Publications by authors named "Simone Morais"

76 Publications

Seaweeds rehydration and boiling: Impact on iodine, sodium, potassium, selenium, and total arsenic contents and health benefits for consumption.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jul 5;155:112385. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

REQUIMTE, LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia Do Porto, Instituto Politécnico Do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015, Porto, Portugal.

Considering the importance of seaweeds for the development of sustainable and innovative food products, this study aimed to characterize the impact of hydrothermal processing on iodine, sodium, potassium, selenium, and arsenic concentrations of four seaweed species (S. latissima, L. digitata, U. pinnatifida, and C. crispus) and on the associated health risks-benefits for consumers. These elements revealed a common pattern for leachable fractions of iodine, total arsenic, and selenium: L. digitata ≥ S. latissima > C. crispus > U. pinnatifida after rehydration and boiling during different periods. The behavior for sodium was: S. latissima > L. digitata > C. crispus > U. pinnatifida, and for potassium: U. pinnatifida > L. digitata > S. latissima > C. crispus. Generally, the species that attained more significant losses were S. latissima and L. digitata. A health-relevant sodium/potassium ratio below 0.7 was found for all species except for U. pinnatifida. In some species, the risk-benefit analysis revealed that high iodine and arsenic levels might promote risks for consumption, even after 20 min boiling, but 5 g of processed U. pinnatifida could contribute to adequate iodine, sodium, potassium, and selenium intakes for all population groups. Standardized processing treatments of seaweeds can open new opportunities for the sector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112385DOI Listing
July 2021

Bioactive Lipids of Seaweeds from the Portuguese North Coast: Health Benefits versus Potential Contamination.

Foods 2021 Jun 12;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 12.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP), Instituto Politécnico do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal.

The total lipid content and lipidic profile of seaweeds harvested in the North Coast and purchased in Portugal were determined in this paper. The amount of total lipids in the different species of seaweeds varied between 0.7 ± 0.1% () and 3.8 ± 0.6% ( spp.). Regarding the fatty acid content, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ranged between 0-35%, with spp. presenting the highest amount; monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) varied between 19 and 67%; and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were predominant in (45-78%) and spp. (36-79%). Concerning the nutritional indices, the atherogenicity index (AI) was between 0.4-3.2, the thrombogenicity index (TI) ranged from 0.04 to 1.95, except for spp., which had a TI of 7.6, and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio (HH) values ranged between 0.88-4.21, except for spp., which exhibited values between 0.22-9.26. The n6/n3 ratio was below 1 for most of the species evaluated, except for , which presented a higher value, although below 2. Considering the PUFA/SFA ratio, seaweeds presented values between 0.11-1.02. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) contamination of seaweeds under study was also quantified, the values found being much lower than the maximum levels recommended for foodstuff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231286PMC
June 2021

Firefighters' occupational exposure: Contribution from biomarkers of effect to assess health risks.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 20;156:106704. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015 Porto. Electronic address:

Firefighting is physically and physiologically exhausting besides encompassing exposure to toxic fire emissions. Biomonitoring studies from the past five years have been significantly contributing to characterize the occupational-related health effects in this group of professionals and to improve risk assessment. Therefore, this study gathers and critically discusses the most characterized biomarkers of effect (oxidative stress, DNA and protein damage, stress hormones, inflammation, and vascular, lung, and liver injury), including those potentially more promising to be explored in future studies, and their relation with health outcomes. Various studies proved an association between exposures to fire emissions and/or heat and significantly altered values of biomarkers of inflammation (soluble adhesion molecules, tumor necrosis factor, interleukins, and leucocyte count), vascular damage and tissue injury (pentraxin-3, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cardiac troponin T) in firefighting forces. Moreover, preliminary data of DNA damage in blood, urinary mutagenicity and 8-isoprostaglandin in exhaled breath condensate suggest that these biomarkers of oxidative stress should be further explored. However, most of the reported studies are based on cross-sectional designs, which limit full identification and characterization of the risk factors and their association with development of work-related diseases. Broader studies based on longitudinal designs and strongly supported by the analysis of several types of biomarkers in different biological fluids are further required to gain deeper insights into the firefighters occupational related health hazards and contribute to implementation of new or improved surveillance programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106704DOI Listing
June 2021

Environmental and Health Hazards of Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood: A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 21;18(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Copper chrome arsenate (CCA) water-borne solution used to be widely used to make timber highly resistant to pests and fungi, in particular, wood products designed for outdoor use. Nowadays, CCA is a restricted chemical product in most countries, since potential environmental and health risks were reported due to dermal contact with CCA residues from treated structures and the surrounding soil, as well as the contamination of soils. However, large quantities of CCA-treated timber are still in use in framings, outdoor playground equipment, landscaping, building poles, jetty piles, and fencing structures around the world, thus CCA remains a source of pollutants to the environment and of increasing toxic metal/metalloid exposure (mainly in children). International efforts have been dedicated to the treatment of materials impregnated with CCA, however not only does some reuse of CCA-treated timber still occur, but also existing structures are leaking the toxic compounds into the environment, with impacts on the environment and animal and human health. This study highlights CCA mechanisms and the documented consequences in vivo of its exposure, as well as the adverse environmental and health impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196618PMC
May 2021

Electrochemical sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for imidacloprid determination.

Anal Methods 2021 05;13(18):2124-2136

Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Centro de Ciências, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, 60440-900, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

A simple and robust sensor (fMWCNT-Nafion®0.5%/GCE) for determination of imidacloprid (IMI), a widely used neonicotinoid, was developed using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT) and Nafion®. The obtained data suggest that IMI reduction is an irreversible process, due to the reduction of the nitro group to hydroxylamine derivatives, with the participation of two protons and four electrons, and a charge transfer coefficient of 0.141. The optimized square-wave voltammetric conditions were: McIlvaine buffer at pH 6.0, 0.5% of Nafion® in the fMWCNT suspension, -0.6 V and 180 s as accumulation potential and time, respectively. A linearity in the range of 2.00 × 10-7 to 1.77 × 10-6 mol L-1 IMI, with the values of limit of detection and limit of quantification were equal to 3.74 × 10-8 mol L-1 and 1.25 × 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. Repeatability and reproducibility displayed relative standard deviations lower than 5%. Recovery tests performed in tap water, melon, and shrimp yielded mean values of 94 ± 6%, 97 ± 10% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. Moreover, several inorganic and organic compounds did not significantly interfere (0.6 to 4.5%) on the IMI signal, proving the selectivity and applicability of the developed sensor for IMI detection in complex samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ay00198aDOI Listing
May 2021

Carbon paper as a promising sensing material: Characterization and electroanalysis of ketoprofen in wastewater and fish.

Talanta 2021 May 15;226:122111. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

In the present work, the exceptional electrochemical properties of carbon paper were characterized and explored in the development of a sensor for the anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen. An initial electrochemical characterization of the carbon paper with a redox indicator revealed much higher voltammetric peaks in comparison with other carbon-based electrodes, namely, screen-printed carbon electrode, boron-doped diamond electrode, glassy carbon electrode, pyrolytic graphite electrode, and pencil graphite electrode, predicting a good sensing performance. Ketoprofen showed a pronounced cathodic peak around -1.1 V vs Ag/AgCl (KCl, 3 M) at pH 5 in Britton-Robinson buffer, presenting a diffusion-controlled process. An optimized differential pulse voltammetry procedure was employed for ketoprofen determination achieving a limit of detection of 0.11 ± 0.01 μM, a linearity up to 6.02 μM, and a high sensitivity of 24 ± 4 or 35 ± 3 μA μM cm (depending on the calibration range: 0.088-1.96 μM or 1.96-6.02 μM, respectively) with acceptable (6-15% relative standard deviation) reproducibility and repeatability considering the challenging conditions of its detection in aqueous solutions. The sensor revealed to be highly selective in the presence of common interferents and other widely consumed anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover, the developed sensor reached good accuracy in wastewater and fish samples with recoveries varying from 82.3 ± 4.4 to 88.6 ± 4.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122111DOI Listing
May 2021

Grill Workers Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Levels and Excretion Profiles of the Urinary Biomarkers.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 30;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal.

Grilling activities release large amounts of hazardous pollutants, but information on restaurant grill workers' exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is almost inexistent. This study assessed the impact of grilling emissions on total workers' exposure to PAHs by evaluating the concentrations of six urinary biomarkers of exposure (OHPAHs): naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Individual levels and excretion profiles of urinary OHPAHs were determined during working and nonworking periods. Urinary OHPAHs were quantified by high-performance liquid-chromatography with fluorescence detection. Levels of total OHPAHs (∑OHPAHs) were significantly increased (about nine times; ≤ 0.001) during working comparatively with nonworking days. Urinary 1-hydroxynaphthalene + 1-hydroxyacenapthene and 2-hydroxyfluorene presented the highest increments (ca. 23- and 6-fold increase, respectively), followed by 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (ca. 2.3 times) and 1-hydroxypyrene (ca. 1.8 times). Additionally, 1-hydroxypyrene levels were higher than the benchmark, 0.5 µmol/mol creatinine, in 5% of exposed workers. Moreover, 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, biomarker of exposure to carcinogenic PAHs, was detected in 13% of exposed workers. Individual excretion profiles showed a cumulative increase in ∑OHPAHs during consecutive working days. A principal component analysis model partially discriminated workers' exposure during working and nonworking periods showing the impact of grilling activities. Urinary OHPAHs were increased in grill workers during working days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796024PMC
December 2020

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wild and farmed whitemouth croaker and meagre from different Atlantic Ocean fishing areas: Concentrations and human health risk assessment.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Dec 4;146:111797. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

This work assessed the concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible tissues of whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and meagre (Argyrosomus regius) captured in different Atlantic Ocean fishing areas and available to Brazilian and Portuguese consumers. Total PAH (∑PAHs) levels ranged from 1.32 to 5.41 μg/kg ww in wild-caught croaker and 2.66 (wild)-18.0 (farmed) μg/kg ww in meagre. Compounds with 2- and 3-rings represented 54-86% of ∑PAHs in the muscle tissues of wild-caught species (croaker and meagre) being naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene the predominant compounds. ∑PAHs in farmed meagre were 4-7 times higher than in wild-caught meagre, with 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-ring compounds representing 15, 18, 44, 22, and 1% of ∑PAHs, respectively. Benzo(a)pyrene levels in farmed meagre varied between 0.06 and 0.34 μg/kg ww. Crude oil refining and combustion sources were identified as the major sources of PAHs in FAO 27, 34 and 41 Atlantic Ocean fishing areas. The biometric characteristics (length, weight, moisture, and fat content) and ∑PAHs allowed to discriminate between wild-caught and farmed meagre samples and between meagre and croaker. Assessment of carcinogenic risks suggested that a diet exclusive on farmed meagre may pose additional risks for the health of European top consumers fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111797DOI Listing
December 2020

Exposure of nursing mothers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Levels of un-metabolized and metabolized compounds in breast milk, major sources of exposure and infants' health risks.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 14;266(Pt 3):115243. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

In this study, biomonitoring of nursing Portuguese mothers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and assessment of potential health risks of their infants were performed through determination of 18 PAHs and 6 major metabolites (OH-PAHs) in breast milk. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged between 55.2 and 1119 ng/g fat, being naphthalene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and phenanthrene the most abundant compounds (68.4% of ∑PAHs). Benzo(a)pyrene, known carcinogenic, was not detected. Total levels of OH-PAHs ranged from 6.66 to 455 ng/g fat with 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxyacenaphthene as major compounds (96% of ∑OH-PAHs). Concentrations of ∑PAHs and ∑OH-PAHs were strongly correlated between each other (r = 0.692; p ≤ 0.001) and moderately-to-strongly associated with individual compounds (0.203 < r < 0.841; p ≤ 0.001). The attained data suggest increased levels of PAHs in older nursing mothers (>30 years) and in those whose child had lower weight (up to 3.0 kg). Breast-fed infant presented a median PAHs daily intake of 1.41 μg/kg body weight (total benzo(a)pyrene equivalents of 0.0679 μg/kg) and were exposed to 0.024 μg/kg body weight of ∑PAH4 [benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, and chrysene]. Although breast milk is a secure food for newborns, un-metabolized and metabolized PAHs should be included in biomonitoring surveillance studies during breastfeeding to prevent potential health risks for infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115243DOI Listing
November 2020

Application of Nanostructured Carbon-Based Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors for Screening of Emerging Pharmaceutical Pollutants in Waters and Aquatic Species: A Review.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal.

Pharmaceuticals, as a contaminant of emergent concern, are being released uncontrollably into the environment potentially causing hazardous effects to aquatic ecosystems and consequently to human health. In the absence of well-established monitoring programs, one can only imagine the full extent of this problem and so there is an urgent need for the development of extremely sensitive, portable, and low-cost devices to perform analysis. Carbon-based nanomaterials are the most used nanostructures in (bio)sensors construction attributed to their facile and well-characterized production methods, commercial availability, reduced cost, high chemical stability, and low toxicity. However, most importantly, their relatively good conductivity enabling appropriate electron transfer rates-as well as their high surface area yielding attachment and extraordinary loading capacity for biomolecules-have been relevant and desirable features, justifying the key role that they have been playing, and will continue to play, in electrochemical (bio)sensor development. The present review outlines the contribution of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerene, carbon nanofibers, carbon black, carbon nanopowder, biochar nanoparticles, and graphite oxide), used alone or combined with other (nano)materials, to the field of environmental (bio)sensing, and more specifically, to pharmaceutical pollutants analysis in waters and aquatic species. The main trends of this field of research are also addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10071268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408367PMC
June 2020

Vine-Canes Valorisation: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction from Lab to Pilot Scale.

Molecules 2020 Apr 10;25(7). Epub 2020 Apr 10.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal.

Wine production generates large amounts of vine-canes, a devalued by-product that could be used for the recovery of bioactive compounds. In this work, two vine-canes varieties, namely Touriga Nacional (TN) and Tinta Roriz (TR), were submitted to different ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions. The highest phenolic and flavonoid content was observed for TR extract obtained at lab-scale without an ice bath and pilot-scale after 60 min of extraction (32.6 ± 2.1 and 26.0 ± 1.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (dw) and 9.5 ± 0.6 and 8.3 ± 0.8 mg epicatechin equivalents/g dw, respectively). Further, all extracts demonstrated a high antioxidant activity to scavenge DPPH free radicals with the best value reached by TR at the lab-scale without an ice bath after 30 min and pilot-scale extraction after 60 min (34.2 ± 2.4 and 33.4 ± 2.1 mg trolox equivalents/g dw, respectively). Extracts phenolic composition were also evaluated by HPLC, demonstrating that resveratrol, myricetin and catechin were the main compounds. According to our knowledge, this is the first time that a pilot scale of UAE of phenolic compounds from vine-canes was performed. This paper represents an important step to the use of UAE as an industrial process to recover bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181219PMC
April 2020

Critical review of micro-extraction techniques used in the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biological, environmental and food samples.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2020 Jun 18;37(6):1004-1026. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior De Engenharia Do Porto, Instituto Politécnico Do Porto , Porto, Portugal.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and their accurate determination is very important to human health and environment safety. In this review, sorptive-based micro-extraction techniques [such as Solid-Phase Micro-extraction (SPME), Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE), Micro-extraction in Packed Sorbent (MEPS)] and solvent-based micro-extraction [Membrane-Mediated Liquid-Phase Micro-extraction (MM-LPME), Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro-extraction (DLLME), and Single Drop Micro-extraction (SDME)] developed for quantification of PAHs in environmental, biological and food samples are reviewed. Moreover, recent micro-extraction techniques that have been coupled with other sample extraction strategies are also briefly discussed. The main objectives of these micro-extraction techniques are to perform extraction, pre-concentration and clean up together as one step, and the reduction of the analysis time, cost and solvent following the green chemistry guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2020.1733103DOI Listing
June 2020

Development of New Canned Chub Mackerel Products Incorporating Edible Seaweeds-Influence on the Minerals and Trace Elements Composition.

Molecules 2020 Mar 3;25(5). Epub 2020 Mar 3.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal.

This study aimed to develop new canned chub mackerel products incorporating edible seaweeds ( , , , , sp. and sp.) harvested in the Portuguese North-Central coast, with simultaneous sensory improvement and minerals enrichment. Two processes were compared, namely the addition of seaweeds in i) the canning step and ii) in the brining step (as the replacement for salt). The concentrations of four macrominerals (Na, K, Ca and Mg), chloride, and twelve trace elements (Co, Cu, Fe, I, Li, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se, Sr, V and Zn) were determined by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Results showed that canned chub mackerel incorporating and was found to be the preferred sensory option, also exhibiting contents enriched with Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, I, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Se, and Sr. This effect was more pronounced when both seaweed species were added to replace the salt added in the brining step.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179164PMC
March 2020

Biosensors on the road to early diagnostic and surveillance of Alzheimer's disease.

Talanta 2020 May 3;211:120700. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

LEPABE - Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal.

Alzheimer's disease is a debilitating and largely untreatable condition with subtle onset and slow progression over an extensive period of time, which culminate in increasing levels of disability. As Alzheimer's disease prevalence is expected to grow exponentially in the upcoming decades, there is an urgency to develop analytical technologies for the sensitive, reliable and cost-effective detection of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers. Biosensors are powerful analytical devices that translate events of biological recognition on physical or chemical transducers into electrical, thermal or optical signals. The high sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors associated with easy, rapid and low-cost determination of analytes have made this discipline one of the most intensively studied in the past decades. This review centers on recent advances, challenges and trends of Alzheimer's disease biosensing particularly in the effort to combine the unique properties of nanomaterials with biorecognition elements. In the last decade, impressive progresses have been made towards the development of biosensors, mainly electrochemical and optical, for detection of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in the pico- and femto-molar range. Nonetheless, advances in multiplexed detection, robustness, stability and specificity are still necessary to ensure an accurate and differentiated diagnosis of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120700DOI Listing
May 2020

Environmental Particulate Matter Levels during 2017 Large Forest Fires and Megafires in the Center Region of Portugal: A Public Health Concern?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 6;17(3). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal.

This work characterizes the dimension and the exceptionality of 2017 large- and mega-fires that occurred in the center region of Portugal through the assessment of their impact on the ambient levels of particulate matter (PM and PM), retrieved from local monitoring stations, and the associated public health risks. PM and PM concentrations were increased during the occurrence of large fires and megafires, with daily concentrations exceeding the European/national guidelines in 7-14 and 1-12 days of 2017 (up to 704 µg/m for PM and 46 µg/m for PM), respectively. PM concentrations were correlated with total burned area (0.500 < r < 0.949; > 0.05) and with monthly total burned area/distance (0.500 < r < 0.667; > 0.05). The forest fires of 2017 took the life of 112 citizens. A total of 474 cases of hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases and 3524 cases of asthma incidence symptoms per 100,000 individuals at risk were assessed due to exposure to 2017 forest fires. Real-time and in situ PM methodologies should be combined with protection action plans to reduce public health risks. Portuguese rural stations should monitor other health-relevant pollutants (e.g., carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) released from wildfires to allow performing more robust and comprehensive measurements that will allow a better assessment of the potential health risks for the exposed populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036973PMC
February 2020

Ultrafine particles: Levels in ambient air during outdoor sport activities.

Environ Pollut 2020 Mar 19;258:113648. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Conducting aerobic activity on regular basis is recognised as one of the steps to maintain healthier lifestyle. The positive outcomes though can be outweighed if conducted in polluted atmosphere. Furthermore, the specific inhalation during exercising, which results in bypass of nasal filtration systems and deeper penetration into the respiratory system, might result in higher risks especially to pollutants such as ultrafine particles (UFP), which aerodynamic particle diameter are <100 nm. Thus, this work aims to evaluate UFP levels at sites used for conducting physical sport activities outdoors and to estimate the respective inhalation doses considering various scenarios and different physical activities. Monitoring of UFP was conducted during three weeks (May-June 2015) at four different sites (S1-S4) regularly used to conduct physical exercising. The results showed that UFP highly varied (medians 5.1-20.0 × 10 # cm) across the four sites, with the highest UFP obtained when exercising next to trafficked streets whereas S3 and S4 (a garden and city park) exhibited 2-4 times lower UFP. In view of the obtained UFP concentrations, the estimated inhalation doses ranged 1.73 × 10-3.81 × 10 # kg when conducting moderately intense sport activities and 1.93 × 10-5.95 × 10 # kg for highly intense ones. Highly intense activities (i.e. running) led to twice higher UFP exposure; children and youths (5-17 yrs old) experienced 203-267% higher doses. Considering the age- and gender- differences, estimated UFP doses of males were 1.1-2.8 times higher than of females. Finally, UFP inhalation doses estimated for walking (commuting to work and/or schools) were 1.6-7.5 times lower than when conducting sport activities. Thus to protect public health and to promote healthy and physically active lifestyle, strategies to minimize the negative impacts of air pollution should be developed and implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113648DOI Listing
March 2020

Nanomaterials towards Biosensing of Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Nov 22;9(12). Epub 2019 Nov 22.

LEPABE-Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable and highly debilitating condition characterized by the progressive degeneration and/or death of nerve cells, which leads to manifestation of disabilities in cognitive functioning. In recent years, the development of biosensors for determination of AD's main biomarkers has made remarkable progress, particularly based on the tremendous advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The unique and outstanding properties of nanomaterials (such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, gold, silver and magnetic nanoparticles, polymers and quantum dots) have been contributing to enhance the electrochemical and optical behavior of transducers while offering a suitable matrix for the immobilization of biological recognition elements. Therefore, optical and electrochemical immuno- and DNA-biosensors with higher sensitivity, selectivity and longer stability have been reported. Nevertheless, strategies based on the detection of multiple analytes still need to be improved, as they will play a crucial role in minimizing misdiagnosis. This review aims to provide insights into the conjugation of nanomaterials with different transducers highlighting their crucial role in the construction of biosensors for detection of AD main biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9121663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956238PMC
November 2019

Comparative Cr, As and CCA induced Cytostaticity in mice kidney: A contribution to assess CCA toxicity.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Jan 6;73:103297. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Medical Sciences & CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

CCA (Chromium Copper Arsenate) treated wood, widely used in outdoor residential structures and playgrounds, poses considerable dangers of leaching of its components to the environment. In this study, mouse kidney samples were used to evaluate the effects of CCA, chromium trioxide (CrO) and arsenic pentoxide (AsO) on cell pathophysiology by flow cytometry. Samples were collected after 14, 24, 48 and 96 h of animal exposure. While Cr had no statistically significant cytostatic effects, AsO induced a S-phase delay in animals exposed for 24 h, and over time a G0/G1 phase blockage. The effects of CCA in S-phase were similar, but more severe than those of AsO. Since environmental and public health hazards due to the long durability of CCA-treated wood products, these data confirm that CCA has profoundly toxic effects on cell cycle, distinct from the compounds themselves. These cytostatic effects support cell cycle dynamics as a valuable endpoint to assess the toxicity of remaining CCA-treated infrastructures, and the expected increased waste stream over the coming decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2019.103297DOI Listing
January 2020

Firefighters exposure to fire emissions: Impact on levels of biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and genotoxic/oxidative-effects.

J Hazard Mater 2020 02 6;383:121179. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Firefighters represent one of the riskiest occupations, yet due to the logistic reasons, the respective exposure assessment is one of the most challenging. Thus, this work assessed the impact of firefighting activities on levels of urinary monohydroxyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs; 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 1-hydroxyacenaphthene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene) and genotoxic/oxidative-effect biomarkers (basal DNA and oxidative DNA damage) of firefighters from eight firehouses. Cardiac frequency, blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation were also monitored. OHPAHs were determined by liquid-chromatography with fluorescence detection, while genotoxic/oxidative-effect biomarkers were assessed by the comet assay. Concentrations of total OHPAHs were up to 340% higher (p ≤ 0.05) in (non-smoking and smoking) exposed workers than in control subjects (non-smoking and non-exposed to combat activities); the highest increments were observed for 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxyacenaphthene (82-88% of ∑OHPAHs), and for 2-hydroxyfluorene (5-15%). Levels of biomarker for oxidative stress were increased in non-smoking exposed workers than in control group (316%; p ≤ 0.001); inconclusive results were found for DNA damage. Positive correlations were found between the cardiac frequency, ∑OHPAHs and the oxidative DNA damage of non-smoking (non-exposed and exposed) firefighters. Evidences were raised regarding the simultaneous use of these biomarkers for the surveillance of firefighters' health and to better estimate the potential short-term health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121179DOI Listing
February 2020

Evaluation of the adsorption potential of biochars prepared from forest and agri-food wastes for the removal of fluoxetine.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Nov 9;292:121973. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal.

Twelve biochars from forest and agri-food wastes (pruning of Quercus ilex, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber, Malus pumila, Prunus spinosa, Cydonia oblonga, Eriobotrya japonica, Juglans regia, Actinidia deliciosa, Citrus sinensis and Vitis vinifera) were investigated as potential low-cost and renewable adsorbents for removal of a commonly used pharmaceutical, fluoxetine. Preliminary adsorption experiments allowed to select the most promising adsorbents, Quercus ilex, Cydonia oblonga, Eucalyptus, Juglans regia and Vitis vinifera pruning material. They were characterized by proximate, elemental and mineral analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, determination of specific surface area and pH at the point of zero charge. Batch and equilibrium studies were performed, and the influence of pH was evaluated. The equilibrium was reached in less than 15 min in all systems. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 6.41 mg/g for the Eucalyptus biochar, which also demonstrated a good behavior in continuous mode (packed column).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121973DOI Listing
November 2019

Mineral Content of Various Portuguese Breads: Characterization, Dietary Intake, and Discriminant Analysis.

Molecules 2019 Jul 31;24(15). Epub 2019 Jul 31.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal.

The chemical composition and daily mineral intake (DMI) of six macro (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, and chloride) and four microminerals (copper, iron, manganese, and zinc) were determined in four types of Portuguese breads (white wheat, maize, wheat/maize, and maize/rye breads). Samples were processed with microwave assisted digestion and mineral composition was determined with a high-resolution continuum-source atomic absorption spectrometer with flame and graphite furnace. Bread contributes to an equilibrated diet since it is rich in several minerals (0.21 mg/100 g of copper in wheat bread to 537 mg/100 g of sodium in maize/rye bread). Maize/rye bread presented the highest content of all minerals (except phosphorous and chloride), while the lowest levels were mainly found in wheat bread. Median sodium concentrations (422-537 mg/100 g) represented more than 28% of the recommended daily allowance, being in close range of the maximum Portuguese limit (550 mg/100 g). Maize/rye bread exhibited the highest DMI of manganese (181%), sodium (36%), magnesium (32%), copper (32%), zinc (24%), iron (22%), potassium (20%), and calcium (3.0%). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model based on the mineral content allowed the differentiation among white wheat, maize, and maize/rye bread. Zinc, magnesium, manganese, iron, phosphorus, potassium, copper, and calcium proved to be good chemical markers to differentiate bread compositions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695710PMC
July 2019

(Ultra) Fine particle concentrations and exposure in different indoor and outdoor microenvironments during physical exercising.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2019 9;82(9):591-602. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

b REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto , Porto , Portugal.

Although regular exercise improves overall well-being, increased physical activity results in enhanced breathing which consequently leads to elevated exposure to a variety of air pollutants producing adverse effects. It is well-known that one of these ambient air contaminants is ultrafine particles (UFP). Thus, this study aimed to (1) examine exposure to particle number concentrations (PNC) in size ranging from N20-1000 nm in different sport environments and (2) estimate the respective inhalation doses across varying activity scenarios based upon the World Health Organization recommendations for physical activity. PNC were continuously monitored (TSI P-Trak™ condensation particle counter) outdoors (Out1-Out2) and indoors (Ind1-Ind2; fitness clubs) over 4 weeks. Outdoor PNC (total median 12 563 # cm; means of 20 367 # cm at Out1 and 7 122 # cm at Out2) were approximately 1.6-fold higher than indoors (total median 7 653 # cm; means of 11 861 # cm at Ind1 and 14 200 # cm at Ind2). The lowest doses were inhaled during holistic group classes (7.91 × 10-1.87 × 10 # per kg body weight) whereas exercising with mixed cardio and strength training led to approximately 1.8-fold higher levels. In order to optimize the health benefit of exercises, environmental characteristics of the locations at which physical activities are conducted need to be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2019.1636494DOI Listing
May 2020

Biosensor for direct bioelectrocatalysis detection of nitric oxide using nitric oxide reductase incorporated in carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes/lipidic 3 bilayer nanocomposite.

Bioelectrochemistry 2019 Jun 5;127:76-86. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

An enzymatic biosensor based on nitric oxide reductase (NOR; purified from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus) was developed for nitric oxide (NO) detection. The biosensor was prepared by deposition onto a pyrolytic graphite electrode (PGE) of a nanocomposite constituted by carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), a lipidic bilayer [1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG)] and NOR. NOR direct electron transfer and NO bioelectrocatalysis were characterized by several electrochemical techniques. The biosensor development was also followed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Improved enzyme stability and electron transfer (1.96 × 10 cm.s apparent rate constant) was obtained with the optimum SWCNTs/(DOPE:DOTAP:DSPE-PEG)/NOR) ratio of 4/2.5/4 (v/v/v), which biomimicked the NOR environment. The PGE/[SWCNTs/(DOPE:DOTAP:DSPE-PEG)/NOR] biosensor exhibited a low Michaelis-Menten constant (4.3 μM), wide linear range (0.44-9.09 μM), low detection limit (0.13 μM), high repeatability (4.1% RSD), reproducibility (7.0% RSD), and stability (ca. 5 weeks). Selectivity tests towards L-arginine, ascorbic acid, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and glucose showed that these compounds did not significantly interfere in NO biosensing (91.0 ± 9.3%-98.4 ± 5.3% recoveries). The proposed biosensor, by incorporating the benefits of biomimetic features of the phospholipid bilayer with SWCNT's inherent properties and NOR bioelectrocatalytic activity and selectivity, is a promising tool for NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2019.01.010DOI Listing
June 2019

Children environmental exposure to particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biomonitoring in school environments: A review on indoor and outdoor exposure levels, major sources and health impacts.

Environ Int 2019 03 14;124:180-204. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Children, an important vulnerable group, spend most of their time at schools (up to 10 h per day, mostly indoors) and the respective air quality may significantly impact on children health. Thus, this work reviews the published studies on children biomonitoring and environmental exposure to particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at school microenvironments (indoors and outdoors), major sources and potential health risks. A total of 28, 35, and 31% of the studies reported levels that exceeded the international outdoor ambient air guidelines for PM, PM, and benzo(a)pyrene, respectively. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM at European schools, the most characterized continent, ranged between 7.5 and 229 μg/m and 21-166 μg/m, respectively; levels of PM varied between 4 and 100 μg/m indoors and 6.1-115 μg/m outdoors. Despite scarce information in some geographical regions (America, Oceania and Africa), the collected data clearly show that Asian children are exposed to the highest concentrations of PM and PAHs at school environments, which were associated with increased carcinogenic risks and with the highest values of urinary total monohydroxyl PAH metabolites (PAH biomarkers of exposure). Additionally, children attending schools in polluted urban and industrial areas are exposed to higher levels of PM and PAHs with increased concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites in comparison with children from rural areas. Strong evidences demonstrated associations between environmental exposure to PM and PAHs with several health outcomes, including increased risk of asthma, pulmonary infections, skin diseases, and allergies. Nevertheless, there is a scientific gap on studies that include the characterization of PM fine fraction and the levels of PAHs in the total air (particulate and gas phases) of indoor and outdoor air of school environments and the associated risks for the health of children. There is a clear need to improve indoor air quality in schools and to establish international guidelines for exposure limits in these environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.052DOI Listing
March 2019

Commercial octopus species from different geographical origins: Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potential health risks for consumers.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Nov 10;121:272-282. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent pollutants that have been raising global concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. A total of 18 PAHs (16 USEPA priority compounds, benzo(j)fluoranthene and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene) were assessed in the edible tissues of raw octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Octopus maya, and Eledone cirrhosa) from six geographical origins available to Portuguese consumers. Inter- and intra-species comparison was statistically performed. The concentrations of total PAHs (∑PAHs) ranged between 8.59 and 12.8 μg/kg w.w. Octopus vulgaris caught in northwest Atlantic Ocean presented ΣPAHs significantly higher than those captured in Pacific Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, as well as than the other characterized species from western central and northeast Atlantic Ocean. PAHs with 2-3 rings were the predominant compounds (86-92% of ∑PAHs) but diagnostic ratios indicated the existence of pyrogenic sources in addition to petrogenic sources. Known and possible/probable carcinogenic compounds represented 11-21% of ΣPAHs. World and Portuguese per capita ingestion of ∑PAHs due to cephalopods consumption varied between 1.62-2.55 × 10 and 7.09-11.2 × 10 μg/kg body weight per day, respectively. Potential risks estimated for low and high consumers according to USEPA methodology suggested that a regular consumption of raw octopus does not pose public health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.09.012DOI Listing
November 2018

Electroanalytical characterization of the direct Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus nitric oxide reductase-catalysed nitric oxide and dioxygen reduction.

Bioelectrochemistry 2019 Feb 21;125:8-14. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida n° 451, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Understanding the direct electron transfer processes between redox proteins and electrode surface is fundamental to understand the proteins mechanistic properties and for development of novel biosensors. In this study, nitric oxide reductase (NOR) extracted from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus bacteria was adsorbed onto a pyrolytic graphite electrode (PGE) to develop an unmediated enzymatic biosensor (PGE/NOR)) for characterization of NOR direct electrochemical behaviour and NOR electroanalytical features towards NO and O. Square-wave voltammetry showed the reduction potential of all the four NOR redox centers: 0.095 ± 0.002, -0.108 ± 0.008, -0.328 ± 0.001 and -0.635 ± 0.004 V vs. SCE for heme c, heme b, heme b and non-heme Fe, respectively. The determined sensitivity (-4.00 × 10 ± 1.84 × 10 A/μM and - 2.71 × 10 ± 1.44 × 10 A/μM for NO and O, respectively), limit of detection (0.5 μM for NO and 1.0 μM for O) and the Michaelis Menten constant (2.1 and 7.0 μM for NO and O, respectively) corroborated the higher affinity of NOR for its natural substrate (NO). No significant interference on sensitivity towards NO was perceived in the presence of O, while the O reduction was markedly and negatively impacted (3.6 times lower sensitivity) by the presence of NO. These results clearly demonstrate the high potential of NOR for the design of innovative NO biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2018.08.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite as a sensing platform to bendiocarb determination.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Nov 28;410(27):7229-7238. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química, Centro de Ciências, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Bloco 940, Campus do Pici, Pici, Fortaleza, CE, 60440-900, Brazil.

A novel platform for carbamate-based pesticide quantification using a chitosan/magnetic iron oxide (Chit-FeO) nanocomposite as a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modifier is shown for an analytical methodology for determination of bendiocarb (BND). The BND oxidation signal using GCE/Chit-FeO compared with bare GCE was catalyzed, showing a 37.5% of current increase with the peak potential towards less positive values, showing method's increased sensitivity and selectivity. Using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), calibration curves for BND determination were obtained (n = 3), and calculated detection and quantification limits values were 2.09 × 10 mol L (466.99 ppb) and 6.97 × 10 mol L (1555.91 ppb), respectively. The proposed electroanalytical methodology was successfully applied for BND quantification in natural raw waters without any sample pretreatment, proving that the GCE/Chit-FeO modified electrode showed great potential for BND determination in complex samples. ᅟ Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-1330-1DOI Listing
November 2018

Seaweeds from the Portuguese coast as a source of proteinaceous material: Total and free amino acid composition profile.

Food Chem 2018 Dec 30;269:264-275. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072, Porto 4249-015, Portugal.

The total protein content and the (total and free) amino acid composition of nine edible species of red, brown and green seaweeds collected in the Portuguese North-Central coast were quantified to assess their potential contribution to the recommended dietary intake. Whenever possible, the protein and amino acid composition was compared with that of commercial European seaweeds. The protein content was the highest (P < 0.05) in red species (19.1-28.2 g/100 g dw), followed by the green seaweed Ulva spp. (20.5-23.3 g/100 g dw), with the lowest content found in brown seaweeds (6.90-19.5 g/100 g dw). Brown seaweeds presented the lowest mean contents of essential amino acids (EAAs) (41.0% protein) but significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of non-essential amino acids (36.1% protein) and free amino acids (6.47-24.0% protein). Tryptophan, methionine and leucine were the limiting EAAs in all species. In contrast, lysine was found in high concentrations, especially in red (2.71-3.85% protein) and green (2.84-4.24% protein) seaweeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.06.145DOI Listing
December 2018

Indoor air quality in health clubs: Impact of occupancy and type of performed activities on exposure levels.

J Hazard Mater 2018 10 7;359:56-66. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Associations between indoor air quality (IAQ) and health in sport practise environments are not well understood due to limited knowledge of magnitude of inhaled pollutants. Thus, this study assessed IAQ in four health clubs (HC1-HC4) and estimated inhaled doses during different types of activities. Gaseous (TVOCs, CO, O, CO) and particulate pollutants (PM, PM) were continuously collected during 40 days. IAQ was influenced both by human occupancy and the intensity of the performed exercises. Levels of all pollutants were higher when clubs were occupied (p < 0.05) than for vacant periods, with higher medians in main workout areas rather than in spaces/studios for group activities. In all spaces, TVOCs highly exceeded legislative limit (600 μg/m), even when unoccupied, indicating possible risks for the respective occupants. CO levels were well correlated with relative humidity (r 0.534-0.625) and occupancy due to human exhalation and perspiration during exercising. Clubs with natural ventilations exhibited twice higher PM, with PM accounting for 93-96% of PM; both PM were highly correlated (r 0.936-0.995) and originated from the same sources. Finally, cardio classes resulted in higher inhalation doses than other types of exercising (1.7-2.6).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.015DOI Listing
October 2018

Potential of Portuguese vine shoot wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Sep 10;634:831-842. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal.

Since annually a high amount of wastes is produced in vine pruning, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of vine shoots from two Portuguese grape varieties (Touriga Nacional - TN and Tinta Roriz - TR) to be used as a natural source of phenolic compounds. To reach this goal, three techniques were explored, namely microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), subcritical water extraction (SWE) and conventional extraction (CE). The phenolic composition of the extracts, antioxidant and biological activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry and chromatography. MAE and SWE produced the highest concentrated extracts. TR vine shoot variety had the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic (32.1±0.9mggallicacidequivalents/g dry sample), as well as flavonoid content (18.7±1.2mgepicatechinequivalents/g dry sample). For the first time, the biological activity of the vine shoot extracts was tested. Results demonstrated that all of them had antimicrobial potential against different bacteria and yeasts, and the ability of inhibiting α-amylase and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, with MAE TR extracts being the most efficient. HPLC analysis enabled the identification of different phenolic compounds, with gallic acid, catechin, myricetin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside being the main contributors to the phenolic composition. Portuguese vine shoot wastes could serve as easily accessible source of natural antioxidants for the food or pharmaceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.035DOI Listing
September 2018