Publications by authors named "Simona Pergolizzi"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Expression of VAChT and 5-HT in Ulcerative colitis dendritic cells.

Acta Histochem 2021 May 30;123(4):151715. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract that can affect people of worldwide. In contrast with Crohn's disease, that can relate the entire thickness of the bowel wall, the inflammation of ulcerative colitis is limited to the colonic mucosa. Immune cells including activated T cells, plasma cells, mast cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) trigger the inflammation. Furthermore, dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells involved in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. It has been described an increment of number in DCs colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis. The immune cells such as antigen-presenting cells can act as autocrine or paracrine modulators. Recent studies showed that dendritic cells synthetized and released classical neurotransmitters as glutamate, dopamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin. Paraformaldehyde-fixed intestinal tissues, obtained from the stricture sites of ten patients with ulcerative colitis were analyzed by immunostaining for Langerin/CD207, serotonin and vesicular acetylcholine transporter. As controls, unaffected (normal) portions of five patients were also investigated. Aim of this study was to characterize for the first time the human gut dendritic cells of ulcerative colitis patients, with Langerin/CD207 that is a c-type lectin expressed by different types of DCs and to colocalize in the same cells the expression of serotonin and vesicular acetylcholine transporter, showing the link between dendritic cells, gut enterochromaffin cells or autonomic nerves in immune activation and generation of intestinal inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2021.151715DOI Listing
May 2021

Marking vertebrates langerhans cells, from fish to mammals.

Acta Histochem 2020 Oct 9;122(7):151622. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno d'Alcontres 31, I-98166, Messina, Italy.

Langerhans cells (LCs) are specialized dendritic cells (DCs) that play a defense role in recognizing foreign antigens, in tissue where antigenic exposures occur, as in the skin and mucous membranes. LCs are able to continuously move within the tissues thanks to dendritic contraction and distension performing their surveillance and/or phagocytosis role. These cells are characterized by the presence of Birbeck granules in their cytoplasm, involved in endocytosis. LCs have been characterized in several classes of vertebrates, from fish to mammals using different histological and molecular techniques. The aim of the present review is to define the state of art and the need of information about immunohistochemical markers of LCs in different classes of vertebrates. The most used immunohistochemical (IHC) markers are Langerin/CD207, CD1a, S-100 and TLR. These IHC markers are described in relation to their finding in different vertebrate classes with phylogenetical considerations. Among the four markers, Langerin/CD207 and TLR have the widest spectrum of cross reactivity in LCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2020.151622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480233PMC
October 2020

Expression of Langerin/CD 207 and α-smooth muscle actin in ex vivo rabbit corneal keratitis model.

Tissue Cell 2020 Oct 17;66:101384. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno d'Alcontres 31, I-98166, Messina, Italy.

The constant exposure of ocular surface to external environment and then to several microbial agents is often related to the pathogenesis of various inflammatory eye disorders. In the present study α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) and Langerin CD/207 expression and function was investigated in a rabbit corneal keratitis. The inflammation was induced by the secreted form of glycoprotein B (gB1s) of HSV-1, in an ex vivo rabbit corneal model. α-SMA is often used as a marker for myofibroblasts. In this study, for the first time, we show α-SMA positive corneal epithelial cells, during HSV-1 cornea inflammation, demonstrating a crucial role in wound healing, especially during remodeling phase. Furthermore, we show the presence of Dendritic Cells Langerin CD/207 positive, located mainly in the basal epithelial layer and in corneal stroma during the inflammatory processes. Our result validating the ex vivo organotypic rabbit corneal model, for the study about pathogenesis of HSV-1 ocular infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2020.101384DOI Listing
October 2020

Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bergamot Essential Oil and Its Antinociceptive Effects.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jun 1;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy.

Renewed interest in natural products as potential source of drugs led us to investigate on both the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of Risso et Poiteau (bergamot) essential oil (BEO). Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was used as an experimental model of inflammation. Because of the toxicity of furocoumarins, we performed our study by using the BEO fraction deprived of these compounds (BEO-FF). Treatment with BEO-FF led to a significant inhibition of paw edema induced by a sub-plantar injection of carrageenan. Moreover, histological examination of BEO-FF-treated rat paw biopsies showed a reduction of pathological changes typical of edema. Pre-treatment with BEO-FF significantly reduced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in the paw homogenates, as well as nitrite/nitrate and prostaglandin E (PGE) content in exudates. In addition, BEO-FF possesses antioxidant properties, as determined by cell-free assays. Furthermore, results of the writhing test showed that BEO-FF elicited a pronounced analgesic response, as demonstrated by a significant inhibition of constrictions in mice receiving acetic acid, with respect to control animals, whereas the results of the hot plate test suggested that the supra-spinal analgesia participates in the anti-nociceptive effect of BEO-FF. Our study indicates that BEO-FF exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects, and suggests its potential role as an anti-edemigen and analgesic drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9060704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356015PMC
June 2020

Role of Herpes Simplex Envelope Glycoprotein B and Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Ocular Inflammation: An ex vivo Organotypic Rabbit Corneal Model.

Viruses 2019 09 4;11(9). Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (DipSCF), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 64/A, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

It has been recently reported, using in vitro studies, that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encoded envelope glycoprotein B (gB1) interacts with cell surface toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and induces the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL8), a representative marker of inflammatory cytokine activation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of gB1 in activating host inflammatory responses by using a secreted form of gB1 (gB1s) and an ex vivo organotypic rabbit corneal model. Abraded corneas exposed to gB1s alone or to the recombinant protein mixed with anti gB polyclonal antibody were cultured in an air-liquid interface. The corneas exposed to gB1s show the appearance of mydriasis and high levels of TLR2 and IL-8 mRNAs transcripts were detected in the superficial layer of corneal epithelial cells. Histological stain and immunohistochemical analyses revealed morphological changes in the epithelium of the treated corneas and variations in expression and localization of TLR2. Collectively these findings provide new insight into the pathogenesis of HSV-1 ocular infection by demonstrating the leading role of gB in activating an inflammatory response and in the appearance of mydriasis, a sign of HSV-1 anterior uveitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11090819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6783931PMC
September 2019

Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of green coffee beans methanolic extract in rat skin.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jun 3;34(11):1535-1541. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno, d'Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy.

Since a long time caffeine has been used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations due to its favorable effects on the skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan-induced paw oedema) of an ointment prepared using a methanolic extract from green beans of histology. Results showed that the treatment with the ointment reduced the paw oedema within 3 and 5 h post-carrageenan administration. The immunohistochemical evaluations of αSMA, Langerin and S100 gave further support to the morphological analysis. Finally, the methanolic extract from green beans of proved to possess elevated free radical scavenger capability by DPPH assay, which may contribute to the observed anti-inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1523161DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and gastroprotective properties of Rubus fruticosus L. fruit juice.

Phytother Res 2018 Jul 15;32(7):1404-1414. Epub 2018 Apr 15.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Via Stagno d'Alcontres, 98166, Messina, Italy.

The juice of R. fruticosus (RFJ) fruits grown in Sicily was analysed for polyphenol compounds and tested to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antiinflammatory and gastroprotective effects. RFJ, containing mainly anthocyanins, such as cyanidin derivatives, significant amounts of phenolic acids, and smaller amounts of flavonoids, showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) (4,147.194 ± 17.199 mg trolox equivalent [TE]/100 ml), TE antioxidant capacity (8,312.444 ± 43.055 mg TE/100 ml), ferric reducing antioxidant power (2,177.830 ± 21.015 mg TE/100 ml), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (95,377.674 ± 616.194 μmol TE/100 ml juice), and β-carotene bleaching (72% ± 4.58) assay. In vivo studies showed that RFJ inhibit significantly the carrageenan-induced paw oedema (63-71%) in rats and possess antiinflammatory effects particularly significant in association with phenylbutazone (94-96%). In addition, RFJ pretreatment was able to prevent the ethanol-induced ulcerogenic effect in rats. All in vivo results were corroborated by histopathological observations and are in good agreement with antioxidant activity, confirming the relationships between biological effects observed and radical scavenging properties of RFJ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6078DOI Listing
July 2018

effects of PCB-126 and genistein on vitellogenin expression in zebrafish.

Nat Prod Res 2019 Sep 2;33(17):2507-2514. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

a Department of Veterinary Science, Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology , University of Messina , Messina , Italy.

In this study, the vitellogenin (Vtg) modulation by genistein and polychlorinated biphenyl-126 (PCB-126) exposure in zebrafishes has been investigated. Both PCB-126 and genistein have been identified as aquatic pollutants and can further increase estrogenicity of waterways. Vtg is egg yolk precursor protein release by the hepatocytes during vitellogenesis. This process occurs normally in the hepatocytes in response to the activation with the estrogens such as 17-β-estradiol. Our immunohistochemical findings showed a Vtg expression that increases at 12 h and at 72 h in the liver of treated fishes with both PCB-126 and genistein, individually and in combination. Furthermore, for the first time, also hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in the liver parenchyma were strongly positive for vitellogenin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1455048DOI Listing
September 2019

Identification and distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and neurochemical markers in the neuroepithelial cells of the gill and the skin in the giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri.

Zoology (Jena) 2017 12 5;125:41-52. Epub 2017 Aug 5.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Polígono de Cazoña, University of Cantabria, 39011 Santander, Spain.

Mudskippers are amphibious fishes living in mudflats and mangroves. These fishes hold air in their large buccopharyngeal-opercular cavities where respiratory gas exchange takes place via the gills and higher vascularized epithelium lining the cavities and also the skin epidermis. Although aerial ventilation response to changes in ambient gas concentration has been studied in mudskippers, the localization and distribution of respiratory chemoreceptors, their neurochemical coding and function as well as physiological evidence for the gill or skin as site for O and CO sensing are currently not known. In the present study we assessed the distribution of serotonin, acetylcholine, catecholamines and nitric oxide in the neuroepithelial cells (NECs) of the mudskipper gill and skin epithelium using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Colocalization studies showed that 5-HT is coexpressed with nNOS, Na/K-ATPase, TH and VAChT; nNOS is coexpressed with Na/K-ATPase and TH in the skin. In the gill 5-HT is coexpressed with nNOS and VAhHT and nNOS is coexpressed with Na/K-ATPase and TH. Acetylcholine is also expressed in chain and proximal neurons projecting to the efferent filament artery and branchial smooth muscle. The serotonergic cells c labeled with VAChT, nNOS and TH, thus indicating the presence of NEC populations and the possibility that these neurotransmitters (other than serotonin) may act as primary transmitters in the hypoxic reflex in fish gills. Immunolabeling with TH antibodies revealed that NECs in the gill and the skin are innervated by catecholaminergic nerves, thus suggesting that these cells are involved in a central control of branchial functions through their relationships with the sympathetic branchial nervous system. The Na/K-ATPase in mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs), which are most concentrated in the gill lamellar epithelium, is colabeled with nNOS and associated with TH nerve terminals. TH-immunopositive fine varicosities were also associated with the numerous capillaries in the skin surface and the layers of the swollen cells. Based on the often hypercapnic and hypoxic habitat of the mudskippers, these fishes may represent an attractive model for pursuing studies on O and CO sensing due to the air-breathing that increases the importance of acid/base regulation and the O-related drive including the function of gasotransmitters such as nitric oxide that has an inhibitory (regulatory) function in ionoregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2017.08.002DOI Listing
December 2017

Production and extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in Carassius auratus.

Nat Prod Res 2015 10;29(12):1122-6. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

a Department of Environmental Sciences, Territorial, Food and Health Security (S.A.S.T.A.S.) , University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno d'Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina , Italy.

The effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.979417DOI Listing
March 2016

TLR2 activation in corneal stromal cells by Staphylococcus aureus-induced keratitis.

APMIS 2015 Feb 29;123(2):163-8. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Health Products, University of Messina, Polo Annunziata, Messina, Italy.

The Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an active and important role in Staphylococcus aureus-induced chronic ocular inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of TLR2 of corneal stromal cells in ex vivo rabbit model of S. aureus keratitis. Corneal buttons with sclera rims placed in an ex vivo air-interface organ culture were assigned to two groups: corneas with epithelial and stromal abrasions. Each group was then divided into two sub-groups exposed to UV-killed S. aureus ATCC 6538P and S. aureus ATCC 29213, respectively. TLR2 and IL-8 mRNA expressions were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. TLR2 localization was visualized by immunofluorescence analysis. The results demonstrated that TLR2 and IL-8 mRNA were significantly expressed in the stromal cells of the groups exposed to S. aureus strains. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, after corneal injury, keratocytes differentiated into myofibroblasts became able to express TLR2 only when exposed to S. aureus. Identification of mechanisms regulation of corneal TLRs may lead to development of therapeutic interventions aimed at controlling corneal inflammation. This ex vivo model can be used to clarify the molecular events of bacterial-corneal tissue interactions and their inflammatory consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12333DOI Listing
February 2015

Extracts deriving from olive mill waste water and their effects on the liver of the goldfish Carassius auratus fed with hypercholesterolemic diet.

Nat Prod Res 2014 7;28(17):1343-9. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

a Department of Environmental Sciences, Territorial, Food and Health Security (S.A.S.T.A.S.) , University of Messina , Viale F. Stagno d'Alcontres 31, 98166 , Messina , Italy.

The present research aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of polyphenols derived from waste water from a olive mill, obtained by non-plastic molecular imprinting device, in a hypercholesterolemic diet on Carassius auratus, commonly known as goldfish that was selected as experimental model. The study was conducted with morphological and histochemical analyses and also the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Results show the beneficial activity of polyphenols with a reduction of the damage in the steatotic group, confirming that they may be suggested in the treatment of diseases by lipid accumulation, and used as any addition in feed for farmed fish, in order to improve the organoleptic and nutritional quality. The beneficial effects of waste oil extract should be suggested in the contexts of research programmes focused on the products to the health system. Furthermore, the olive mill waste water polyphenols free can be used as natural fertilizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.903479DOI Listing
December 2014

The structural organization and immunohistochemistry of G-protein alpha subunits in the olfactory system of the air-breathing mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Gobiidae, Oxudercinae).

Acta Histochem 2014 Jan 14;116(1):70-8. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute (S.A.S.T.A.S.), University of Messina, Viale Stagno d'Alcontres 31, I-98166 Messina, Italy.

The study provides the first comprehensive information on the immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus. The olfactory sensory epithelium is in the form of islets which cover part of the olfactory canal running from the upper lip toward the eye, where large single accessory nasal sacs occur. Within the islets, microvillous, ciliated and crypt ORNs were observed as well as giant cells and sparse non-sensory ciliated cells. Around the islets and in the walls of accessory nasal sacs, there are epidermal cells with microridges typical of fish epidermis. Close to the entrance to the accessory nasal sac, in the non-sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity and the skin epithelium covering the olfactory organ, areas of solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are reported for the first time. The distribution of the various ORN cell types is assessed through the immunohistochemistry against olfactory receptor coupled G-proteins. The ciliated ORNs were labeled by G alpha olf/s antibody. The ORNs with microvilli and crypt cells were G alpha i-3 immunoreactive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2013.05.005DOI Listing
January 2014

Resveratrol role in Staphylococcus aureus-induced corneal inflammation.

Pathog Dis 2013 Jul 3;68(2):61-4. Epub 2013 Jun 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, Università di Messina, Messina, Italy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of trans-resveratrol on Staphylococcus aureus-induced keratitis. Rabbit corneas (intact corneas, abraded corneas and abraded corneas exposed to inactivated S. aureus strains) were placed in an ex vivo culture model. The abraded corneas exposed to S. aureus were divided into two 1-h-treatment sub-groups: corneas treated with trans-resveratrol and corneas treated with vehicle. The tissues were examined by immunohistochemical analyses and quantitative real-time RT-PCR to determine whether resveratrol could reduce TLR2-mediated recognition of S. aureus on epithelial cells and, if so, whether this reduction repressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines. The results demonstrated that resveratrol treatment effectively downregulated cell surface TLR2 on cells stimulated by S. aureus and reduced the expression of interleukin-8 gene. In addition, the corneal culture model tested, which is simple and reproducible, could be an alternative to in vivo animal testing for the development of novel specific therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2049-632X.12046DOI Listing
July 2013

Morphology and innervation of the teleost physostome swim bladders and their functional evolution in non-teleostean lineages.

Acta Histochem 2012 Dec 25;114(8):763-72. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

Department of Food and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, University of Messina, Italy.

Swim bladders and lungs are homologous structures. Phylogenetically ancient actinopterygian fish such as Cladistians (Polypteriformes), Ginglymods (Lepisosteids) and lungfish have primitive lungs that have evolved in the Paleozoic freshwater earliest gnathostomes as an adaptation to hypoxic stress. Here we investigated the structure and the role of autonomic nerves in the physostome swim bladder of the cyprinid goldfish (Carassius auratus) and the respiratory bladder of lepisosteids: the longnose gar and the spotted gar (Lepisosteus osseus and L. oculatus) to demonstrate that these organs have different innervation patterns that are responsible for controlling different functional aspects. The goldfish swim bladder is a richly innervated organ mainly controlled by cholinergic and adrenergic innervation also involving the presence of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) neurotransmitters (nNOS, VIP, 5-HT and SP), suggesting a simple model for the regulation of the swim bladder system. The pattern of the autonomic innervation of the trabecular muscle of the Lepisosteus respiratory bladder is basically similar to that of the tetrapod lung with overlapping of both muscle architecture and control nerve patterns. These autonomic control elements do not exist in the bladders of the two species studied since they have very different physiological roles. The ontogenetic origin of the pulmonoid swim bladder (PSB) of garfishes may help understand how the expression of these autonomic control substances in the trabecular muscle is regulated including their interaction with the corpuscular cells in the respiratory epithelium of this bimodal air-breathing fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2012.01.003DOI Listing
December 2012

Mast cells in the intestine and gills of the sea bream, Sparus aurata, exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB 126.

Acta Histochem 2012 Feb 12;114(2):166-71. Epub 2011 May 12.

Department of Food and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science FF.MM.NN., University of Messina, Italy.

The presence of mast cells has been reported in all classes of vertebrates, including many teleost fish families. The mast cells of teleosts, both morphologically and functionally, show a close similarity to the mast cells of mammals. Mast cells of teleosts, localized in the vicinity of blood vessels of the intestine, gills and skin, may play an important role in the mechanisms of inflammatory response, because they express a number of functional proteins, including piscidins, which are antimicrobical peptides that act against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. An increase in the number of mast cells in various tissues and organs of teleosts seems to be linked to a wide range of stressful conditions, such as exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and mercury), exposure to herbicides and parasitic infections. This study analyzed the morphological localization and abundance of mast cells in the intestine and gills of sea bream, Sparus aurata, after a 12, 24 or 72 h exposure to PCB 126, a polychlorinated biphenyl, which is a potent immunotoxic agent. In the organs of fish exposed to PCB 126, it was observed that in addition to congestion of blood vessels, there was extravasation of red blood cells, infiltration of lymphocytes, and a progressive increase in numbers of mast cells. These data confirm the immunotoxic action of PCB, and the involvement of mast cells in the inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2011.04.004DOI Listing
February 2012

Occurrence of neuropeptides and tyrosine hydroxylase in the olfactory epithelium of the lesser-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula Linnaeus, 1758).

Acta Histochem 2011 Nov 15;113(7):717-22. Epub 2010 Oct 15.

Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Messina, Italy.

Immunohistochemical studies using antisera against various neuropeptides (Substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and cholecystokinin octapeptide) and tyrosine hydroxylase revealed both olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) polymorphisms and transepithelial-subepithelial nerves in the olfactory epithelium of the cartilaginous fish, Scyliorhinus canicula. This study provides the first evidence of three morphological types of OSNs within the olfactory epithelium of cartilaginous fish that are similar to those found in the teleosts. In fishes there is evidence that OSNs differ functionally, including their differential olfactory bulb projections and molecular properties. The Substance P positive olfactory neurons in S. canicula may have a separate bulbar projection site that is not known, but may indicate a characteristic found in olfactory neuron subtypes in both lampreys and teleost fish. Numerous Substance P immunopositive nerves are found at the base of and in the olfactory epithelium. Some of them were observed to extend outwards almost reaching the epithelial surface. Their presumptive origin from the trigeminal nerve and their interrelationship with chemosensory cells in the nasal passages of vertebrates are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2010.09.010DOI Listing
November 2011

Citrus bergamia Risso & Poiteau juice protects against renal injury of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

Phytother Res 2010 Apr;24(4):514-9

Pharmaco-Biological Department, University of Messina, Vill SS Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy.

The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of treatment with Citrus bergamia juice (1 mL/day, for 30 days) against hypercholesterolemic diet-induced renal injury in rat.C. bergamia juice provoked a significant reduction in the plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL, and an increase in HDL levels, versus hyperlipidemic controls (p < 0.05). Plasma creatinine levels, measured to assess renal glomerular function, did not change compared with hyperlipidemic controls (0.37 +/- 0.11 mg/dL and 0.32 +/- 0.10 mg/dL, respectively). Moreover, in vivo lipid peroxidation was measured in kidney homogenate; C. bergamia juice administration significantly decreased MDA levels elevations compared with hyperlipidemic controls (4.10 +/- 0.10 nmol/mg protein and 4.78 +/- 0.15 nmol/mg protein, respectively).Histological observations of the kidney supported the biochemical data and indicated a protective effect of C. bergamia juice on the development of renal damage in hypercholesterolemic rats.The antioxidant potential of C. bergamia juice was examined in two in vitro systems: in the DPPH test the juice showed a noticeable effect on scavenging free radicals (IC(50) = 25.01 +/- 0.70 +/-L); in the reducing power assay it showed a strong activity, too (1.44 +/- 0.01 ASE/mL).These findings suggest that C. bergamia juice has a protective role in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced renal damage, which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2971DOI Listing
April 2010

Toxic effect of nickel in an in vitro model of human oral epithelium.

Toxicol Lett 2005 Dec 11;159(3):219-25. Epub 2005 Jul 11.

Department Farmaco-Biologico, School of Pharmacy, University of Messina, Contrada Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy.

Nickel is a metal widely employed in dental alloys, and due to peculiar properties of certain nickel-based materials, it cannot be substituted with other metals in some applications. The release of nickel ions from dental alloys placed into long-term contact with mouth soft tissues is alarming because of the toxic, immunological and carcinogenic effects which have been well documented for some nickel compounds. Our study was focussed on the toxic effects induced "in vitro" on human oral epithelium by the exposure to low concentrations of nickel chloride. In view of this, we adopted a three-dimensional model of epithelial cultures, reconstituted from TR 146 cells, resembling the physiological environment of the oral cavity and useful for biocompatibility testing. The effects on cell viability, apoptosis, cellular content of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and release of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were investigated following topical application of a NiCl(2) solution ranging from 7.6mM to 0.05 mM for 72 h. Our findings show that nickel concentrations, which do not significantly modify cell viability and inflammation mediator release, can affect the redox equilibrium and stimulate apoptosis in oral epithelium cells. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the hypothesis that the oxidative imbalance induced by nickel might be implicated in the induction of apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.05.019DOI Listing
December 2005

Chemical characterization and biological effects of Sicilian Opuntia ficus indica (L.) mill. Fruit juice: antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activity.

J Agric Food Chem 2003 Aug;51(17):4903-8

Pharmaco-Biological Department, School of Pharmacy, Università degli Studi di Messina, Vill. SS. Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy.

The juice of whole fruits of Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) was investigated, and the contents of ascorbic acid, total polyphenols, and flavonoids were determined. In the juice, ferulic acid was the chief derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and the mean concentration of total phenolic compounds was 746 microg/mL. The flavonoid fraction, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, consisted of rutin and isorhamnetin derivatives. The juice showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH(*) test, probably due to the phenolic compounds that are effective radical scavengers. The preventive administration of the juice inhibited the ulcerogenic activity of ethanol in rat. Light microscopy observations showed an increase in mucus production and the restoration of the normal mucosal architecture. The juice is nutritionally interesting, and its dietary intake could provide protection against oxidative damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf030123dDOI Listing
August 2003

Immunohistochemical localization of nNOS and VIP in the mantle integument of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Acta Histochem 2003 ;105(2):143-9

Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Messina, Italy.

The phylogeny and functional roles of many bioactive compounds in the invertebrate integument are still unclear. In order to deal with this issue, we performed an immunohistochemical investigation of the integument of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to demonstrate the presence of nNOS- and VIP-positive nerve fibers in subepidermal connective tissue of the mantle. Positive nerve cell bodies were detected in this tissue as well as in cortex of sperm follicles, and adjacent to maturating oocytes and spermatocytes located in the thickness of the mantle. These results indicate involvement of a local inhibitory non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic (NANC) regulatory mechanism of epidermal functions, such as mucous secretion and ciliary beating. At the gonadic level, this mechanism probably regulates the cycle of maturation and release of the gametes in both sexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0065-1281-00700DOI Listing
February 2004