Publications by authors named "Siobhan Higgins"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2016 Sep 3;104(3):629-37. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Cork Centre Center for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, Department of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland;

Background: Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested.

Objective: We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effect of the consumption of vitamin D-enhanced eggs (produced by feeding hens at the maximum concentration of vitamin D3 or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] lawfully allowed in feed) on winter serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults.

Design: We conducted an 8-wk winter RCT in adults aged 45-70 y (n = 55) who were stratified into 3 groups and were requested to consume ≤2 eggs/wk (control group, in which status was expected to decline), 7 vitamin D3-enhanced eggs/wk, or seven 25(OH)D3-enhanced eggs/wk. Serum 25(OH)D was the primary outcome.

Results: Although there was no significant difference (P > 0.1; ANOVA) in the mean preintervention serum 25(OH)D in the 3 groups, it was ∼7-8 nmol/L lower in the control group than in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs. With the use of an ANCOVA, in which baseline 25(OH)D was accounted for, vitamin D3-egg and 25(OH)D3-egg groups were shown to have had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.005) postintervention serum 25(OH)D than in the control group. With the use of a within-group analysis, it was shown that, although serum 25(OH)D in the control group significantly decreased over winter (mean ± SD: -6.4 ± 6.7 nmol/L; P = 0.001), there was no change in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs (P > 0.1 for both).

Conclusion: Weekly consumption of 7 vitamin D-enhanced eggs has an important impact on winter vitamin D status in adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02678364.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.132530DOI Listing
September 2016

The effect of glycaemic index of high carbohydrate diets consumed over 5 days on exercise energy metabolism and running capacity in males.

J Sports Sci 2009 Dec;27(14):1545-54

Human Nutrition Section, Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The aim of this study was to determine whether rates of total fat and carbohydrate oxidation and endurance capacity during running conducted in the fasted state are influenced by the glycaemic index (GI) of high carbohydrate diets consumed over 5 days. Nine healthy males performed three treadmill runs to exhaustion at 65% of maximum oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2max)): after a habitual diet (control trial), after 5 days on a high carbohydrate/high glycaemic index diet, and after 5 days on a high carbohydrate/low glycaemic index diet in randomized counterbalanced order. No significant differences in rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation, concentrations of plasma insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol, or time to exhaustion were observed between the high carbohydrate/high glycaemic index and high carbohydrate/low glycaemic index trials. Compared with the control trial, the concentration of plasma glycerol and rate of fat oxidation were lower (P < 0.05) and the rate of carbohydrate oxidation higher (P < 0.05) in both the high carbohydrate/high glycaemic index diet and high carbohydrate/low glycaemic index trials during the run to exhaustion. In conclusion, the extent by which a high carbohydrate diet consumed over 5 days reduces rate of fat oxidation during subsequent running exercise in the fasted state is not influenced by the glycaemic index of the diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410903134115DOI Listing
December 2009

The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: prevalence and educational identification of mild mental retardation.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006 Aug;47(8):828-39

Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from .5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and examines the factors that relate to educational identification.

Method: A total of 2,730 children in school years 8 and 9 attending local authority schools were assessed in school with the group-administered Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT). A sample of 304 pupils at high, moderate and low risk of mild mental retardation was selected for in-depth study. This included the individually measured full-scale IQ (WISC-III(UK)), the Wechsler Quicktest of attainments, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire from parents and teachers and an abbreviated version of the Social Communication Questionnaire.

Results: Of those selected for the in-depth study, 204 (67%) participated, with a greater proportion from the low risk group. A range of prevalence estimates were calculated using different imputation methods and assumptions about individuals not screened. Rates of pupils with WISC IQ < 70 varied from 5.8% to 10.6%. There were no significant gender differences. In contrast to the high prevalence estimates using the WISC, the proportion of pupils scoring in the lowest stanine on the CAT was as expected. Only 15% of those with IQ < 70 had a statement of special educational needs or attended a school for moderate learning difficulties. Behaviour, particularly social communication problems, predicted educational identification.

Conclusions: The current study produced a high estimate of the prevalence of mild intellectual disability based on the WISC but not on the CAT. The findings highlight that the majority of mild intellectual disability in the UK would not be detected using registers. Cases that are detected by registers are more behaviourally disturbed than others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01630.xDOI Listing
August 2006

Is religious fasting related to iron status in Greek Orthodox Christians?

Br J Nutr 2005 Aug;94(2):198-203

Division of Developmental Medicine (Human Nutrition Section), Yorkhill Hospital, Dalnair Street, Glasgow G3 8SJ, UK.

The Orthodox Christian diet is unique in regularly interchanging from an omnivore to a vegetarian-type diet, and no study to date has focused on the impact of this on Fe status. Thirty-five Greek Orthodox Christian strict fasters (n 17 male, n 18 female; mean age 43.6+/-13.2 years) and twenty-four controls (n 11 male, n 13 female; mean age 39.8+/-7.6 years) were studied before (pre) and near completion (end) of the Christmas fasting (CF) period (40 d), during which meat and dairy products are prohibited. Fe status was assessed using standard haematological parameters, and Fe deficiency was determined via serum ferritin levels (<12 ng/ml) and the tri-index model. While fasters had marginally poorer pre haematological indicators, values were well above the cut-off levels, suggesting that intermittent fasting for a mean of 22.5+/-15.5 years did not have any substantial adverse effects on Fe status. During the CF period the changes in Fe status indices were more beneficial for fasters than for control subjects. In particular, fasters increased their ferritin levels (P = 0.02) and decreased their total Fe-binding capacity (P < 0.001). Compared with males, the effect of CF was more pronounced in female fasters. No subjects were detected with Fe deficiency at the end of the CF period. End dietary Fe and fibre intake were significantly higher in the fasters as compared with the control group (P = 0.038 and P = 0.001, respectively). Adherence to the Orthodox Christian dietary guidelines does not have a major impact on Fe status and is not associated with a significantly greater degree of Fe deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/bjn20051472DOI Listing
August 2005

The influence of moderate red wine consumption on antioxidant status and indices of oxidative stress associated with CHD in healthy volunteers.

Br J Nutr 2005 Feb;93(2):233-40

Plant Products and Human Nutrition Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.

The effects of moderate red wine consumption on the antioxidant status and indices of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress associated with CHD were investigated. A randomised, controlled study was performed with twenty free-living healthy volunteers. Subjects in the red wine group consumed 375 ml red wine daily for 2 weeks. We measured the total concentration of phenolics and analysed the individual phenolics in the wine and plasma by HPLC with tandem MS. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured with electron spin resonance spectroscopy while homocysteine and fasting plasma lipids were also determined. The production of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in Cu-oxidised LDL. Plasma total phenolic concentrations increased significantly after 2 weeks of daily red wine consumption (P< or =0.001) and trace levels of metabolites, mainly glucuronides and methyl glucuronides of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, were detected in the plasma of the red wine group. These flavan-3-ol metabolites were not detected in plasma from the control group. The maximum concentrations of conjugated dienes and TBARS in Cu-oxidised LDL were reduced (P< or =0.05) and HDL cholesterol concentrations increased (P< or =0.05) following red wine consumption. The findings from the present study provide some evidence for potential protective effects of moderate consumption of red wine in healthy volunteers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/bjn20041311DOI Listing
February 2005

Physical activity, dietary intake and metabolic risk factors in non-diabetic daughters of patients with type II diabetes.

Prev Med 2005 Feb;40(2):145-51

Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: It has been reported that the offspring of patients with type II diabetes have an adverse metabolic risk profile. This study aimed to investigate the impact of habitual physical activity and diet on metabolic risk factors in the daughters of patients with type II diabetes and control subjects.

Methods: Thirty-nine offspring and 39 age- and sex-matched controls completed physical activity and food intake diaries, during the week preceding a fasting blood sample.

Results: The offspring had higher body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist circumference than the control subjects (all P < 0.01). Fasting glucose and insulin, and insulin sensitivity estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA(IR)) method, were also higher in the offspring group (all P < 0.01). Daily energy expenditure was lower (P < 0.0001) in the offspring than control group. Dietary profile was not different between the groups. Daily energy expenditure was significantly correlated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, and HOMA(IR) (all P < 0.05) in offspring but not controls.

Conclusions: Offspring had a less favourable physical and metabolic profile and were less physically active than control subjects. In offspring, central adiposity and metabolic risk factors were influenced by habitual physical activity to a greater degree than in control subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.05.004DOI Listing
February 2005
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