August 2022

Co-existing lacrimal drainage anomalies in eyes with congenital Glaucoma.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2022 Jan 12:11206721211073433. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

VST Centre for Glaucoma Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Aim: To evaluate the occurrence of co-existing congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) and other lacrimal anomalies in eyes with congenital glaucoma (CG).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of children aged ≤1-year with co-existing CG and CNLDO seen between 1998 and 2019, treatment interventions and outcomes.

Results: During the study period, 1993 children had CG and 6203 children had CNLDO, among the children aged 1-year or less. Of these, 51 children (73 eyes) had co-existing CG and CNLDO. The prevalence of CNLDO in CG was 2.5% (51/1993) and the prevalence of CG among CNLDO was 0.8% (51/6203). Median age (Interquartile range, IQR) was 53 days (IQR: 8, 155), when they were diagnosed with CG. Among the children with CNLDO, 68 eyes (93.1%) had simple CNLDO, and 5 eyes (6.9%) had complex CNLDO. Associated lacrimal anomalies were present in 7/73 eyes, including congenital lacrimal fistula in two eyes, upper punctal agenesis and upper mid-canalicular obstruction in two eyes each, and upper single canalicular-wall hypoplasia in one eye. Lacrimal syringing and probing were successful in 69/72 eyes (95.8%), and failed in 3 eyes (4.2%). These 3 eyes had complex CNLDO and underwent Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with Mitomycin-C and intubation. Sixty-two eyes underwent combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy, and two eyes underwent trabeculectomy. Median age at glaucoma surgery was 87 days (IQR: 54, 193). Median time delay for glaucoma surgery after probing was 18 days (IQR: 12, 35).

Conclusion: Among children aged ≤1-year presenting with congenital glaucoma coexisting lacrimal drainage anomalies was noted in 2.5% and simple CNLDO was the commonest. Early intervention is of paramount importance to prevent sight-threatening intraocular infection with CNLDO, and to minimize the delay of glaucoma surgery. The outcomes of lacrimal probing were excellent, however complex CNLDO required DCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11206721211073433DOI Listing
January 2022

Circular functional analysis of OCT data for precise identification of structural phenotypes in the eye.

Sci Rep 2021 12 2;11(1):23336. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Progressive optic neuropathies such as glaucoma are major causes of blindness globally. Multiple sources of subjectivity and analytical challenges are often encountered by clinicians in the process of early diagnosis and clinical management of these diseases. In glaucoma, the structural damage is often characterized by neuroretinal rim (NRR) thinning of the optic nerve head, and other clinical parameters. Baseline structural heterogeneity in the eyes can play a key role in the progression of optic neuropathies, and present challenges to clinical decision-making. We generated a dataset of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) based high-resolution circular measurements on NRR phenotypes, along with other clinical covariates, of 3973 healthy eyes as part of an established clinical cohort of Asian Indian participants. We introduced CIFU, a new computational pipeline for CIrcular FUnctional data modeling and analysis. We demonstrated CIFU by unsupervised circular functional clustering of the OCT NRR data, followed by meta-clustering to characterize the clusters using clinical covariates, and presented a circular visualization of the results. Upon stratification by age, we identified a healthy NRR phenotype cluster in the age group 40-49 years with predictive potential for glaucoma. Our dataset also addresses the disparity of representation of this particular population in normative OCT databases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-02025-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8639843PMC
December 2021

OCT Imaging of Schlemm's Canal after Gonioscopy-Assisted Transluminal Trabeculotomy.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021 Nov-Dec;4(6):645

VST Centre for Glaucoma, L V Prasad Eye Institute, KAR Campus, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogla.2021.06.004DOI Listing
December 2021

Trabeculectomy for neovascular glaucoma in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, and ocular ischemic syndrome: Surgical outcomes and prognostic factors for failure.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Nov;69(11):3341-3348

VST Center for Glaucoma Care, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of trabeculectomy in the eyes with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), and ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS).

Methods: A retrospective review of NVG eyes that underwent trabeculectomy between 1991 and 2019. Complete success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) between 6 and 21 mmHg without antiglaucoma medications (AGM). The risk factors were analyzed by Cox's proportional hazard model.

Results: The study included 100 eyes of 100 subjects with a mean age of 58 ± 9.8 years and a median follow-up of 1.27 years (interquartile range: 0.63, 2.27). The cause of NVG was PDR in 59 eyes (59%), CRVO in 25 eyes (25%), and OIS in 16 eyes (16%). Trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C was performed in 88 eyes and trabeculectomy in 12 eyes. The cumulative complete success probability of trabeculectomy in PDR was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38, 65) at 1 year, 8% (1, 46) at 3-5 years. In OIS, it was 64% (43, 96) from 1 to 5 years. In CRVO, it was 75% (59, 94) at 1 year, 45% (23, 86) from 2 to 5 years. The PDR was associated with a higher risk of surgical failure compared to OIS (P = 0.04) and CRVO (P = 0.004). Other significant risk factors were increasing age (P = 0.02), persistent neovascularization of iris (NVI) (P = 0.03), higher number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections prior to trabeculectomy (P = 0.02), and delay in performing trabeculectomy (P = 0.02).

Conclusion: Compared to CRVO and OIS, the eyes with NVG secondary to PDR had poor success with trabeculectomy. Older age, persistent NVI, need for a higher number of anti-VEGF injections, and delayed surgery were associated with a higher risk for trabeculectomy failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1516_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8725114PMC
November 2021

Erosion of conjunctiva over the suture knot with a leak in an eye with a non-flow restrictive aqueous drainage device.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Sep 3;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

VST Center for Glaucoma Care, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

We report a case of conjunctival erosion due to ligature suture knot exposure following Aurolab aqueous drainage device (AADI) implantation. A 48-year-old man, a known case of primary angle-closure glaucoma, had failed trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C and Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) in the right eye. The right eye had a large posterior AGV bleb with hypertropia and limitation of extraocular movement on downward gaze and uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP). An inferonasal AADI was performed uneventfully. At the 1-month postoperative visit, a small conjunctival erosion was noted over the ligature (6-0 vicryl) suture knot. However, there was no leak. Two weeks later, there was hypotony and a leak was noted at the site of the absorbed ligature. Immediate surgical repair was performed by re-ligature of the AADI tube with 8-0 vicryl and the ligature knot was placed under the scleral patch graft and the conjunctival defect was sutured. Early intervention helped in successfully healing the conjunctival erosion, reversal of the hypotony and well-controlled IOP. Adequate covering of the entire subconjunctival tube including its ligated part by a patch graft may prevent this complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-244073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420719PMC
September 2021

Initial experience with phacoemulsification and goniotomy using the Kahook dual blade in advanced open-angle glaucoma: Six-month outcomes in Indian eyes.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep;69(9):2484-2487

VST Glaucoma Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to report our initial experience on the outcomes of phacoemulsification in combination with goniotomy using the Kahook Dual Blade (KDB) in eyes with advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG).

Methods: The outcomes of phaco-goniotomy with KDB in advanced OAG in Indian eyes were retrospectively analyzed. Based on the Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish criteria of visual field defects, severe glaucoma (mean deviation on standard automated perimetry worse than 12 dB) was considered as advance glaucoma. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected through 6 months of follow-up. Outcome measures included antiglaucoma medications (AGM), the proportion of eyes achieving >1AGM reduction, intraocular pressure (IOP), and visual acuity.

Results: Median (interquartile range) number of AGM in eyes that underwent phaco-KDB goniotomy reduced from 2 (2,3) at baseline to 1 (0,1) at 6 months (P = 0.002). Median IOP reduced from 20 (20,26) mmHg at baseline to 14 (12,15) mmHg at 6 months (P = 0.02). The proportion of eyes achieving >1 medication reduction was 88% eyes (8/9). Adverse events noted were IOP spike (22 mmHg) in 2 eyes and intra-op hyphema in 1 eye on postoperative day-1, both resolved in a week with conservative management. Except one eye with central corneal scar due to prior pterygium surgery, 8 eyes had 20/20 vision at 1 week which was maintained till last follow-up.

Conclusion: Phacoemulsification with KDB Goniotomy significantly lowered the need for AGM with moderate IOP reduction in advanced OAG eyes. There were no serious complications and the visual recovery was good and early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_2999_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8544104PMC
September 2021

Phacoemulsification versus Phacotrabeculectomy in Medically Controlled Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma with Cataract in an Indian Cohort: A randomized controlled trial.

Int Ophthalmol 2022 Jan 9;42(1):35-45. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

VST Glaucoma Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of phacoemulsification with phacotrabeculectomy in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes with medically controlled intraocular pressure (IOP).

Methods: Prospective, randomized control trial including 33 eyes of 33 patients who underwent phacoemulsification (Phaco) and 37 eyes (37 patients) who underwent phacotrabeculectomy (PT). The primary outcome measure was survival defined as IOP control (IOP ≥ 6 and ≤ 21 mmHg without antiglaucoma medications (AGM) at different time points. Secondary outcome measures were the rate of visual recovery and complications.

Results: The mean age in years (PT: 58.5 ± 9.8, Phaco:61.6 ± 8.9; p = 0.16), preoperative mean deviation in decibel (PT: -18.7 ± 9.3; Phaco: -16.6 ± 7.9; p = 0.32) and the mean follow up in years (PT: 2.5 ± 1.8; Phaco: 2.8 ± 2.0; p = 0.63) were similar in the two groups. The mean preoperative AGMs were more in the PT group (PT: 2.13 ± 0.97, Phaco: 1.60 ± 0.78; p = 0.01). In both the groups the survival was similar at all-time points (PT: 78% at 1-year and 52% at 5-years, Phaco: 80% at 1 year and 59% at 5 years (P = 0.82). The postoperative visual acuity in LogMAR was significantly better in the Phaco group at 1 month (PT: 0.22 ± 0.38, Phaco:0.06 ± 0.07; p = 0.02). Postoperative AGM (p = 0.68) and rate of visual field progression PT: -0.46 ± 0.41 dB/year; Phaco: -0.38 ± 0.73 dB/year; p = 0.67) were similar in both groups. One eye in PT group developed malignant glaucoma which resolved with laser hyaloidotomy and cycloplegic therapy.

Conclusions: More rapid visual recovery with similar IOP control and similar visual field stability favor phacoemulsification to phacotrabeculectomy in medically controlled PACG eyes with cataract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-01997-6DOI Listing
January 2022

Outcomes of Descemet-Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty in 52 Eyes With Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome.

Cornea 2022 Feb;41(2):159-164

VST Glaucoma Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) in 52 eyes with iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome.

Methods: Retrospective study of 52 eyes of 52 patients who were diagnosed with ICE syndrome and underwent DSEK between January 2010 and December 2019 with a follow-up of at least 6 months.

Results: The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. Female patients (n = 33) constituted 63.5%. The median duration of follow-up was 2.4 years (range, 0.5-9.1 yrs). The mean best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly after surgery and remained stable (∼20/50) through 5 years. The mean endothelial cell loss was 28%, 37.9%, 43.6%, and 56.9% at 6 months and at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Graft rejection was noted in 5 eyes (9.6%). Postoperatively, increased intraocular pressure (IOP) was seen in 17 eyes (32.7%), and 10 eyes (19.2%) underwent glaucoma surgeries. Fourteen eyes (26.9%) had secondary graft failures. The estimates of graft success were 93.6% ± 3.6% at 1 year, 85.6% ± 5.5% at 2 years, 79.3% ± 6.7% at 3 years, 69.0% ± 8.9% at 4 years, and 59.1% ± 11.9% at 5 years. Postoperative increased IOP was found to be the only significant (P = 0.05) risk factor (hazard ratio 8.92) associated with graft failure. The clinical variant of ICE syndrome did not seem to influence the graft survival (P = 0.68).

Conclusions: In this study, DSEK had a success rate of ∼60% at 5 years. Increased IOP post-DSEK is a significant risk factor for graft failure. Graft survival is not affected by the clinical variant of ICE syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000002699DOI Listing
February 2022

Topiramate induced bilateral hypopyon uveitis and choroidal detachment: a report of two cases and review of literature.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 27;21(1):287. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

VST Glaucoma Services L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Background: Topiramate (TPM) is a drug commonly used by neurophysicians and psychiatrists for a plethora of indications. Topiramate has been reported to induce acute angle closure glaucoma as an adverse effect. However, there is limited literature on Topiramate causing hypopyon uveitis and intense ocular inflammation. It is imperative for ophthalmologists as well as physicians to be aware of the potential sight threatening ocular adverse effects of Topiramate. We report 2 rare consecutive cases of severe hypopyon uveitis and choroidal detachments after using Topiramate.

Case Presentation: Two patients presented with sudden onset of angle closure, bilateral hypopyon uveitis and choroidal detachments. On reassessing a detailed treatment history, it was found that both patient were taking oral Topiramate which had been started 2 weeks before the onset of ocular symptoms. The bilateral hypopyon and angle closure were considered to be induced by Topiramate and the drug was discontinued. The patients were started on oral and topical steroids which led to resolution of hypopyon uveitis and choroidal detachments. The visual acuity improved and the intraocular pressure also got normalised in both the cases.

Conclusions: Topiramate can lead to a bilateral hypopyon uveitis and severe ocular inflammation. An urgent cessation of topiramate along with topical and systemic steroids is required to prevent serious complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-02050-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314555PMC
July 2021

Outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in Eyes with Pediatric Keratoplasty.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022 Jan-Feb;5(1):94-100. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

The Cornea Institute, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc.) implantation in eyes with pediatric keratoplasty and glaucoma.

Design: Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series.

Participants: Twenty-eight eyes of 25 children who underwent AGV after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in 22 eyes and Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) in 6 eyes were included.

Methods: Children (age ≤ 16 years) treated with AGV implant after keratoplasty from 2008 to 2019 with documented 6 months follow-up operated by a single surgeon were included.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was AGV survival (intraocular pressure [IOP] between 6 and 21 mmHg with or without topical anti-glaucoma medications [AGMs]), and the secondary outcome measure was corneal graft survival.

Results: The mean age (± standard deviation) of patients at AGV surgery was 4.8 ± 0.7 years. The mean follow-up after AGV was 3.4 ± 0.5 years. The mean IOP decreased significantly from 31.5 ± 2.0 mmHg to 21.1 ± 2.3 mmHg at 6 months postsurgery (P < 0.001). The mean number of AGM decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and there was no change in mean visual acuity (P > 0.04 with Bonferroni correction). The cumulative survival probability of AGV was 92.9% ± 4.9% at 1 year and 81.3% ± 11.7% at 5 years. The AGV success was comparable between PK and DSEK eyes (P = 0.73). The cumulative probability of graft survival was 96.2% ± 3.8% at 1 year and 77.8% ± 9.1% at 5 years. The graft survival was also comparable between PK and DSEK eyes (P = 0.18). One eye needed tube trimming; none had tube or implant exposure. The major complication noted was corneal graft infection in 8 eyes (28.5%).

Conclusions: In this cohort, the long-term AGV success and graft survival outcomes are satisfactory considering that AGV was performed in complex eyes with keratoplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogla.2021.07.001DOI Listing
April 2022

Trabeculectomy with Mitomycin-C in Post-Traumatic Angle Recession Glaucoma in Phakic Eyes With no Prior Intraocular Intervention.

Semin Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 29;37(2):171-176. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

VST Glaucoma Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: : To evaluate the outcomes of primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C (trab MMC) in phakic eyes with post-traumatic angle recession glaucoma with no prior intraocular surgeries.

Methods: : We included 32 phakic eyes of 32 patients who underwent trab MMC between January-2002 and December-2017. Complete success was IOP between 6 and 21 mm Hg without anti-glaucoma medications (AGM) and failure was when IOP >21 mm Hg with AGM or need for additional intervention for IOP control or loss of light perception.

Results: : Thirty-two eyes of 32 subjects with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 30.6 ± 12.6 years were included. The majority were male (97.6%) and the major cause of blunt trauma were sports injury in 28/32 eyes (88%) and 24/32 eyes (75%) had >180-degree angle recession. The Median (interquartile range) follow-up duration was 1.3 years (0.3,3.5). There was significant IOP reduction at 1-year postoperatively (34 (28,40) to 13 (12,16) mm Hg; < .001). The median postoperative AGM at 1-year was significantly less (4 (3,4) to 0; < .001) with stable Log MAR visual acuity ( = .24). The complete survival of trab MMC was 88% at 1 year and was 77% from 2 to 5 years. Complications were intraoperative vitreous prolapse needing limited vitrectomy in two eyes and postoperative choroidal detachment in two eyes that resolved with conservative management. The contralateral eyes of three patients (9.7%) developed elevated IOP during the follow-up period.

Conclusion: : Trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C in phakic eyes with traumatic angle recession glaucoma showed good safety and efficacy in the medium-term follow-up. The contralateral fellow eye needs monitoring for glaucoma in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2021.1945116DOI Listing
February 2022

Changes in intraocular pressures associated with inhalational and mixed anesthetic agents currently used in ophthalmic surgery.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 07;69(7):1808-1814

VST Glaucoma Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure changes in intraocular pressures (IOPs) associated with inhalational and mixed anesthetic agents currently used for general anesthesia (GA) in ophthalmic surgery.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 48 eyes from 48 consecutive subjects that underwent ophthalmic surgery under GA were included. Mixed anesthetics were used in 26 eyes and sevoflurane in 22 eyes. IOPs of the nonsurgery eyes were recorded at T1 (5 min before induction of anesthesia), T2 (5 min after intubation), and T3 (at the conclusion of surgery before extudation) using ICare PRO and Perkins tonometers. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare differences in IOPs at various time points. Outcome measures were changes in IOP after induction of GA, intubation, and just before extubation and comparisons of decreases in IOPs induced by sevoflurane and mixed anesthetics.

Results: Mean preanesthesia IOP for patients in this study (mean age ± standard deviation = 26.9 ± 18.3 years; range: 5-70 years) was 17.9 ± 4.9 (range: 10-30) mm Hg. There was a significant decrease in the mean IOP (standard error (SE) (in mm Hg) at T2 (Perkins: -4.65 (0.57); ICare PRO: -5.16 (0.56) and T3 (Perkins: -5.63; ICare PRO: -5.36) as compared to the IOP at T1 (P < 0.001). The decreases in IOPs at T2 and T3 were similar in both anesthetic groups (T2:P = 0.60; T3: P = 0.33).

Conclusion: Significant decreases in IOPs after GA were observed and the differences were not significantly different between sevoflurane and mixed anesthetic agents. For management decisions in pediatric glaucoma, the IOP measurements under GA are crucial, the underestimation of IOP as noted with currently used anesthetic agents has to be accounted for and decisions are taken appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_2923_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374814PMC
July 2021

Agreement of Intraocular Pressure Measurement of Icare ic200 with Goldmann Applanation Tonometer in Adult Eyes with Normal Cornea.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021 May-Jun;4(3):238-243

VST center for Glaucoma, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: To study the agreement between the Icare ic200 (ICare Finland Oy, Helsinki, Finland) and the Goldmann Applanation Tonometer (GAT) in the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) in adult eyes.

Design: Noninterventional, cross-sectional study.

Participants: A total of 156 eyes of 156 adult participants with clear corneas were included.

Methods: The IOP measurements were obtained with the Icare ic200 by 1 observer followed by GAT readings by a second masked observer. The central corneal thickness (CCT) and biometry of all subjects were recorded.

Main Outcome Measures: The agreement between Icare ic200 and GAT was measured using the Bland-Altman plot.

Results: The mean age ± standard deviation of subjects was 55.3 ± 13.7 years. The GAT IOP ranged from 6 to 50 mmHg with a mean IOP of 19.5 ± 8.8 mmHg. The Icare ic200 IOP ranged from 7.4 to 50 mmHg with a mean IOP of 20.8 ± 9.3 mmHg. The mean difference between the IOP measurement of GAT and Icare ic200 was -1.27 mmHg with the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) ranging from -3.4 to 0.9 mmHg for all ranges of IOP. The mean difference (95% LoA) between the IOP measurement of GAT and Icare ic200 was -1 mmHg (-3 to 1 mmHg) and -1.8 mmHg (-4 to 0.2 mmHg) for a GAT IOP ≤21 mmHg and >21 mmHg, respectively. The CCT, axial length, age, and gender did not significantly affect the difference in measurement of IOP between the 2 tonometers. However, for every 1-mmHg increase in GAT IOP, the difference between the 2 tonometers increased by 0.04 mmHg (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In our study, the Icare ic200 overestimated the IOP. The overestimation increased as the baseline IOP increased. The agreement between the IOP measurement by GAT and Icare ic200 was <2 mmHg at all ranges of IOP. The narrow LoA between the tonometers for an IOP <21 mmHg makes it a useful alternative to GAT in this pressure range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogla.2021.04.002DOI Listing
October 2021

Outcomes of neovascular glaucoma in eyes presenting with moderate to good visual potential.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 21;41(7):2359-2368. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Srimati Kanuri Santhamma Centre for Vitreo-Retinal Diseases, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: To compare the disease characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) presenting with visual acuity (VA) 6/60 or better in two different health systems.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with NVG who presented between January 2016 to January 2018 in 5 tertiary-centres in India and one eye-specialist centre in London (UK) was performed. The baseline characteristics, treatment provisions, and visual outcomes in the India and UK cohorts were compared.

Results: At presentation, 18% (83 of 451) and 22% (59 of 270) of patients with NVG had VA 6/60 or better in India and the UK cohorts, respectively. The aetiologies of NVG were similar with proliferative diabetic retinopathy being the most common cause (60.9%, India; 64.4%, UK; p = 0.38). Previous panretinal photocoagulation was more prevalent in the UK cohort compared to the India cohort (94.9% versus 66.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The mean number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections per eye was higher in the Indian cohort (1.65 ± 0.97 versus 1.14 ± 1.02 injections; p < 0.001). The number of eyes with closed angles (36.9% India versus 30.5% UK; p = 0.45) and the number of eyes needing glaucoma interventions (52.1% India; 62.7% UK; p = 0.82) were similar in two cohorts. Among glaucoma surgeries, trabeculectomies were more commonly performed in the Indian cohort (23 vs 4; p < 0.001),while glaucoma drainage device surgeries were more prevalent in the UK cohort (18 vs 4 p < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 21 months (IQR 8.4-34.8 India; 24-36 months UK), favourable visual outcomes (vision stable or improved) were similar in both health systems (52.5% in the Indian cohort vs 43.4% in the UK cohort; p = 0.28). On multivariate regression analysis, the need for trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation was associated with worse visual outcomes in both cohorts.

Conclusions: The causes and clinical profile of neovascular glaucoma with presenting visual acuity 6/60 or better in India and the UK were similar. Only up to 50% of eyes achieved favourable visual outcomes with current management protocols in both health systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-01789-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Surgical skill assessment rubric for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation surgery.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 04;69(4):1008-1013

VST Centre for Glaucoma Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute L V Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_2392_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012929PMC
April 2021

Glaucoma Mimickers: A major review of causes, diagnostic evaluation, and recommendations.

Semin Ophthalmol 2021 Nov 10;36(8):692-712. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

VST Glaucoma Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

: Glaucoma is characterized by chronic progressive optic neuropathy with corresponding visual field changes, with or without raised intraocular pressure (IOP). When diagnosing glaucoma or monitoring its progression, the examiner has to rely on the appearance of the optic disc, characteristic retinal nerve fiber layer defects, and corresponding visual field defects. However, similar changes and symptoms may be observed in several other disorders of the optic nerve and retina that may mimic glaucoma, often leading to misdiagnosis. : The consequences of misdiagnosis not only result in improper treatment that may impact vision but also would negatively affect the overall health, psychological well-being of the patient, and may have considerable economic implications.: The current review describes various conditions that mimic glaucoma and the features that help differentiate these conditions from glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2021.1897855DOI Listing
November 2021

Cytomegalovirus endotheliitis with recurrent anterior uveitis and secondary glaucoma misdiagnosed as HLA-B27 uveitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 19;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

VST Center for Glaucoma, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

A 61-year-old male patient presented with decreased vision and recurrent redness in his right eye since the past 4 years. He had been diagnosed elsewhere as HLA-B27 positive anterior uveitis and was on oral methotrexate and topical corticosteroids for recurrent disease. He was on maximal medical therapy for glaucoma. Examination showed prominent inferior corneal oedema with pigmented keratic precipitates and elevated intraocular pressure. He underwent combined trabeculectomy with mitomycin C and cataract surgery. The aqueous sample tested positive for cytomegalovirus. He responded well to oral valganciclovir with resolution of uveitis, the intraocular pressure was well controlled and the corneal oedema resolved completely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-240061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898841PMC
February 2021

Neovascular glaucoma - A review.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 03;69(3):525-534

Smt Jadhavabai Nathmal Singhvee Glaucoma Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a sight-threatening secondary glaucoma characterized by appearance of new vessels over the iris and proliferation of fibrovascular tissue in the anterior chamber angle. Retinal ischemia is the common driving factor and common causes are central retinal vein occlusion, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and ocular ischemic syndrome. The current rise in the prevalence of NVG is partly related to increase in people with diabetes. A high index of suspicion and a thorough anterior segment evaluation to identify the early new vessels on the iris surface or angle are essential for early diagnosis of NVG. With newer imaging modalities such as the optical coherence tomography angiography and newer treatment options such as the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, it is possible to detect retinal ischemia early, tailor appropriate treatment, monitor disease progression, and treatment response. The management strategies are aimed at reducing the posterior segment ischemia, reduce the neovascular drive, and control the elevated intraocular pressure. This review summarizes the causes, pathogenesis, and differential diagnoses of NVG, and the management guidelines. We also propose a treatment algorithm of neovascular glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1591_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942095PMC
March 2021

Outcomes of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty combined with near total iridectomy in iridocorneal endothelial syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 9;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

VST Centre for Glaucoma Care, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

To report the outcomes of endothelial keratoplasty (EK) combined with near total iridectomy in the management of iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome with severely disorganised anterior segment. Three patients with ICE syndrome, who had a severely disorganised anterior segment underwent near total iridectomy, with/without cataract surgery, followed by EK at the same time. Mean age was 35 years. Prior to EK, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was in the range of 12-15 mm Hg. One patient (patient 2) had advanced disc damage prior to EK. Two eyes (patients 1 and 2) had a glaucoma drainage device, and in one, the IOP was controlled with two antiglaucoma medications. All grafts were clear, and IOP was well controlled till the last mean follow-up of 53 (range 30-72) months. The outcomes of EK with this surgical approach are favourable and should be considered in selective cases of ICE syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-240988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875288PMC
February 2021
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