Publications by authors named "Sintu Kumar Samanta"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Autonomous magnetic microbots for environmental remediation developed by organic waste derived carbon dots.

J Environ Manage 2021 Nov 26;297:113322. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj, UP, India. Electronic address:

Biodegradable precursors for micro/nanobots development are key requirements for several sustainable applications. In this regard, we propose an innovative solution for water purification at minimum cost and efforts where organic waste is used for the treatment of organic pollutants. Herein, catalytic magnetic microbots were developed by functionalizing iron oxide nanoparticles with carbon dots (C-Dots), which were synthesized by using household waste such as potato peels as precursors. The speed of these autonomously propelling bots indeed is found very promising for large distance swimming even in viscous medium by using hydrogen peroxide as fuel. These microbots catalytically propel and degrade toxic polar as well as sparingly water-soluble industrial dyes without any external agitation. The degradation of dyes was confirmed by mass-spectra analysis. Furthermore, these microbots can efficiently degrade a mixture of dyes and reused without compromising its performance significantly. Additionally, rate constant (K) and activation energy (E) were also determined to establish the catalytic nature of the bots. The present microbots acted as nanozyme owing to its synergistic catalytic activity of FeO and C-Dots for degradation of mixture of toxic dyes, essential for large scale water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113322DOI Listing
November 2021

A detailed review of the outbreak of COVID-19.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2021 05;26(6):149-170

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, 211012 Allahabad, India.

The disease COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is the third highly infectious human Coronavirus epidemic in the 21 century due to its high transmission rate and quick evolution of its pathogenicity. Genomic studies indicate that it is zoonotic from bats. The COVID-19 has led to significant loss of lives and a tremendous economic decline in the world. Generally, the population at risk of a fatal outcome are the elderly and those who are debilitated or are immune compromised. The fatality rate is high, but now is reduced after the development of preventive vaccine although an effective treatment by drug against the virus is yet to be developed. The treatment is narrowed to the use of several anti-viral drugs, or other re-purposed drugs. Social distancing, therefore, has emerged as a putative method to decrease the rate of infection. In this review, we summarize the aspects of the disease that is so far have come to light and review the impact of the infection on our society, healthcare, economy, education, and environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.52586/4931DOI Listing
May 2021

Corrigendum to "Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles as effective alternatives to treat antibiotics resistant bacterial infections: A review" [Biotechnol. Rep. 25 (2020) e00427].

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2021 Mar 19;29:e00578. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad, 211012, India.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00427.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990725PMC
March 2021

Recent development of autonomously driven micro/nanobots for efficient treatment of polluted water.

J Environ Manage 2021 Mar 9;281:111750. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Devghat, Prayagraj, UP, 211015, India. Electronic address:

Autonomously propelled micro/nanobots are one of the most advanced and integrated structures which have been fascinated researchers owing to its exceptional property that enables them to be carried out user-defined tasks more precisely even on an atomic scale. The unique architecture and engineering aspects of these manmade tiny devices make them viable options for widespread biomedical applications. Moreover, recent development in this line of interest demonstrated that micro/nanobots would be very promising for the water treatment as these can efficiently absorb or degrade the toxic chemicals from the polluted water based on their tunable surface chemistry. These auto propelled micro/nanobots catalytically degrade toxic pollutants into non-hazardous compounds more rapidly and effectively. Thus, for the last few decades, nanobots mediated water treatment gaining huge popularity due to its ease of operation and scope of guided motion that could be monitored by various external fields and stimuli. Also, these are economical, energy-saving, and suitable for large scale water treatment, particularly required for industrial effluents. However, the efficacy of these bots hugely relies on its design, characteristic of materials, properties of the medium, types of fuel, and surface functional groups. Minute variation for one of these things may lead to a change in its performance and hinders its dynamics of propulsion. It is deemed that nanobots might be a smart choice for using these as the new generation devices for treating industrial effluents before discharging it in the water bodies, which is a major concern for human health and the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111750DOI Listing
March 2021

Modulating catalytic activity of human topoisomerase II α enzyme by fluorescent gold nanoclusters.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 30;170:523-531. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad 211015, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Precise monitoring of the enzyme activity by a suitable modulator is one of the very fundamental aspects of drug designing that provides the opportunity to overcome the challenges of several diseases. Herein, inhibition of human Topoisomerase IIα enzyme which serves as a potential target site for several anti-cancer drugs is demonstrated by using ultra-small size gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) with the dimension comparable with size of the active site of the enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulation results demonstrate that the Au NCs strongly interact with the human Topo IIα enzyme at its active site or allosteric site depending on forms of enzyme. Additionally, binding energy and interaction profile provides the molecular basis of understanding of interactions of ultra-small size Au NCs and human Topo IIα enzyme. Enthalpy change (ΔH) and binding constant (K) are measured based on a sequential binding model of the Au NCs with the enzyme as demonstrated by the ITC study. Moreover, the in-vitro inhibition study of the catalytic activity of the enzyme and gel electrophoresis indicates that the ultra-small size Au NCs may be used as a potent inhibitor of human Topo IIα enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.129DOI Listing
February 2021

Combination therapy of biogenic C-dots and lysozyme for enhanced antibacterial and antibiofilm activity.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb;32(8):085104

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad-211012, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Nearly 80% of human chronic infections are caused due to bacterial biofilm formation. The increased resistance against the conventional antimicrobial agents makes it difficult to treat the biofilm-related infections. The antibiotics resistance developed by planktonic cells has also become a major threat for human. Therefore, we have attempted here to develop an effective alternative strategy to overcome the issues of antibiotics resistance of bacteria. Upon synthesis, biogenic C-dots were combined with lysozymes which were further encapsulated into chitosan nanocarrier to form C-dots carrier (CDC). The as-synthesized C-dots were found irregular shaped and the average size of C-dots and CDC were 8 ± 2 nm and 450 ± 50 nm, respectively. To ensure secure and targeted delivery of C-dots and lysozyme we have employed chitosan, a biodegradable and natural biopolymer, as a delivery system. The study of time-dependent bacterial growth and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that CDC can exhibit a synergistic bactericidal activity against the antibiotics resistant recombinant E. coli cells. Further, we have shown that the CDC could be a potent agent for both prevention of biofilm formation and eradication of preformed biofilm. In addition, we have observed that our drug delivery system is hemocompatible in nature making it suitable for in vivo applications. Therefore, we believe that the combination therapy of C-dots and lysozyme may be used as an excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abc2edDOI Listing
February 2021

Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles as effective alternatives to treat antibiotics resistant bacterial infections: A review.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2020 Mar 31;25:e00427. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad, 211012, India.

Due to development of bacterial resistance to the conventional antibiotics, the treatment of bacterial infections has become a major issue of concern. The unprescribed and uncontrolled use of antibiotics has lead to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial strains. Therefore, the development of novel and potent bactericidal agents is of great clinical importance. Interestingly, metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven to be promising alternative to antibiotics. NPs interact with the important cellular organelles and biomolecules like DNA, enzymes, ribosomes, and lysosomes that can affect cell membrane permeability, oxidative stress, gene expression, protein activation, and enzyme activation. Since, NPs target multiple biomolecules concurrently; it becomes very difficult for bacteria to develop resistance against them. Currently, there are different physical and chemical methods utilized for NPs synthesis. However, most of these processes are costly and potentially hazardous for the living organisms and environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop an eco-friendly and cost-effective method of synthesis. Recently, the 'green synthesis' approaches are gaining a lot of attention. It is demonstrated that living organisms like bacteria, yeast, fungi, and plant cells can reduce inorganic metal ions into metal NPs by their cellular metabolites. Both the yield and stability of biogenic NPs are quite satisfactory. In the current article, we have addressed the green synthesis of various metal NPs reported till date and highlighted their different modes and mechanisms of antibacterial properties. It is highly anticipated that biogenic metallic NPs could be viable and economical alternatives for treating drug resistant bacterial infections in near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005563PMC
March 2020

Role of surface charge in enhancing antibacterial activity of fluorescent carbon dots.

Nanotechnology 2020 Feb 8;31(9):095101. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad 211012, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Herein, different surface charged carbon dots (Cdots) were synthesized by using diethylene glycol as a carbon source with various amine containing surface passivating agents. The synthesis method is very simple and fast microwave oven-based, that results in almost similar sized positive, negative and uncharged fluorescent Cdots which has been confirmed by zeta potential analysis in our case. The formation of Cdots was confirmed by characterization using fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, XRD, FT-IR, and XPS spectroscopy. To find out relative bactericidal activity of these Cdots, green fluorescence protein expressing recombinant E. coli bacteria were taken as a model system. Time-dependent bacterial growth and FACS study demonstrated that both uncharged Cdots and positively charged Cdots were showing better bactericidal activity as compared to negative charged Cdots. The Cdots caused elevation of reactive oxygen species level, which is possibly leading to bacterial cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab55b8DOI Listing
February 2020

Synthesis and applications of biogenic nanomaterials in drinking and wastewater treatment.

J Environ Manage 2019 Feb 5;231:734-748. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad 211012, India. Electronic address:

The continuous increase in water pollution by various organic & inorganic contaminants has become a major issue of concern worldwide. Furthermore, the anthropogenic activities for the manufacturing of various products have boosted this problem manifold. To overcome this serious issue, nanotechnology has initiated to explore various proficient strategies to treat waste water in a more precise and accurate way with the support of various nanomaterials. In recent times, nanosized materials have proved their applicability to provide clean and affordable water treatment technologies. The exclusive features such as high surface area and mechanical properties, greater chemical reactivity, lower cost and energy, efficient regeneration for reuse allow the nanomaterials perfect for water remediation. But the conventional routes of synthesis of nanomaterials encompass the involvement of hazardous and volatile chemicals; therefore the use of nanomaterials further creates the secondary pollution. This issue has intrigued the scientists to develop biogenic pathways and procedures which are environmentally safer and inexpensive. It has led to the new trends that involve developing bio-inspired nano-scale adsorbents and catalysts for the removal and degradation of a wide range of water pollutants. Carbohydrates, proteins, polymers, flavonoids, alkaloids and several antioxidants obtained from plants, bacteria, fungi, and algae have proven their effectiveness as capping and stabilizing agents during manufacture of nanomaterials. Application of biogenic nanomaterials for waste water treatment is relatively newer but rapidly escalating area of research. In the present review, promises and challenges for the synthesis of various biogenic nanomaterials and their potential applications in waste water treatment and/or water purification have been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.10.104DOI Listing
February 2019

A novel encystation specific protein kinase regulates chitin synthesis in Entamoeba invadens.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2018 03 10;220:19-27. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India. Electronic address:

Phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins and is involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular events. The proteome of Entamoeba invadens, the reptilian counterpart of Entamoeba histolytica consists of an overwhelming number of putative protein kinases, and some may have a role to play in Entamoeba encystation. In this study, we have identified a novel protein kinase named as EiCSpk (Entamoeba invadenscyst specific protein kinase) which expressed almost exclusively during encystation. It is an active Protein kinase C with a characteristic substrate phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation property. Gene silencing study has unveiled its role as a regulator of chitin synthesis through transcriptional activation of the chitin synthesis pathway genes along with glycogen phosphorylases that are involved in the influx of glucose from glycogen breakdown for chitin synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2018.01.003DOI Listing
March 2018

Cell cytotoxicity and serum albumin binding capacity of the morin-Cu(ii) complex and its effect on deoxyribonucleic acid.

Mol Biosyst 2016 08;12(9):2818-33

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India.

The dietary components, flavonoids, are important for their anti-oxidant properties and the ability to act as metal ion chelators. The characterization of the morin-Cu(ii) complex is executed using elemental analysis, FTIR and mass spectroscopy. DNA cleaving and cell cytotoxicity properties followed by serum albumin binding have been investigated in this report. The morin-Cu(ii) complex was found to cleave plasmid pBR322 DNA via an oxidative pathway as revealed by agarose gel based assay performed in the presence of some scavengers and reactive oxygen species. The breaking of the deoxyribose ring of calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was also confirmed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reacting species (TBARS) between thiobarbituric acid and malonaldehyde. The morin-Cu(ii) complex is able to inhibit the growth of human HeLa cells. Fluorescence studies revealed that the morin-Cu(ii) complex can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of serum albumins (SAs) via a static quenching method. The binding constants were found to be in the order of 10(5) M(-1) and observed to increase with temperature. Both ΔH° and ΔS° are positive for the binding of the morin-Cu(ii) complex with serum albumins which indicated the presence of hydrophobic forces. Site-selectivity studies reveal that the morin-Cu(ii) complex binds to both site 1 (subdomain IIA) and site 2 (subdomain IIIA) of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Circular dichroism (CD) studies showed the structural perturbation of SAs during binding with the morin-Cu(ii) complex. The results from binding studies confirmed that after complexation with the Cu(ii) ion, morin alters its mode of interaction with SAs which could have differential implications on its other biological and pharmaceutical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6mb00344cDOI Listing
August 2016

In vitro ALP and osteocalcin gene expression analysis and in vivo biocompatibility of N-methylene phosphonic chitosan nanofibers for bone regeneration.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2013 May;9(5):870-9

School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India.

Most polymeric nanofibers used for bone tissue engineering lack adequate functional groups for bioactivity. This study explores the potential of nanofibers of phosphate functionalized derivative of chitosan-N-methylene phosphonic chitosan (NMPC) for bone tissue engineering. Nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning of NMPC/PVA blend solutions. NMPC/PVA nanofibers exhibited 172% higher viability of MG-63 cells compared to pure PVA nanofibers. ALP and Collagen type I genes revealed higher expression in NMPC nanofibers on day 3 whereas osteocalcin gene was expressed on day 7. In rabbit tibial defects, NMPC based electrospun graft showed presence of no adverse tissue reaction by histological examination while radiological examination suggested acceleration of bone healing by 300% compared to defects without any scaffold. Thus it is concluded NMPC based nanofibers may have potential for bone grafting applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2013.1592DOI Listing
May 2013

The chitin biosynthesis pathway in Entamoeba and the role of glucosamine-6-P isomerase by RNA interference.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2012 Nov 9;186(1):60-8. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302, India.

Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, infects through its cyst form. A thick chitin wall protects the cyst from the harsh environment outside of the body. It is known that chitin is synthesized only during encystation, but the chitin synthesis pathway (CSP) of Entamoeba is not well characterized. In this report, we have identified the genes involved in chitin biosynthesis from the Entamoeba genome database and verified their expression profile at the transcriptional level in encysting Entamoeba invadens. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqRT-PCR) analysis showed that all the chitin pathway genes are entirely absent or transcribed at low levels in trophozoites. The mRNA expression of most of the CSP genes reached their maximum level between 9 and 12h after the in vitro initiation of encystation. Double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing of glucosamine-6-P isomerase (Gln6Pi) reduced chitin synthesis to 62-64%, which indicates that Gln6Pi might be a key enzyme for regulating chitin synthesis in Entamoeba. The study of different enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism revealed that stored glycogen is converted to glucose during encystation. It is clear from the sqRT-PCR analysis that the rate of glycolysis decreases as encystation proceeds. Encystation up-regulates the expression of glycogen phosphorylase, which is responsible for glycogen degradation. The significant decrease in chitin synthesis in encysting cells treated with a specific inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase indicates that the glucose obtained from the degradation of stored glycogen in trophozoites might be one of the major sources of glucose for chitin synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2012.09.011DOI Listing
November 2012
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