Publications by authors named "Simone Chang"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Coagulopathy following Crotaliπae snakebites in northeast Florida.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2022 Jun 10;33(4):220-223. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Division of Hematology & Oncology, Department of Medicine, Hematology & Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

Effects of Crotalinae envenomation vary by geographical areas and research into coagulopathy and effects of antivenom are needed to optimize management. This was a single-center retrospective review with testing on presentation and 4 h after; antivenom administration was noted and data analyzed overall and comparing envenomations. One hundred and nineteen snakebites evaluated with 59 identified as Crotalinae and half receiving antivenom. PT/aPTT was elevated in 20% of water moccasin/copperhead and 21% of rattlesnake bites. DIC-like syndrome occurred in 8% water moccasin/copperhead and 6% rattlesnake bites. Antivenom did not seem to correct PT or aPTT at 4 h follow-up in most cases. Thrombotic microangiopathy was not seen. Coagulopathy was prevalent affecting one in five patients in this cohort and does seem to persist at short interval follow-up, even in those receiving antivenom. We support guidelines recommending clinical monitoring and serial coagulation profiles in such cases. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 30:000 - 000 Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBC.0000000000001123DOI Listing
June 2022

Procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker for infection in sickle cell disease.

Expert Rev Hematol 2022 Jun 23;15(6):559-564. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Hematology & Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risks of infection. Fever often occurs with vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), posing a diagnostic challenge in SCD. Procalcitonin (PCT) is an infectious biomarker validated in the general population but with limited data on use in SCD.

Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center study (n = 145) with primary objective of assessing ability of PCT to differentiate infection from VOC in SCD presenting with fever. Subgroups included confirmed bacterial infection (CBI), suspected bacterial infection, viral infection, and VOC. A secondary objective examined the association of PCT with acute chest syndrome. Clinical characteristics and data were collected and analyzed to assess the diagnostic performance of PCT and associated variables.

Results:   Of the cohort, 16% had CBI and 8% had viral infection. PCT was able to discriminate CBI from viral infection [AUC = 0.89 (95%CI, 0.78-0.99)] and VOC [AUC = 0.87 (95%CI, 0.78-0.97)]. PCT had an association with ACS but poor diagnostic performance [AUC = 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.84)].

Conclusion: PCT has utility in distinguishing confirmed bacterial infection from VOC or viral infection and is a promising biomarker when investigating fever in SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474086.2022.2079490DOI Listing
June 2022

Sinonasal renal cell-like adenocarcinoma arising in von Hippel Lindau (VHL) syndrome.

Oral Oncol 2022 02 5;125:105705. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Hematology & Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States.

Sinonasal renal cell-like adenocarcinoma (SNRCLA) is a rare and relatively novel diagnosis. Hereditary and somatic genomic signatures are not well defined in this disease. We report the case of a 35-year-old African-American male with von Hippel Lindau (VHL) syndrome who developed SNRCLA. He underwent surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation and has no recurrence one year from diagnosis. A review of the literature yielded two similar cases in the setting of VHL. In our case with associated VHL syndrome, next generation sequencing detected MST1R mutation, a possible driver. SNRCLA is an emerging tumor associated with VHL syndrome and it is hoped that future studies shed light on the underlying biology of this unique tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2021.105705DOI Listing
February 2022

Novel splicing (c.6529-1G>T) and missense (c.1667G>A) mutations causing factor V deficiency.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2021 Jul;32(5):344-348

Mayo Comprehensive Hemophilia Center, Special Coagulation and Molecular Hematopathology Laboratories, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Congenital factor V deficiency (FVD) is a rare bleeding disorder. In this study, we investigated the genetic basis in an African American patient with factor V activity 3%. Custom sequence capture and targeted next-generation (NGS) sequencing of the F5 gene were undertaken followed by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Two novel variants were identified. In silico analyses correlated clinically with the patient's factor V activity and hemorrhagic tendency. A review of the literature regarding these genomic alterations is presented. We described two novel mutations causing moderate FVD. The first, Chr1:g.169483698C>A with cDNA change (F5):c.6529-1G>T, occurred in a conserved nucleotide at the canonical acceptor splice site of intron 24. The second, Chr1:g.169515775C>T with cDNA change (F5):c.1667G>A, was a missense variant of exon 11, affecting a highly conserved amino acid in the A2 domain. Further research into the mechanisms of F5 mutations leading to FVD and residual factor V expression are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBC.0000000000001036DOI Listing
July 2021

Recurrent Unilateral Ophthalmoplegia in a 5-year-old.

Pediatr Rev 2021 01;42(Suppl 1):S52-S54

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/pir.2019-0095DOI Listing
January 2021

Breast Implant-Associated CD30 Negative Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, NOS.

Hemasphere 2021 Jan 9;5(1):e507. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Hematology & Oncology, University of Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732339PMC
January 2021

Spur-cell anemia.

Cleve Clin J Med 2020 11 2;87(11):649-650. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.87a.20044DOI Listing
November 2020

In Reply: Trousseau sign and syndrome: Erroneous terms.

Cleve Clin J Med 2020 10 1;87(10):586. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine Louisville, KY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.87c.10003DOI Listing
October 2020

Timely Delivery of Discharge Medications to Patients' Bedsides: A Patient-centered Quality Improvement Project.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2020 May-Jun;5(3):e297. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Jackson Memorial Hospital.

Introduction: Patients who are unable to fill prescriptions after discharge are at risk of hospital readmission. Ensuring that patients have prescriptions in hand at the time of discharge is a critical component of a safe and effective discharge process. Using a "Meds to Beds" program, we aimed to increase the percentage of patients discharged from Holtz Children's Hospital with medications in hand from 49% to 80%, reduce turnaround time (TAT) from electronic prescription signature to bedside delivery from 4.9 hours (±2.6 hours) to 2 hours, and increase caregiver satisfaction.

Methods: We formed a multidisciplinary team and implemented 4 patient-centered interventions through iterative plan-do-study-act cycles. Statistical process control charts were used to understand the impact of the interventions over 10 months. Hospital length of stay and discharges before 2:00 pm were used as balancing measures. We measured caregiver satisfaction using a telephone survey administered by pediatric residents within 7 days after discharge.

Results: The mean percentage of patients discharged with medications in hand increased to 76%. TAT decreased to 3.5 hours (±1.8 hours). Length of stay did not significantly increase, whereas the percentage of patients discharged before 2:00 pm did. Caregivers of patients who had prescriptions delivered to their bedside reported high levels of satisfaction.

Conclusions: Using a "Meds to Beds" program, we increased the percentage of patients discharged with medications in hand, decreased TAT with reduced variability, and achieved high levels of caregiver satisfaction. Importantly, there was a shift in the culture of the institution toward improved medication access for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297402PMC
May 2020

Trousseau syndrome.

Cleve Clin J Med 2020 Apr;87(4):199-200

James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.87a.19086DOI Listing
April 2020

Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies are increased in hospitalized patients with bacterial sepsis.

Thromb Res 2018 11 27;171:111-113. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is caused by antibodies targeting platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. The immune response leading to HIT remains perplexing with many paradoxes. Unlike other drug induced reactions, anti-PF4/heparin antibody generation does not follow the classic immunologic response. Research in murine models suggests that that there is close interplay among infection, PF4 and the immune system. We hypothesized there would be a relatively higher prevalence of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies in patients hospitalized for sepsis. We retrospectively examined anti-PF4/heparin antibody testing in 200 such patients. This included patients who had sepsis with bacteremia (n = 57), sepsis with fungemia (n = 7) and sepsis without bacteremia or fungemia (n = 136). For comparison, data from 50 patients without sepsis during the same time period was used. Results confirmed that patients hospitalized with sepsis have higher anti-PF4/heparin antibody levels. The groups of patients having sepsis with bacteremia, and sepsis without bacteremia, had significantly higher OD than the control group without sepsis (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between Gram negative and Gram positive bacteremia and antibody levels. This suggests that bacterial cell wall components of both classes have similar antigenicity. Interestingly, patients who had sepsis with fungemia had much lower antibody levels compared to those with sepsis and bacteremia, and sepsis without bacteremia or fungemia. Despite the small sample size for fungemia, this difference trended strongly towards statistical significance (p = 0.05). It would be interesting to investigate this further in a larger study or using in vitro studies. In summary, there is an increased prevalence of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies in patients hospitalized with bacterial but not fungal sepsis. These results indicate that bacterial infection has a role to play in preimmunization leading to anti-PF4/heparin antibody generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2018.09.060DOI Listing
November 2018

Temporality of heparin-induced antibodies: a retrospective study in outpatients undergoing hemodialysis on unfractionated heparin.

Exp Hematol Oncol 2018 14;7:23. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

1Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville, UF Health Jacksonville, 653 W 8th St, Jacksonville, FL 32209 USA.

Background: Heparin-induced antibodies (HIA) are responsible for causing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Research has shown that the temporality of heparin-induced antibodies does not follow the classic immunologic response. The immunobiology of HIA generation remains unclear with varying in vitro and in vivo data. Outpatients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are exposed to heparin chronically. The HIA immune response can therefore be investigated in vivo in this population.

Methods: We examined the time between the start of HD using unfractionated heparin and HIA levels in 212 outpatients during a 6-year period. Antibodies were detected on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIA levels were analyzed to determine significance of the trend over time. HIA subgroups were also analyzed for correlation with subsequent thrombotic events and platelet count during follow up.

Results: Overall, the HIA response in HD was found to peak early with waning antibody response despite continued exposure to heparin. The peak prevalence of a strong immune response (optical density > 1.000) was early and short lived, while weaker immune response (optical density 0.400-1.000) persisted for the first 6 months then declined. The mean follow-up time per patient was 2.3 ± 1.4 years. Despite circulating HIA, including high titers, no patients developed HIT in this sample. There was no association between HIA and thrombocytopenia. There was increased incidence of thrombosis in patients with strong HIA compared to other groups, but this did not achieve statistical significance.

Conclusions: The data suggest a significant temporal pattern of HIA in outpatients undergoing HD using unfractionated heparin. Positive HIA was not found to be significantly associated with thrombocytopenia or thrombosis risk in these patients. However, while not achieving statistical significance, subsequent thrombotic events occurred most frequently in the strong positive HIA group (optical density > 1.000). Further research into HIA and risk of thrombosis in this population is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40164-018-0115-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6137914PMC
September 2018

To the Editor: 'Non-criteria' antiphospholipid antibodies and thrombosis.

Cleve Clin J Med 2018 06;85(6):431-432

University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.85c.06001DOI Listing
June 2018

Dynamic right ventricular outflow tract obstruction from a pedunculated cardiac metastasis.

J Echocardiogr 2018 12 25;16(4):185-186. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12574-018-0379-3DOI Listing
December 2018

Acute glomerulonephritis secondary to .

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Mar 9;2018. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Hotz Children's Hospital, Jackson Health Sysrem, Miami, Florida, USA.

is a clinically important pathogen that is emerging globally but remains poorly investigated. Here, we report the first case of acute glomerulonephritis resulting from infection with Glomerulonephritis is typically caused by and reports secondary to other strains including and exist. Infection with in this patient was associated with acute nephritis (haematuria, oedema and hypertension), nephrotic syndrome and progressive azotemia. There was activation of the complement system. The presence of low C1q and elevated anti-C1q binding complexes points to a potential pathogenic role. Testing for streptococcal antigens was strongly positive. Emerging nephritogenic strains of present a significant health concern for both developed and developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-223314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5847902PMC
March 2018

Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome.

Cleve Clin J Med 2018 Feb;85(2):101-102

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.85a.17007DOI Listing
February 2018

Enterococcal Empyema and Trapped Lung in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

J Glob Infect Dis 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):162-163

Department of Medicine, Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jgid.jgid_34_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750442PMC
January 2018

Severe carvedilol toxicity without overdose - caution in cirrhosis.

Clin Hypertens 2017 30;23:25. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, 4th Fl. LRC Building, 653 W 8th St, Jacksonville, Fl 32209 USA.

Background: Carvedilol is used in the management of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and most recently, portal hypertension. It has been associated with improved outcomes regarding variceal bleeding, hepatic decompensation and death when compared to propranolol and endoscopic band ligation. The main cause of portal hypertension is cirrhosis and therefore carvedilol is increasingly used in these patients. Due to its extensive hepatic metabolism, carvedilol is contraindicated in severe hepatic impairment. However, there are no dosage adjustments in the manufacturer's labelling for mild to moderate hepatic impairment.

Case Presentation: We present a case of cardiogenic shock that occurred after carvedilol 25 mg orally was administered to a patient with cirrhosis. As there was no overdose, the diagnosis was based on clinical recognition of the toxidrome. The patient was successfully treated with glucagon 5 mg bolus followed by infusion.

Conclusions: Patients with cirrhosis represent a special at-risk group for beta blocker toxicity. The typical threshold for carvedilol toxicity in overdose is 50 mg but in patients with cirrhosis this is not applicable. Nurses and physicians need to recognize the toxidrome early. Hospitals where carvedilol is used in patients with cirrhosis should have glucagon in formulary at doses to treat toxicity (bolus and infusion). Finally, dose adjustment and slow uptitration of carvedilol in cirrhosis is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40885-017-0083-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709975PMC
November 2017

Myoclonus as a late manifestation of West Nile disease.

BMJ Case Rep 2017 Nov 23;2017. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-223019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5720290PMC
November 2017

Consideration of atrial arrhythmias associated with cardiac tamponade and pericarditis.

Am J Emerg Med 2018 Feb 24;36(2):338. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2017.07.077DOI Listing
February 2018

Necrotizing Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2017 17;2017:1717492. Epub 2017 May 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL 32209, USA.

Lung cavities are not typically associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). CAP due to is rare and even less commonly causes necrotizing pneumonia. We report a case of CAP that progressed to necrotizing pneumonia and was eventually fatal. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been well investigated in guiding antibiotic therapy (especially CAP) in adults. In this case, PCT at presentation and sequentially was negative. We discuss this caveat and present hypotheses as to the sensitivity and specificity of PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP) in these patients. To better characterize CAP, we undertook a review of cases indexed in PubMed from 2001 to 2016 ( = 9). The data reveal that risk factors for CAP include smoking, alcohol use, obstructive lung disease, sinusitis, and hot tub use. The route of infection for CAP remains unknown. One of the most interesting findings on reviewing cases was that CAP involves the right upper lobe in the vast majority. We suggest that when physicians in the community see patients with distinctly upper lobe necrotizing or cavitary pneumonia, they should consider in their differential diagnosis. Further studies are needed to clarify route of infection, role of PCT and CRP, and optimal therapy including drug and duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/1717492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5449726PMC
May 2017

Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events with combination lenalidomide/dexamethasone therapy for multiple myeloma.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2017 07 23;17(7):585-591. Epub 2017 May 23.

c Division of Medical Oncology , University of Florida College of Medicine , Jacksonville , FL , USA.

Introduction: Cancer associated thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Research and guidelines have focused on venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Within the past decade, combination lenalidomide and dexamethasone has become a standard of therapy for multiple myeloma and is now widely used. In these patients, the risk of arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has not been addressed to the same extent as VTE. Areas discussed: Presented is a targeted review of published data on ATE in MM patients on combination lenalidomide/dexamethasone therapy. Incidence, clinical presentations, prognosis, mechanisms and thromboprophylaxis are discussed. A framework for approaching ATE/VTE in these patients is suggested. Expert commentary: There is an increased incidence of ATE in this population, primarily cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. ATE is associated with poorer prognosis and its prevention must be an important goal of management. It is suggested that on initiating treatment, a combined VTE/ATE risk assessment should be performed and thromboprophylaxis initiated for a minimum of 6 months. As newer immunomodulatory therapies are developed, thromboembolic risk must be assessed early on. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal strategy to reducing both VTE and ATE in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2017.1330153DOI Listing
July 2017

Familial hypercholesterolemia presenting with multiple nodules of the hands and elbow.

Clin Case Rep 2015 Jun 9;3(6):411-4. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies Champs Fleurs, Trinidad and Tobago.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common but commonly missed diagnosis. Tendon xanthomas are a physical sign strongly suggestive of FH. Physicians must identify tendon xanthomas, apply validated clinical scoring such as the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria and offer cascade screening. This approach will increase recognition of FH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498853PMC
June 2015

Cardiac tamponade as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report and review of the literature.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2015 17;13. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, The University of the West Indies, Champs Fleurs, Trinidad and Tobago.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can involve any organ system, exhibiting great diversity in presentation. Cardiac tamponade as the initial presentation of childhood onset SLE (cSLE) is rare. We report the case of a 10 year old Afro-Caribbean female who presented with complaints of chest pain, shortness of breath and fever over 4 days. Clinical examination strongly suggested cardiac tamponade which was confirmed by investigations and treated with pericardiocentesis. After a thorough investigation, the underlying diagnosis of SLE was confirmed using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria and high dose corticosteroid therapy initiated. A review of recent studies shows that common initial presentations of cSLE include constitutional symptoms, renal disease, musculoskeletal and cutaneous involvement. In presenting this case and reviewing the literature we emphasize the importance of cSLE as a differential diagnosis when presented with pericarditis in the presence or absence of cardiac tamponade. In these patients early diagnosis and treatment is desired and in this regard we also discuss the sensitivity of the SLICC criteria in cSLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12969-015-0005-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4369869PMC
September 2015

Consideration of C-reactive protein and polyserositis in systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with cardiac symptoms.

Am J Emerg Med 2015 Jan 18;33(1):115-6. Epub 2014 Oct 18.

Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2014.10.026DOI Listing
January 2015

Pericardial effusions in systemic lupus erythematosus - who is most likely to develop tamponade?

Int J Cardiol 2015 Feb 27;180:149-50. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.11.191DOI Listing
February 2015

Association of low serum creatinine, abnormal lipid profile, gender, age and ethnicity with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Trinidad and Tobago.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011 Mar 3;91(3):342-7. Epub 2011 Jan 3.

The University of the West Indies, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Trinidad and Tobago.

Objective: To study the association of low serum creatinine, abnormal lipid profile and demographic variables with type 2 diabetic Trinidadian subjects.

Methods: Data were obtained from a cohort of 1122 diabetic and non-diabetic patients from clinics in Trinidad. Variables measured included demographics, HbA1(c), serum creatinine, lipid profile values and diabetic status.

Results: The sample consisted of 476 males (61.6% diabetic) and 646 females (50.3% diabetic). Most patients (59.2%) were Indo-Trinidadian, 23.4% were Afro-Trinidadian and 13.5% were of 'mixed' and 'other' categories. The majority (55.1%) of the patients were diabetic and diabetics were older than non-diabetics (p=0.000). Abnormal lipid profile OR=0.728, CI (0.532, 0.994), serum creatinine categories OR=1.520, CI (1.317, 1.754), gender OR=0.690, CI (0.533, 0.892) and age groups OR=1.305, CI (1.185, 1.437) were useful predictors of type 2 diabetes. Ethnicity was not a useful predictor: OR=1.007, CI (0.869, 1.168). Serum creatinine (mean) was found to be lower in diabetics aged 21-50 than in their non-diabetic counterparts. However, above 50 years old, the reverse was true. Serum creatinine means were higher in males than in females (p=0.000).

Conclusion: Abnormal lipid profile, gender, age and serum creatinine are associated with type 2 diabetes. While age and gender are non-modifiable risk factors, steps should be taken to monitor and control the serum creatinine and lipid profile values of diabetics and non-diabetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2010.12.017DOI Listing
March 2011
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