Publications by authors named "Simona Coppola"

17 Publications

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A novel disorder involving dyshematopoiesis, inflammation, and HLH due to aberrant CDC42 function.

J Exp Med 2019 12 10;216(12):2778-2799. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Rome, Italy

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to inadequate restraint of overactivated immune cells and is associated with a variable clinical spectrum having overlap with more common pathophysiologies. HLH is difficult to diagnose and can be part of inflammatory syndromes. Here, we identify a novel hematological/autoinflammatory condition (NOCARH syndrome) in four unrelated patients with superimposable features, including neonatal-onset cytopenia with dyshematopoiesis, autoinflammation, rash, and HLH. Patients shared the same de novo mutation (Chr1:22417990C>T, p.R186C) and altered hematopoietic compartment, immune dysregulation, and inflammation. mutations had been associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders. In vitro and in vivo assays documented unique effects of p.R186C on CDC42 localization and function, correlating with the distinctiveness of the trait. Emapalumab was critical to the survival of one patient, who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Early recognition of the disorder and establishment of treatment followed by bone marrow transplant are important to survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20190147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888978PMC
December 2019

Activating MRAS mutations cause Noonan syndrome associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 07;29(11):1772-1783

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital, Magdeburg, Germany.

The RASopathies are a group of genetic syndromes caused by upregulated RAS signaling. Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common entity among the RASopathies, is characterized mainly by short stature, cardiac anomalies and distinctive facial features. Mutations in multiple RAS-MAPK pathway-related genes have been associated with NS and related phenotypes. We describe two unrelated patients presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dysmorphic features suggestive of NS. One of them died in the neonatal period because of cardiac failure. Targeted sequencing revealed de novo MRAS variants, c.203C > T (p.Thr68Ile) and c.67G > C (p.Gly23Arg) as causative events. MRAS has only recently been related to NS based on the observation of two unrelated affected individuals with de novo variants involving the same codons here found mutated. Gly23 and Thr68 are highly conserved residues, and the corresponding codons are known hotspots for RASopathy-associated mutations in other RAS proteins. Functional analyses documented high level of activation of MRAS mutants due to impaired GTPase activity, which was associated with constitutive plasma membrane targeting, prolonged localization in non-raft microdomains, enhanced binding to PPP1CB and SHOC2 protein, and variably increased MAPK and PI3K-AKT activation. This report provides additional evidence that a narrow spectrum of activating mutations in MRAS represents another rare cause of NS, and that MRAS has to be counted among the RASopathy genes predisposing to HCM. Moreover, our findings further emphasize the relevance of the MRAS-SHOC2-PPP1CB axis in the control of MAPK signaling, and the contribution of both MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways in MRAS functional upregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz108DOI Listing
July 2020

Dominant Noonan syndrome-causing LZTR1 mutations specifically affect the Kelch domain substrate-recognition surface and enhance RAS-MAPK signaling.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 03;28(6):1007-1022

Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy.

Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common RASopathy, is caused by mutations affecting signaling through RAS and the MAPK cascade. Recently, genome scanning has discovered novel genes implicated in NS, whose function in RAS-MAPK signaling remains obscure, suggesting the existence of unrecognized circuits contributing to signal modulation in this pathway. Among these genes, leucine zipper-like transcriptional regulator 1 (LZTR1) encodes a functionally poorly characterized member of the BTB/POZ protein superfamily. Two classes of germline LZTR1 mutations underlie dominant and recessive forms of NS, while constitutional monoallelic, mostly inactivating, mutations in the same gene cause schwannomatosis, a cancer-prone disorder clinically distinct from NS. Here we show that dominant NS-causing LZTR1 mutations do not affect significantly protein stability and subcellular localization. We provide the first evidence that these mutations, but not the missense changes occurring as biallelic mutations in recessive NS, enhance stimulus-dependent RAS-MAPK signaling, which is triggered, at least in part, by an increased RAS protein pool. Moreover, we document that dominant NS-causing mutations do not perturb binding of LZTR1 to CUL3, a scaffold coordinating the assembly of a multimeric complex catalyzing protein ubiquitination but are predicted to affect the surface of the Kelch domain mediating substrate binding to the complex. Collectively, our data suggest a model in which LZTR1 contributes to the ubiquitinationof protein(s) functioning as positive modulator(s) of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. In this model, LZTR1 mutations are predicted to variably impair binding of these substrates to the multi-component ligase complex and their efficient ubiquitination and degradation, resulting in MAPK signaling upregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy412DOI Listing
March 2019

Functional Dysregulation of CDC42 Causes Diverse Developmental Phenotypes.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 02 25;102(2):309-320. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA. Electronic address:

Exome sequencing has markedly enhanced the discovery of genes implicated in Mendelian disorders, particularly for individuals in whom a known clinical entity could not be assigned. This has led to the recognition that phenotypic heterogeneity resulting from allelic mutations occurs more commonly than previously appreciated. Here, we report that missense variants in CDC42, a gene encoding a small GTPase functioning as an intracellular signaling node, underlie a clinically heterogeneous group of phenotypes characterized by variable growth dysregulation, facial dysmorphism, and neurodevelopmental, immunological, and hematological anomalies, including a phenotype resembling Noonan syndrome, a developmental disorder caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. In silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses demonstrate that mutations variably perturb CDC42 function by altering the switch between the active and inactive states of the GTPase and/or affecting CDC42 interaction with effectors, and differentially disturb cellular and developmental processes. These findings reveal the remarkably variable impact that dominantly acting CDC42 mutations have on cell function and development, creating challenges in syndrome definition, and exemplify the importance of functional profiling for syndrome recognition and delineation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.12.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985417PMC
February 2018

SHOC2 subcellular shuttling requires the KEKE motif-rich region and N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain and impacts on ERK signalling.

Hum Mol Genet 2016 09 27;25(17):3824-3835. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy

SHOC2 is a scaffold protein composed almost entirely by leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and having an N-terminal region enriched in alternating lysine and glutamate/aspartate residues (KEKE motifs). SHOC2 acts as a positive modulator of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signalling cascade by favouring stable RAF1 interaction with RAS. We previously reported that the p.Ser2Gly substitution in SHOC2 underlies Mazzanti syndrome, a RASopathy clinically overlapping Noonan syndrome, promoting N-myristoylation and constitutive targeting of the mutant to the plasma membrane. We also documented transient nuclear translocation of wild-type SHOC2 upon EGF stimulation, suggesting a more complex function in signal transduction.Here, we characterized the domains controlling SHOC2 shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and those contributing to SHOC2 mistargeting to the plasma membrane, analysed the structural organization of SHOC2's LRR motifs, and determined the impact of SHOC2 mislocalization on ERK signalling. We show that LRRs 1 to 13 constitute a structurally recognizable domain required for SHOC2 import into the nucleus and constitutive targeting of SHOC2 to the plasma membrane, while the KEKE motif-rich region is necessary to achieve efficient SHOC2 export from the nucleus. We also document that SHOC2 localizes both in raft and non-raft domains, and that it translocates to the non-raft domains following stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that SHOC2 trapping at different subcellular sites has a diverse impact on ERK signalling strength and dynamics, suggesting a dual counteracting modulatory role of SHOC2 in the control of ERK signalling exerted at different intracellular compartments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddw229DOI Listing
September 2016

A mutation in PAK3 with a dual molecular effect deregulates the RAS/MAPK pathway and drives an X-linked syndromic phenotype.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Jul 19;23(13):3607-17. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

U.O. Genetica Medica, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche (DIMEC),

Loss-of-function mutations in PAK3 contribute to non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability (NS-XLID) by affecting dendritic spine density and morphology. Linkage analysis in a three-generation family with affected males showing ID, agenesis of corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, microcephaly and ichthyosis, revealed a candidate disease locus in Xq21.33q24 encompassing over 280 genes. Subsequent to sequencing all coding exons of the X chromosome, we identified a single novel variant within the linkage region, affecting a conserved codon of PAK3. Biochemical studies showed that, similar to previous NS-XLID-associated lesions, the predicted amino acid substitution (Lys389Asn) abolished the kinase activity of PAK3. In addition, the introduced residue conferred a dominant-negative function to the protein that drives the syndromic phenotype. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies in zebrafish embryos, we show that PAK3(N389) escapes its physiologic degradation and is able to perturb MAPK signaling via an uncontrolled kinase-independent function, which in turn leads to alterations of cerebral and craniofacial structures in vivo. Our data expand the spectrum of phenotypes associated with PAK3 mutations, characterize a novel mechanism resulting in a dual molecular effect of the same mutation with a complex PAK3 functional deregulation and provide evidence for a direct functional impact of aberrant PAK3 function on MAPK signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu070DOI Listing
July 2014

Autocrine role of angiopoietins during megakaryocytic differentiation.

PLoS One 2012 6;7(7):e39796. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

The tyrosine kinase Tie-2 and its ligands Angiopoietins (Angs) transduce critical signals for angiogenesis in endothelial cells. This receptor and Ang-1 are coexpressed in hematopoietic stem cells and in a subset of megakaryocytes, though a possible role of angiopoietins in megakaryocytic differentiation/proliferation remains to be demonstrated. To investigate a possible effect of Ang-1/Ang-2 on megakaryocytic proliferation/differentiation we have used both normal CD34(+) cells induced to megakaryocytic differentiation and the UT7 cells engineered to express the thrombopoietin receptor (TPOR, also known as c-mpl, UT7/mpl). Our results indicate that Ang-1/Ang-2 may have a role in megakaryopoiesis. Particularly, Ang-2 is predominantly produced and released by immature normal megakaryocytic cells and by undifferentiated UT7/mpl cells and slightly stimulated TPO-induced cell proliferation. Ang-1 production is markedly induced during megakaryocytic differentiation/maturation and potentiated TPO-driven megakaryocytic differentiation. Blocking endogenously released angiopoietins partially inhibited megakaryocytic differentiation, particularly for that concerns the process of polyploidization. According to these data it is suggested that an autocrine angiopoietin/Tie-2 loop controls megakaryocytic proliferation and differentiation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039796PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3391299PMC
March 2013

Multiple mechanisms for hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009 Aug;1171:559-63

Department of Biology, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy.

The mechanisms of cell killing by oxidative stress, in particular by hydrogen peroxide, are not yet well clarified. Here, we show that during recovery after H(2)O(2) treatment, apoptosis occurs in two different waves, peaking at 8 h (early) and 18 h (late) of recovery from oxidative stress. The two peaks are differentially modulated by a set of inhibitors of metabolic processes, which suggests that the first peak depends on DNA break formation, whereas the second may be correlated with H(2)O(2)-induced mitochondrial alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04901.xDOI Listing
August 2009

Colocalization of the VEGF-R2 and the common IL-3/GM-CSF receptor beta chain to lipid rafts leads to enhanced p38 activation.

Br J Haematol 2009 May 24;145(3):399-411. Epub 2009 Feb 24.

Department of Haematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Previous studies suggested an important role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors in postnatal haemopoiesis. However, it is unclear how VEGF receptor (VEGFR) signalling could interact with that issued from the activation of haematopoietic growth factor receptors. To elucidate this point we explored VEGF-R2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) membrane localization and cell signalling in TF1-KDR cells (TF1 leukaemic cells that overexpress VEGF-R2/KDR). Activation of either GM-CSFR or VEGF-R2 was shown to determine the migration of both receptor elements (VEGF-R2 and the common beta-chain of the GM-CSFR) to lipid rafts. The study of receptor phosphorylation showed that GM-CSF induced the phosphorylation of its own receptor and the transphosphorylation of VEGF-R2; on the other hand, VEGF triggered the phosphorylation of its receptor and transphosphorylated the beta-chain of the GM-CSFR. Co-stimulation of TF1-KDR cells with both GM-CSF and VEGF-A resulted in massive migration of both the common GM-CSFR beta-chain and VEGF-R2 to lipid rafts and sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Disruption of lipid rafts inhibited the capacity of both GM-CSF and VEGF-A to activate p38. Experiments with specific p38 inhibitors showed that p38 activation was required to sustain the VEGF- and GM-CSF-dependent proliferation of TF1-KDR and the survival of primary acute myeloid leukaemia blasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07627.xDOI Listing
May 2009

Sequential phases of Ca2+ alterations in pre-apoptotic cells.

Apoptosis 2007 Dec;12(12):2207-19

Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133, Italy.

The very early events of the intrinsic, damage-induced apoptotic pathway, i.e., upstream to Bax activation, probably consist of physico-chemical alterations (i.e., redox, pH or Ca2+ changes) rather then subtle molecular interactions, and in spite of many studies they remain unclear. One problem is that cells undergo apoptosis in an asynchronous way, leading to heterogeneity in the cell population that impairs the results of bulk analyses. In this study, we present a flow cytometric approach for studying Ca2+ alteration in apoptosis at the single cell level. By means of a multiparametric analysis, we could discriminate different sub-populations, i.e., viable and apoptotic cells and cells in secondary necrosis, and separately analyse static as well as dynamic Ca2+ parameters in each sub-population. With this approach, we have identified a set of sequential Ca2+ changes; two very early ones occur prior to any other apoptotic alterations, whereas a later change coincides with the appearance of apoptosis. Interestingly, the two pre-apoptotic changes occur simultaneously in all treated cells, i.e., at fixed times post-treatment, whereas the later one occurs at varying times, i.e., within a wide time range, concomitantly with the other apoptotic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-007-0134-0DOI Listing
December 2007

Redox modulation of the apoptogenic activity of thapsigargin.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007 Mar;1099:469-72

Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita' di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (I), Italy.

Thapsigargin (THG), a selective inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPases, causes the rapid emptying of ER Ca2+; in some cell types, this is accompanied by apoptosis, whereas other cells maintain viability. In order to understand the molecular determinants of such a different behavior, we explored the role of oxygen versus nitrogen radicals, by analyzing the apoptogenic ability of THG in the presence of inhibitors of glutathione or nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, respectively. We observed that oxygen radicals play a sensitizing role whereas nitrogen radicals prevent THG-dependent apoptosis, showing that the apoptogenic effect of THG is redox sensitive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1387.028DOI Listing
March 2007

Glutathione depletion up-regulates Bcl-2 in BSO-resistant cells.

FASEB J 2004 Oct 2;18(13):1609-11. Epub 2004 Aug 2.

Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita' di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Glutathione depletion by inhibition of its synthesis with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) is a focus of the current research in antitumor therapy, BSO being used as chemosensitizer. We had previously shown that two human tumor cell lines (U937 and HepG2) survive to treatment with BSO: BSO can elicit an apoptotic response, but the apoptotic process is aborted after cytochrome c release and before caspase activation, suggesting the development of an adaptive response (FASEB J., 1999, 13, 2031-2036). Here, we investigate the mechanisms of such an adaptation. We found that following BSO, U937 up-regulate Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels, by a mechanism possibly involving NF-kappaB transcription factor; the increase in protein level is limited by a rapid decay of Bcl-2 in BSO-treated cells, suggesting that redox imbalance speeds up Bcl-2 turnover. BSO-dependent Bcl-2 up-regulation is associated with the ability to survive to BSO. Indeed, 1) its abrogation by CAPE or protein synthesis inhibition sensitizes U937 to BSO; 2) in a panel of four tumor lines, BSO-resistant (U937, HepG2, and HGB1) but not BSO-sensitive (BL41) cells can up-regulate Bcl-2 following GSH depletion; remarkably, only the latter are chemosensitized by BSO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.04-1813fjeDOI Listing
October 2004

Heart infarct in NOD-SCID mice: therapeutic vasculogenesis by transplantation of human CD34+ cells and low dose CD34+KDR+ cells.

FASEB J 2004 Sep 1;18(12):1392-4. Epub 2004 Jul 1.

Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107-5541, USA.

Hematopoietic (Hem) and endothelial (End) lineages derive from a common progenitor cell, the hemangioblast: specifically, the human cord blood (CB) CD34+KDR+ cell fraction comprises primitive Hem and End cells, as well as hemangioblasts. In humans, the potential therapeutic role of Hem and End progenitors in ischemic heart disease is subject to intense investigation. Particularly, the contribution of these cells to angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in myocardial ischemia is not well established. In our studies, we induced myocardial infarct (MI) in the immunocompromised NOD-SCID mouse model, and monitored the effects of myocardial transplantation of human CB CD34+ cells on cardiac function. Specifically, we compared the therapeutic effect of unseparated CD34+ cells vs. PBS and mononuclear cells (MNCs); moreover, we compared the action of the CD34+KDR+ cell subfraction vs. the CD34+KDR- subset. CD34+ cells significantly improve cardiac function after MI, as compared with PBS/MNCs. Similar beneficial actions were obtained using a 2-log lower number of CD34+KDR+ cells, while the same number of CD34+KDR- cells did not have any effects. The beneficial effect of CD34+KDR+ cells may mostly be ascribed to their notable resistance to apoptosis and to their angiogenic action, since cardiomyogenesis was limited. Altogether, our results indicate that, within the CD34+ cell population, the CD34+KDR+ fraction is responsible for the improvement in cardiac hemodynamics and hence represents the candidate active CD34+ cell subset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.03-0879fjeDOI Listing
September 2004

GSH depletion enhances adenoviral bax-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

Cancer Gene Ther 2004 Apr;11(4):249-55

Department of Molecular Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

The utility of dominant acting proapoptotic molecules to induce cell death in cancer cells is being evaluated in preclinical studies and clinical trials. We recently developed a binary adenoviral expression system to enable the efficient gene transfer of Bax and other proapoptotic molecules. Using this system, overexpression of Bax protein in four non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, H1299, A549, H226 and H322, was evaluated. The H322 line exhibited significant resistance to Bax-induced cell death compared to the other cell lines. H322 cells had the highest level of glutathione (GSH). GSH levels were significantly decreased following buthionine sulfoximine treatment and this coincided with enhanced apoptosis induction by Ad-Bax in H322 cells. GSH depletion enhanced Bax protein translocation to mitochondrial membranes. These findings suggest that the redox status may be a determinant of Bax-mediated cell death and that manipulation of intracellular thiols may sensitize cells to apoptosis by facilitating Bax insertion into mitochondrial membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.cgt.7700684DOI Listing
April 2004

Anti-apoptotic effect of HIV protease inhibitors via direct inhibition of calpain.

Biochem Pharmacol 2003 Oct;66(8):1505-12

Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita' di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Treatment with drugs designed to inhibit the HIV protease ameliorates immune functions in AIDS patients, reducing cell deletion by apoptosis even in the absence of inhibition of viral spread. This suggests that they interact with the intrinsic apoptotic signaling. We found that caspases, the main executioner of the apoptotic process, are not directly inhibited. In search for the mechanism responsible for their anti-apoptotic effect, we have found that indinavir and ritonavir are able to inhibit apoptosis only in those cell systems where apoptosis involves the activation of calpains. They directly inhibit a calpain-like activity expressed in lysates from apoptotic cells, to the same extent as commercially available calpain inhibitor 1. In in vitro assays with purified calpains, indinavir and ritonavir strongly inhibit m-calpain, and moderately mu-calpain. These results have great therapeutic implications, going beyond AIDS treatment, since many degenerative disorders involve abnormal calpain activation, indicating calpain as an ideal pharmacological target. Indinavir and ritonavir, potent m-calpain inhibitors, largely used since several years on humans without important negative side effects, may become powerful tools against those pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-2952(03)00505-7DOI Listing
October 2003

Identification of the hemangioblast in postnatal life.

Blood 2002 Nov;100(9):3203-8

Kimmel Cancer Center, Room 609, Thomas Jefferson University, 233 S. 10th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107-5541, USA.

Postnatal CD34(+) cells expressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR) generate hematopoietic or endothelial progeny in different in vitro and in vivo assays. Hypothetically, CD34(+)KDR(+) cells may comprise hemangioblasts bipotent for both lineages. This hypothesis is consistent with 2 series of experiments. In the first series, in clonogenic culture permissive for hematopoietic and endothelial cell growth, CD34(+)KDR(+) cells generate large hemato-endothelial (Hem-End) colonies (5% of seeded cells), whereas CD34(+)KDR(-) cells do not. Limiting-dilution analysis indicates that Hem-End colonies are clonally generated by single hemangioblasts. Sibling cells generated by a hemangioblast, replated in unicellular culture, produce either hematopoietic or Hem-End colonies, depending on the specific culture conditions. Identification of endothelial cells was based on the expression of VE-cadherin and endothelial markers and with lack of CD45 and hematopoietic molecules, as evaluated by immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, endothelial cells were functionally identified using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and tube-formation assays. In the second series, to evaluate the self-renewal capacity of hemangioblasts, single CD34(+)KDR(+) cells were grown in 3-month extended long-term culture (ELTC) through 3 serial culture rounds-that is, blast cells generated in unicellular ELTC were reseeded for a subsequent round of unicellular ELTC. After 9 months, 10% blasts from tertiary ELTC functioned as hemangioblasts and generated macroscopic Hem-End colonies in clonogenic culture. These studies identified postnatal hemangioblasts in a CD34(+)KDR(+) cell subset, endowed with long-term proliferative potential and bilineage differentiation capacity. Although exceedingly rare, hemangioblasts may represent the lifetime source/reservoir for primitive hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-05-1511DOI Listing
November 2002