Publications by authors named "Sirajeddin Belkhair"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Emerging Super-specialty of Neurology: Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (IONM) and Experience in Various Neurosurgeries at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Doha, Qatar.

Cureus 2021 Dec 15;13(12):e20432. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Institute, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, QAT.

Introduction Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) helps in better patient outcomes by minimizing risks related to the functional status of the nervous system during surgical procedures. An IONM alert to the surgical team during the surgery can help them identify the cause and take immediate corrective action. IONM confers possible benefits, including improved surgical morbidity and mortality, better patient care, minimal neurological deficits, reduced hospital stay, medical costs, and litigation risk. In addition, a highly skilled IONM team will make a better patient outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive patients who underwent intracranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures. Multimodality IONM was utilized, including somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial electrical motor evoked potential, spontaneous and triggered electromyography, electroencephalography, electrocorticography, cortical sensory mapping, and direct electrical cortical stimulation. Of a total of 62 patients, two patients revealed neurotonic EMG discharges during IONM, and most patients woke up without any new neurological deficit. Results Sixty-two patients were included, ranging from age 5 to 77 years (mean 43.5 years), with 54.8% men and 45.2% female. Multimodality IONM was used in all patients. Two EMG alerts were recorded during IONM, during a brain tumor resection, and right acetabular hip surgery with postoperative right foot drop. Conclusion Multimodality IONM is the gold standard of care for any surgical services and is used as real-time monitoring of functional integrity of neural structures at risk. If utilized by trained and expert teams, numerous surgeries may benefit from multimodality intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring.
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December 2021

Topical Vancomycin for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection after Craniotomy: Meta-analysis and Systematic Literature Review.

World Neurosurg 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Neurosurgery Division, Neuroscience Institute, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Objective: There is no consensus among neurosurgeons regarding whether the application of topical vancomycin after performing craniotomy has a role in reduction of the risk of surgical site infection and consequently reduction of treatment costs. In order to compare the rate of surgical site infections after craniotomies with and without the use of topical vancomycin, a meta-analysis of the available studies in the literature was carried out.

Methods: Multiple electronic health databases were searched to identify all the studies published from July 1988 to July 2021 that examined the role of application of topical vancomycin in reduction of the risk of surgical site infection after craniotomy (cSSIs). Effect sizes were expressed in pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates and, because of heterogeneity between studies, random effect of the inverse variance weighted method was used to perform the meta-analysis.

Results: Three observational retrospective cohort studies and 1 prospective controlled cohort study were identified, comparing the incidence of surgical site infection after 605 craniotomies in which topical vancomycin was used and after 716 craniotomies in which no such intervention was done. Meta-analysis showed that topical vancomycin decreased incidence of cSSIs (OR 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.43).

Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the use of topical vancomycin after performing craniotomies is safe and effective in decreasing the incidence of cSSIs, although there is a need to perform randomized controlled trials to strongly support this conclusion.
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November 2021

Retrospective analysis of the surgical management of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: A single-center study.

Qatar Med J 2021 18;2021(3):53. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar. E-mail:

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate ranges from 40% at 1 month to 54% at 1 year, and only 12%-39% achieve good outcomes and functional independence. The current management guidelines for spontaneous supratentorial ICH are still controversial.

Objective: Patients who presented with ICH and underwent craniotomy with hematoma evacuation or minimal procedures from January 2016 to May 2020 were included in the analysis. Several clinical, radiological, and surgical variables were collected to identify the variables most likely related to lower mortality and better functional outcomes.

Results: A total of 87 patients presented with HMC with ICH from January 2016 to May 2020. The mean age was 44.7 (42.2-47.2) years. There were 76 male (87.4%)/11 female (12.6%) patients, which reflect the population distribution in Qatar, which is mainly male predominant. Although Qatar is mainly a Middle-Eastern country, the ethnic distribution of patients was mainly of South Asian and Indian (60.9%) and Far-Eastern (20.7%) ethnicities because of diversity. The mean baseline Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 8.2+/ - 3.7. The mean baseline functional independence measure (FIM) score was 59.4+/ - 36.7. Most hematomas were located in the basal ganglia (79.3%%). Baseline characteristics based on long-term outcomes are summarized in Table 1. The following variables were correlated with poor outcome: low GCS on postoperative day 1 (P = 0.06), low FIM score (P = 0.006), ICH location (P = 0.04), distance of the closest point to the surface (P = 0.009), and presence of uncal herniation (P = 0.04). The baseline characteristics based on mortality are outlined in Table 2. The following variables were correlated with mortality: diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02), baseline GCS (P = 0.04), GCS on postoperative day 1 (P = 0.002), unequal pupils (P = 0.05), and postoperative midline shift (P = 0.001).

Conclusion: The preoperative clinical neurological status as well as mass effect (uncal herniation and midline shift) can be determinants of functional outcome and mortality. A deeper hematoma may result in poor functional outcome because of more surgical damage in functional brain tissues. Thus, the goal of surgery in spontaneous supratentorial ICH is to reduce mortality, but no evidence support that it can improve functional outcome. Although our findings are interesting, more prospective studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm our results.
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October 2021

Patient-Reported Outcome for Endovascular Treatment versus Microsurgical Clipping in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

World Neurosurg 2021 11 6;155:e695-e703. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Institute, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha-Qatar; Department of Clinical Academic Sciences, College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha-Qatar; Department of Neurological Sciences, Weill Cornell Medicine, Doha-Qatar.

Objective: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage has a high mortality with significant impact on quality of life despite effective management strategies including endovascular treatment and/or microsurgical clipping. Although the modalities have undergone clinical comparison, they have not been evaluated on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). This study compared endovascular versus microsurgical treatment using a PRO measure.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional telephonic survey of adult patients conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar between 2017 and 2019. Candidate study participants were identified from procedure logs and hospital electronic health records for endovascular treatment (N = 32) versus microsurgical clipping (N = 32) of cerebral aneurysm. The primary outcome measure was the short version of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SS-QoL) measure. The secondary outcome measure was the screened clinician-reported modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for all screened patients (n = 137). Mean scores were compared for the 2 treatment groups.

Results: The SS-QoL mean score was 4.23 (standard deviation ± 0.77) in endovascular treatment and 4.19 ± 0.19 in surgical clipping (P = 0.90). In exploratory analysis, mean physical domain score was 3.17 ± 0.60 versus 2.98 ± 0.66 in endovascular treatment and surgical clipping groups, respectively. Mean psychosocial domain scores were 4.43 ± 0.85 versus 4.18 ± 0.0.92, respectively. In multivariable analysis, none of the clinical variables were significantly related to SS-QoL except vasospasm irrespective of intervention received. In secondary outcome analysis, modified Rankin Scale score was higher for endovascular treatment (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Published evidence has supported clinical benefits of endovascular treatment for cerebral aneurysm treatment, but this study did not find any difference in PROs. Future studies of treatments should include PRO to identify potential differences from the patient's perspective.
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November 2021

Translamina Terminalis Approach to the Hypothalamus Using Supraorbital Craniotomy: Technical Note and Comparison with Other Surgical Corridors.

Asian J Neurosurg 2020 Jul-Sep;15(3):660-665. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Objectives: Approaches to the hypothalamus and anterior third ventricle are variable. We present a technical note on access of the hypothalamus using the trans-lamina terminalis approach by supraorbital craniotomy in a patient who had a hypothalamic cavernoma and presented to us with recurrent hemorrhage.

Patients And Methods: The trans-lamina terminalis approach, including anatomical landmarks and surgical steps through a supra-orbital craniotomy, is described and a comparison with other surgical corridors is discussed.

Results: The supraorbital trans lamina terminalis approach allowed an effective access to the hypothalamic lesions. This approach provided a safe and minimally invasive corridor for gross total resection of the lesion since trespass of viable brain tissue is avoided. One clinical case illustrates the feasibility of the approach allowing complete removal of a cavernoma without surgery related neurological of endocrinological deficits.

Conclusions: The supra-orbital craniotomy for trans-lamina terminalis approach is a valid surgical choice for hypothalamic lesions. The major strengths of this approach include minimal brain retraction and direct end-on view; however, the long and narrow surgical corridor requires some technical familiarization. The clinical outcomes are comparable to other surgical corridors.
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August 2020

Spinal Metastasis of Cerebral Glioblastoma with Genetic Profile: Case Report and Review of Literature.

World Neurosurg 2020 11 31;143:480-489. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; Department of Surgery, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Background: Spinal metastasis of cerebral glioblastoma (GBM) is rare, with some reports suggesting a prevalence of 1%-2%.

Case Description: Herein, we present 2 unique cases of spinal metastasis of cerebral GBM, 1 of which was histologically proven to be a drop spinal GBM metastasis. The first case was a 25-year-old female who presented with a spinal intradural intramedullary spinal lesion a few months after resection of a left temporal lobe GBM (isocitrate dehydrogenase wild type). The patient underwent surgical resection of the new lesion, and subsequent histopathologic examination proved that the intramedullary spinal lesion was GBM. The patient experienced full recovery postoperatively, and then a few months later, she presented again with widespread drop metastasis of the spinal cord. The second case is a middle-aged male with right temporal GBM who developed spinal metastasis 10 months after his diagnosis.

Conclusions: We are reporting these 2 cases due to the rarity of spinal metastasis in GBM. We reviewed the current literature and included genetic and molecular profiles in the discussion. Currently, there are no established treatment guidelines for GBM spinal metastasis. The Stupp protocol after initial brain surgery for GBM did not appear to have beneficial effects on prolonging survival in these patients with spinal metastasis. The goal of treatment was primarily to alleviate pain and neurologic deficits with no effect on overall outcome. Prognosis following the diagnosis of spinal metastasis is poor.
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November 2020

Solitary Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Mimicking Third Ventricular Colloid Cyst-Case Report and Review of Literature.

World Neurosurg 2019 Mar 19;123:286-294. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Hamad Medical Corporate, Neurosurgery, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a rare malignant tumor of the central nervous system. It is associated with poor prognosis and accounts for 0.7%-0.9% of all lymphomas and only 0.3%-1.5% of intracranial tumors. Typically, these lesions are in the cerebral white matter near the corpus callosum, the central gray matter, the basal ganglia-thalamus-hypothalamic region, the posterior fossa and the periventricular region. Only 2 cases with pure third ventricular lymphoma have been reported in the literature.

Case Description: A 72-year-old female patient known to have type II diabetes mellitus treated with insulin, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and obesity presented with a history of acute confusion and urinary incontinence. No headache was reported on admission, but previously she had intermittent mild headaches and generalized body aches. She had no history of visual symptoms. Her family said she was mildly confused and had memory difficulties that started acutely 2 days before presentation to the hospital. The patient had urgent computed tomography of the brain, which showed a hyperdense lesion in the region of the foramen of Monro. Pre-operative images diagnosed the case as colloid cyst, but post-operative histopathology proved the lesion to be primary CNS lymphoma.

Conclusions: Eleven months after surgery, the patient is fully consciousness and oriented, with no memory issues or neurologic deficit. She is back to her baseline activities. We are reporting this case for the rarity of the disease and the unusual location of it.
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March 2019

Awake High-Flow Extracranial to Intracranial Bypass for Complex Cerebral Aneurysms: Institutional Clinical Trial Results.

World Neurosurg 2017 Sep 14;105:557-567. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Saint Louis University Center for Outcomes Research, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: Assess the potential added benefit to patient outcomes of "awake" neurological testing when compared with standard neurophysiologic testing performed under general endotracheal anesthesia.

Methods: Prospective study of 30 consecutive adult patients who underwent awake high flow extracranial to intracranial (HFEC-IC) bypass. Clinical neurological and neurophysiologic findings were recorded. Primary outcome measures were the incidence of stroke/cerebrovascular accident (CVA), length of stay, discharge to rehabilitation, 30-day modified Rankin scale score, and death. An analysis was also performed of a retrospective control cohort (n = 110 patients who underwent HFEC-IC for internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms under standard general endotracheal anesthesia).

Results: Five patients (16.6%) developed clinical awake neurological changes (4, contralateral hemiparesis; 1, ipsilateral visual changes) during the 10-minute ICA occlusion test. These patients had 2 kinks in the graft, 1 vasospasm, 1 requiring reconstruction of the distal anastomosis, and 1 developed blurring of vision that reversed after the removal of the distal permanent clip on the ICA. Three of these 5 patients had asynchronous clinical "awake" neurological and neurophysiologic changes. Two patients (7%) developed CVA. Median length of stay was 4 days. Twenty-eight of 30 patients were discharged to home. Median modified Rankin scale score was 1. There were no deaths in this series. Absolute risk reduction in the awake craniotomy group (n = 30) relative to control retrospective group (n = 110) was 7% for CVA, 9% for discharge to rehabilitation, and 10% for graft patency.

Conclusions: Temporary ICA occlusion during HFEC-IC bypass for ICA aneurysms in conjunction with awake intraoperative clinical testing was effective in detecting a subset of patients (n = 3, 10%) in whom neurological deficit was not detected by neurophysiologic monitoring alone.
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September 2017

The Extended Lateral Supraorbital Approach and Extradural Anterior Clinoidectomy Through a Frontopterio-Orbital Window: Technical Note and Pilot Surgical Series.

World Neurosurg 2017 Apr 29;100:159-166. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Lateral approaches to treat anterior cranial fossa lesions have evolved since the first frontotemporal approach described by Dandy in 1918. We describe a less invasive approach to perform extradural anterior clinoidectomy through a lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach for anterior circulation aneurysms and anterolateral skull base lesions.

Methods: The extended LSO approach involves performing a standard lateral supraorbital craniotomy followed by drilling of the sphenoid wing and lateral wall of the orbit through the frontal bony opening of the LSO approach, without any temporal extension of the craniotomy. This creates a frontopterio-orbital window exposing the periorbita; superior, medial, and anterior aspect of the temporal dura mater; and superior orbital fissure. After unroofing the superior orbital fissure, the meningo-orbital fold is cut, and the temporal dura mater is peeled from the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus to expose the anterior clinoid process allowing a standard opening of the optic canal and anterior clinoidectomy.

Results: The extended LSO approach and extradural anterior clinoidectomy allowed access to 4 sphenoid wing/anterior clinoidal meningiomas, 5 anterior circulation aneurysms, 2 temporomesial lesions, and 1 orbital/cavernous sinus abscess. Postoperatively, 2 patients had transient hemiparesis, 2 patients had transient third nerve palsy, and 1 patient had minimal visual field deterioration. All patients had a modified Rankin Scale score ≤1 at 8-week follow-up.

Conclusion: The extended LSO approach opens a new route (frontopterio-orbital window) to perform extradural anterior clinoidectomy safely and increases surgical exposure, angles, and operability of a less invasive keyhole craniotomy (LSO approach) to treat anterior cranial fossa lesions.
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April 2017

One versus double burr holes for treating chronic subdural hematoma meta-analysis.

Can J Neurol Sci 2013 Jan;40(1):56-60

Division of Neurosurgery, Dalhousie University, QE II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Objective And Design: There is controversy among neurosurgeons regarding whether double burr hole craniostomy (DBHC) is better than single burr hole craniostomy (SBHC) in the treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (CSH), in terms of having a lower revision rate. In order to compare the revision rates after SBHC versus DBHC, we performed a meta-analysis of the available studies in the literature.

Materials And Methods: Multiple electronic health databases were searched to identify all the studies published between 1966 and December 2010 that compared SBHC and DBHC. Data were processed in Review Manager 5.0.18. Effect sizes were expressed in pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates, and due to heterogeneity between studies we used random effect of the inverse variance weighted method to perform the meta-analysis.

Results: Five observational retrospective cohort studies were identified: four published studies and one unpublished, describing the outcomes of 355 DBHC and 358 SBHC to evacuate 713 CSH in 631 patients. Meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the revision rates between double burr hole craniostomy and single burr hole craniostomy when performed to evacuate CSH. Pooled odds ratio for all the studies was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.26 - 1.46).

Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that SBHC is as good as DBHC in evacuating chronic subdural hematoma and is not associated with a higher revision rate compared to DBHC.
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January 2013