Publications by authors named "Simon Tanguay"

143 Publications

Lymph node dissection during radical nephrectomy: A Canadian multi-institutional analysis.

Urol Oncol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine the association between lymph node dissection (LND) at the time of radical nephrectomy and survival in a large, multi-institutional cohort using a propensity score matching design.

Subjects And Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system was used to identify patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma. Associations between LND with overall survival , recurrence free survival and cancer specific survival were determined using various propensity score techniques in the overall cohort and in patients with varying probabilities of pN1. Cox models were used to determine association of lymph node removed with outcomes.

Results: Of the 2,699 eligible patients, 812 (30%) underwent LND. Of the LND patients, 88 (10.8%) had nodal metastases. There was no association between LND and improved overall survival, recurrence free survival or cancer specific survival using various propensity score techniques (stratification by propensity score quintile, matched pairs, inverse treatment probability weighting and adjusted for propensity score quintile). There was no association between LND and a therapeutic benefit in patients with increased threshold probabilities of nodal metastases. Increased number of lymph nodes removed was not associated with improved survival outcomes.

Conclusions: LND at the time of radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is not associated with improved outcomes. There was no benefit in patients at high risk for nodal metastases, and the number of nodes removed did not correlate with survival. Further studies are needed to determine which high risk patients may benefit from LND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.02.025DOI Listing
March 2021

The Use of 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors and Alpha-1 Blockers Does Not Improve Clinical Outcome in Male Patients Undergoing Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer in Quebec, Canada.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Existing literature suggests that bladder cancer (BC) outcome may be improved when patients use 5α-reductase inhibitors and/or α-blockers, but such a conclusion may be subject to publication bias. We evaluated whether preoperative use of 5α-reductase inhibitors or α-blockers was associated with improved clinical outcomes in a cohort of patients with BC undergoing radical cystectomy (RC).

Patients And Methods: Using provincial health administrative databases, we retrospectively identified male BC patients undergoing RC in Quebec province between 2000 and 2015, and we collected data from 2 years before RC until December 2016 or death. Survival analyses were conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, propensity score matching, and uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Covariates included age, Charlson's comorbidity index, region of residence, year of RC, distance to hospital, hospital type, annual RC volume of each hospital and surgeon, neoadjuvant chemotherapy use, and type of bladder diversion.

Results: Of the 2822 patients included, 284 patients used 5α-reductase inhibitors and 1001 patients used α-blockers prior to surgery. Median follow-up time was 7.7 years. Patients who used 5α-reductase inhibitors or α-blockers were generally older, had more comorbidities, and were treated more recently in academic centers. Overall, bladder cancer-specific and recurrence-free survival did not differ significantly between those using 5α-reductase inhibitors prior to surgery and controls who never used 5α-reductase inhibitors. Adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.21) for overall survival, 1.12 (95% CI, 0.92-1.36) for bladder cancer-specific survival, and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99-1.42) for recurrence-free survival. The aforementioned outcomes were significantly worse in patients who used α1-blockers prior to surgery compared to controls, with respective adjusted hazard ratios of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.27), 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35), and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.05-1.33).

Conclusion: Preoperative use of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-blockers did not improve clinical outcome in our cohort of male patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2021.01.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparing Perspectives of Canadian Men Diagnosed With Prostate Cancer and Health Care Professionals About Active Surveillance.

J Patient Exp 2020 Dec 11;7(6):1122-1129. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Institut du cancer de Montréal and Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Active surveillance (AS) has gained acceptance as a primary management approach for patients diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer (PC). In this qualitative study, we compared perspectives between patients and health care professionals (HCP) to identify what may contribute to patient-provider discordance, influence patient decision-making, and interfere with the uptake of AS. We performed a systematic comparison of perspectives about AS reported from focus groups with men eligible for AS (7 groups, N = 52) and HCP (5 groups, N = 48) who engaged in conversations about AS with patient. We used conventional content analysis to scrutinize separately focus group transcripts and reached a consensus on similar or divergent viewpoints between them. Patients and clinicians agreed that AS was appropriate for low grade PC and understood the low-risk nature of the disease. They shared the perspective that disease status was a critical factor to pursue or discontinue AS. However, men expressed a greater emphasis on quality of life in their decisions related to AS. Patients and clinicians differed in their perspectives on the clarity, availability, and volume of information needed and offered; clinicians acknowledged variations between HCP when presenting AS, while patients were often compelled to seek additional information beyond what was provided by physicians and experienced difficulty in finding or interpreting information applicable to their situation. A greater understanding of discordant perspectives about AS between patients and HCP can help improve patient engagement and education, inform development of knowledge-based tools or aids for decision-making, and identify areas that require standardization across the clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2374373520932735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786672PMC
December 2020

Phase I Trial of Atezolizumab plus Trimodal Therapy in Patients with localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, 1001 Decarie Blvd, D02.7210, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: Immune checkpoint programmed death-ligand 1 (PDL-1) inhibitor therapy has shown response in metastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We evaluated the safety and tolerability of atezolizumab (anti-PDL-1) in combination with trimodal therapy (TMT) in patients with localized MIBC.

Methods: A prospective non-randomized phase I study using a 3+3 design was conducted in patients with localized MIBC (T2-T4a N0M0) treated on a bladder preservation program. Following trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor, patients received concurrent radiotherapy at a fixed dose of 50 Gy/20 fractions, gemcitabine (100 mg/m, IV once weekly x 4) and atezolizumab (1200 mg IV every 3 weeks x 16 cycles). Primary endpoint was safety/toxicity profile.

Results: Between May 2018 and March 2019, 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) were enrolled. The first 5 patients received atezolizumab at 1200 mg, three of whom developed grade 3 side effects (2 of them dose limiting toxicity). Atezolizumab dose was reduced to 840 mg for 3 additional patients. The study was terminated due to the presence of three grade 3 adverse events (2 of them dose limiting toxicity) despite the reduced atezolizumab dose. Gastro-intestinal (GI) events were the main toxicity. No grade 4-5 adverse effects were observed.

Conclusion: Concurrent administration of atezolizumab with concomitant hypofractionated radiotherapy and gemcitabine appears to be associated with unacceptable GI toxicity. While numbers studied are small, our results suggest considerable caution with its concurrent use with trimodal therapy for MIBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.12.033DOI Listing
January 2021

Refining assessment of response to radiation-based therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Is post-treatment tumor bed biopsy always necessary?

Urol Oncol 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Radiation-based therapy (RT) has emerged as a suitable alternative to radical cystectomy (RC) and pelvic lymph node dissection for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients. Routine biopsy after RT to rule out residual disease remains inconsistent across guidelines. Our objective was to review the significance of a bladder biopsy in terms of assessment of response post-RT and its potential impact on survival.

Patients And Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study on patients with MIBC (cT2-4aN0-2M0) treated with curative intent RT. A total of 169 patients with primary urothelial carcinoma were analyzed. Patients' demographic, clinical and pathological variables, imaging, cystoscopy, urine cytology, and biopsy reports after RT were collected and compiled. Whenever urine cytology was positive or cystoscopy showed any malignant-appearing lesion, the first assessment post-RT was considered suspicious for residual disease. A descriptive population analysis was reported. Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed to identify independent variables associated with survival outcomes.

Results: Median age was 75 years (interquartile range 66-82) and clinical staging was cT2 in 152 (90%) patients. Cytology and cystoscopy were normal in 140 (83%) after RT. Of patients with a control biopsy, residual MIBC was present in 3 (5%) and non-MIBC in another 6 (11%). On the contrary, a for-cause biopsy due to a suspicious assessment post-RT did not yield residual cancer in 45% of patients. Multivariable analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, P< 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (HR 1.68, P = 0.03) and a suspicious assessment after RT (HR 3.21; P< 0.001) were significantly associated with worse OS. This study was limited by its retrospective design.

Conclusions: A routine biopsy after RT may be warranted to assess treatment response. This might be particularly important for patients who may benefit from early surgical intervention for residual MIBC. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.10.001DOI Listing
October 2020

Determining generalizability of the Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) to the entire Canadian kidney cancer population.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Oct;14(10):E499-E506

Department of Medicine and Urology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Introduction: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) has prospectively collected data on patients with renal tumors since January 1, 2011 from 16 sites within 14 academic centers in six provinces. Canadian kidney cancer experts have used CKCis data to address several research questions. The goal of this study was to determine if the CKCis cohort is representative of the entire Canadian kidney cancer population, specifically regarding demographic and geographic distributions.

Methods: The CKCis prospective cohort was analyzed up to December 31, 2018. Baseline demographics and tumor characteristics were analyzed, including location of patients' residence at the time of CKCis entry. Geographic data is presented by province, rural vs. urban via postal code information (2 digit=0) and by Canadian urban boundary files. To determine the proportion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients that CKCis captures, CKCis accruals were compared to projected Canadian Cancer Society RCC incidence in 2016-2017 and the incidence from the 2016 Canadian Cancer Registry. To determine if the CKCis baseline data is representative, it was compared to registry data and other published data when registry data was not available.

Results: This CKCis cohort includes 10 298 eligible patients: 66.6% male, median age 62.6 years; 14.6% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis and 70.4% had clear-cell carcinomas. The CKCis cohort captures about 1250 patients per year, which represents approximately 20% of the total kidney cancer incidence. The proportion of patients captured per province did vary from 13-43%. Rural patients make up 17% of patients, with some baseline differences between rural and urban patients. There appears to be no major differences between CKCis patient demographics and disease characteristics compared to national data sources. Canadian heat maps detailing patient location are presented.

Conclusions: CKCis contains prospective data on >10 000 Canadian kidney cancer patients, making it a valuable resource for kidney cancer research. The baseline demographic and geographic data do appear to include a broad cross-section of patients and seem to be highly representative of the Canadian kidney cancer population. Moving forward, future projects will include determining if CKCis cancer outcomes are also representative of the entire Canadian kidney cancer population and studying variations across provinces and within rural vs. urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716824PMC
October 2020

Acceptability and Usefulness of a Dyadic, Tailored, Web-Based, Psychosocial and Physical Activity Self-Management Program (TEMPO): A Qualitative Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 13;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

College of Nursing, University of Manitoba; Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada.

Caregivers of men with prostate cancer report high burden, and there is a need to develop cost-effective programs to support them in their roles. This study reports on the acceptability of a dyadic, ailored, wb-based, psychosocial and physical activity (PA) self-anagement rgram called TEMPO. TEMPO was accessed by a convenience sample of 19 men with prostate cancer and their caregivers ( = 18), as well as six health care professionals (HCPs). User feedback was gathered via semi-structured qualitative interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Most dyads were satisfied with TEMPO, particularly with the dyadic feature of TEMPO, the focus on goal setting to integrate self-management, and the extensive health library. The patients and caregivers motivated each other as they worked through TEMPO. Most goals to achieve during TEMPO pertained to increasing PA, followed by learning physical symptom management. One unanticipated benefit of TEMPO for the dyads was improved communication. HCPs agreed that TEMPO was a novel approach to online cancer self-management and they echoed the benefits reported by dyads. Key suggestions for improving TEMPO were to reduce repetition, tailor content, add more exercise ideas, and have more printing options. This study provides a strong foundation on which to plan a larger trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650635PMC
October 2020

Prognostic impact of paraneoplastic syndromes on patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing surgery: Results from Canadian Kidney Cancer information system.

Can Urol Assoc J 2021 Apr;15(4):132-137

Department of Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Introduction: The impact of paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) on survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is uncertain. This study was conducted to analyze the association of PNS with recurrence and survival of patients with non-metastatic RCC undergoing nephrectomy.

Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system is a multi-institutional cohort of patients started in January 2011. Patients with nephrectomy for non-metastatic RCC were identified. PNS included anemia, polycythemia, hypercalcemia, and weight loss. Associations between PNS and recurrence or death were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable analysis.

Results: Of 4337 patients, 1314 (30.3%) had evidence of one or more PNS. Patients with PNS were older, had higher comorbidity, and had more advanced clinical and pathological tumor characteristics as compared to patients without PNS (all p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier five-year estimated recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were significantly worse in patients with PNS (63.7%, 84.3%, and 79.6%, respectively, for patients with PNS vs. 73.9%, 90.8%, and 90.1%, respectively, for patients without PNS, all p<0.005). On univariable analysis, presence of PNS increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-1.90, p<0.0001) and cancer-related death (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.34-2.54, p=0.0002). Adjusting for known prognostic factors, PNS was not associated with recurrence or survival.

Conclusions: In non-metastatic RCC patients undergoing surgery, presence of PNS is associated with older age, higher Charlson comorbidity index score, advanced tumor stage, and aggressive tumor histology. Following surgery, baseline PNS is not strongly independently associated with recurrence or death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021432PMC
April 2021

Impact of COVID-19 on medical education: introducing homo digitalis.

World J Urol 2020 Aug 29. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: To determine how members of the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU) are continuing their education in the time of COVID-19.

Methods: A survey was disseminated amongst SIU members worldwide by email. Results were analyzed to examine the influence of age, practice region and settings on continuing medical education (CME) of the respondents.

Results: In total, 2494 respondents completed the survey. Internet searching was the most common method of CME (76%; all ps < 0.001), followed by searching journals and textbook including the online versions (62%; all ps < 0.001). Overall, 6% of the respondents reported no time/interest for CME during the pandemic. Although most urologists report using only one platform for their CME (26.6%), the majority reported using ≥ 2 platforms, with approximately 10% of the respondents using up to 5 different platforms. Urologists < 40 years old were more likely to use online literature (69%), podcasts/AV media (38%), online CME courses/webinars (40%), and social media (39%). There were regional variations in the CME modality used but no significant difference in the number of methods by region. There was no significant difference in responses between urologists in academic/public hospitals or private practice.

Conclusion: During COVID-19, urologists have used web-based learning for their CME. Internet learning and literature were the top frequently cited learning methods. Younger urologists are more likely to use all forms of digital learning methods, while older urologists prefer fewer methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03417-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455506PMC
August 2020

Outcomes of complete metastasectomy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system experience.

Urol Oncol 2020 10 7;38(10):799.e1-799.e10. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Surgical resection of metastasis can be integrated in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as it can contribute to delay disease progression and improve survival.

Objective: This study assessed the impact of complete metastasectomy in mRCC patients using real-world pan-Canadian data.

Design, Setting And Participants: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) database was used to select patients who were diagnosed with mRCC between January 2011 and April 2019. To minimize selection bias, each patient having received a complete metastasectomy was matched with up to 4 patients not treated with metastasectomy.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Overall survival (OS) was calculated from the date of metastasectomy or selection, to death from any cause. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the impact of the metastasectomy while adjusting for potential confounding variables.

Results: A total of 229 patients undergoing complete metastasectomy were matched with 803 patients not treated with metastasectomy. After matching, baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups. After 12 months, the proportion of patients that were still alive was 96.0% and 89.8% in the complete metastasectomy and its matched group, respectively; the 5-year OS were 63.2% and 51.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis performed in the matched cohort revealed that patients who underwent complete metastasectomy had a lower risk of mortality compared to patients who did not undergo metastasectomy (hazard ratio: 0.41, 95% confidence interval:0.27-0.63).

Conclusion: Our study found that patients who underwent complete metastasectomy have a longer overall survival and a longer time to initiation of targeted therapy compared to patients not receiving metastasectomy. These findings should support aggressive resection of metastasis in selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.07.021DOI Listing
October 2020

Cross-continental comparison of safety and protection measures amongst urologists during COVID-19.

Int J Urol 2020 11 8;27(11):981-989. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.

Objectives: To determine the well-being of urologists worldwide during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, and whether they have adequate personal protective equipment knowledge and supplies appropriate to their clinical setting.

Methods: Urologists worldwide completed a Société Internationale d'Urologie online survey from 16 April 2020 until 1 May 2020. Analysis was carried out to evaluate their knowledge about protecting themselves and others in the workplace, including their confidence in their ability to remain safe at work, and any regional differences.

Results: There were 3488 respondents from 109 countries. Urologists who stated they were moderately comfortable that their work environment offers good protection against coronavirus disease 2019 showed a total mean satisfaction level of 5.99 (on a "0 = not at all" to "10 = very" scale). A large majority (86.33%) were confident about protecting themselves from coronavirus disease 2019 at work. However, only about one-third reported their institution provided the required personal protective equipment (35.78%), and nearly half indicated their hospital has or had limited personal protective equipment availability (48.08%). Worldwide, a large majority of respondents answered affirmatively for testing the healthcare team (83.09%). Approximately half of the respondents (52.85%) across all regions indicated that all surgical team members face an equal risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (52.85%). Nearly one-third of respondents reported that they had experienced social avoidance (28.97%).

Conclusions: Our results show that urologists lack up-to-date knowledge of preferred protocols for personal protective equipment selection and use, social distancing, and coronavirus disease 2019 testing. These data can provide insights into functional domains from which other specialties could also benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iju.14340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436488PMC
November 2020

Does renal tumor biopsies for small renal carcinoma increase the risk of upstaging on final surgery pathology report and the risk of recurrence?

Urol Oncol 2020 10 18;38(10):798.e9-798.e16. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Urology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Renal tumor biopsies (RTB) have been proposed as a means to diminish overtreatment of small renal masses. A potential concern of RTB is tumor seeding along the biopsy tract leading to worse clinical outcomes.

Objectives: To evaluate whether RTB was associated with greater upstaging to pT3a compared to patients without a biopsy and to determine if pathologic upstaging affects the risk of recurrence.

Design, Setting And Participants: The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system was used to identify patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for malignant renal tumors ≤ 4cm (cT1a) between January 1, 2011 and July 2, 2019.

Intervention: RTB prior to nephrectomy or nephrectomy without biopsy.

Outcomes Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Upstaging to pT3a and cancer recurrence were compared between subjects that had a RTB compared to those who did not. A multivariable analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with disease upstaging and recurrence.

Results And Limitations: The cohort consisted of 1993 cT1a patients, followed for a median of 17.5 months. Of these patients, 502 (25%) had a preoperative RTB. There was no difference in the proportion with tumor upstaging to pT3a between patients that had RTB compared to those who did not (7.2% vs. 6.3%; P = 0.5). On multivariable analysis, RTB was not associated with pathological upstaging (Odds Ratio 0.90; 95% Confidence Interval 0.61-1.34) or recurrence (Odds Ratio 1.04; 95% Confidence Interval 0.57-1.89). The main limitation is that the study is underpowered to detect small differences between groups.

Conclusions: In this large, multi-institution cohort, RTB was not associated with increased risk of tumor upstaging or recurrence. Hence, tumor tract seeding, although possible, should not be a clinical deterrent to using RTBs as a means of personalizing renal masses management and diminishing overtreatment.

Patient Summary: Recent evidence suggests that tumor seeding following RTB may be more common than initially perceived. Our results have demonstrated that RTB was not associated with an increased risk of tumor upstaging or disease recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.06.001DOI Listing
October 2020

Small Renal Mass Surveillance: Histology-specific Growth Rates in a Biopsy-characterized Cohort.

Eur Urol 2020 09 14;78(3):460-467. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and the University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Most reports of active surveillance (AS) of small renal masses (SRMs) lack biopsy confirmation, and therefore include benign tumors and different subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Objective: We compared the growth rates and progression of different histologic subtypes of RCC SRMs (SRM) in the largest cohort of patients with biopsy-characterized SRMs on AS.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data from patients in a multicenter Canadian trial and a Princess Margaret cohort were combined to include 136 biopsy-proven SRM lesions managed by AS, with treatment deferred until progression or patient/surgeon decision.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Growth curves were estimated from serial tumor size measures. Tumor progression was defined by sustained size ≥4 cm or volume doubling within 1 yr.

Results And Limitations: Median follow-up for patients who remained on AS was 5.8 yr (interquartile range 3.4-7.5 yr). Clear cell RCC SRMs (SRM) grew faster than papillary type 1 SRMs (0.25 and 0.02 cm/yr on average, respectively, p =  0.0003). Overall, 60 SRM lesions progressed: 49 (82%) by rapid growth (volume doubling), seven (12%) increasing to ≥4 cm, and four (6.7%) by both criteria. Six patients developed metastases, and all were of clear cell RCC histology. Limitations include the use of different imaging modalities and a lack of central imaging review.

Conclusions: Tumor growth varies between histologic subtypes of SRM and among SRM, which likely reflects individual host and tumor biology. Without validated biomarkers that predict this variation, initial follow-up of histologically characterized SRMs can inform personalized treatment for patients on AS.

Patient Summary: Many small kidney cancers are suitable for surveillance and can be monitored over time for change. We demonstrate that different types of kidney cancers grow at different rates and are at different risks of progression. These results may guide better personalized treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.06.053DOI Listing
September 2020

Achieving the "trifecta" with open versus minimally invasive partial nephrectomy.

World J Urol 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

University of British Columbia, Level 6, 2775 Laurel Street, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada.

Introduction: The "trifecta" is a summary measure of outcome after partial nephrectomy (PN) that encompasses three parameters: negative surgical margin, ≤ 10% decrease in post-operative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and absence of urological complications. We assessed trifecta rates in patients undergoing open (OPN), laparoscopic (LPN), and robotic PN (RPN) for a clinical T1 renal mass (≤ 7 cm).

Methods: Clinical and pathologic parameters were extracted from the prospectively maintained Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System for patients treated between January 2011 and October 2018. Comparisons between groups were made using Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and Chi-squared independence test for categorical variables. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of each component of the trifecta and the trifecta itself.

Results: Of 1708 total patients, 746 underwent OPN, 678 LPN, and 284 RPN for a T1 renal mass. A 'trifecta' was achieved in 53% OPN, 52% LPN and 47% RPN (p = 0.194). On multivariable analysis, OPN and LPN were associated with less frequent post-operative decline in eGFR and more frequent trifecta when compared to RPN, but there was no difference between OPN and LPN. OPN also predicted a higher rate of negative margins compared to RPN but not LPN.

Conclusion: After correction for confounding variables, OPN and LPN were more likely than RPN to achieve the trifecta, which appeared to be due primarily to loss of renal function. No difference was observed between OPN and LPN. Analyses were limited by the lack of nephrometry score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03349-yDOI Listing
July 2020

Impact of Time to Surgery and Surgical Delay on Oncologic Outcomes for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

J Urol 2021 Jan 2;205(1):78-85. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Section of Urology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Purpose: The time between radiographic identification of a renal tumor and surgery can be concerning for patients and clinicians due to fears of tumor progression while awaiting treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the association between surgical wait time and oncologic outcomes for patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System is a multi-institutional prospective cohort initiated in January 2011. Patients with clinical stage T1b or greater renal cell carcinoma diagnosed between January 2011 and December 2019 were included in this analysis. Outcomes of interest were pathological up staging, cancer recurrence, cancer specific survival and overall survival. Time to recurrence and death were estimated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and associations were determined using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: A total of 1,769 patients satisfied the study criteria. Median wait times were 54 days (IQR 29-86) for the overall cohort and 81 days (IQR 49-127) for cT1b tumors (1,166 patients), 45 days (IQR 27-71) for cT2 tumors (672 cases) and 35 days (IQR 18-61) for cT3/4 tumors (563). Adjusting for comorbidity, tumor size, grade, histological subtype, margin status and pathological stage, there was no association between prolonged wait time and cancer recurrence or death.

Conclusions: In the context of current surgeon triaging practices surgical wait times up to 24 weeks were not associated with adverse oncologic outcomes after 2 years of followup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001230DOI Listing
January 2021

Prioritising Urological Surgery in the COVID-19 Era: A Global Reflection on Guidelines.

Eur Urol Focus 2020 Sep 15;6(5):1104-1110. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Determining whether members follow guidelines, including guidelines prepared to help direct practice management during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is an important goal for medical associations.

Objective: To determine whether practice of urologists is in line with guidelines for the management of common urological conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic produced by leading (inter)national urological associations.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Self-selected urologists completed a voluntary survey available online from March 27 to April 11, 2020 and distributed globally by the Société Internationale d'Urologie.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Responses to two survey questions on the (1) management of 14 common urological procedures and (2) priority scoring of 10 common urological procedures were evaluated by practice setting and geographical region using chi-square and one-way analysis of variance analyses, respectively.

Results And Limitations: There were 2494 respondents from 76 countries. Oncological conditions were prioritised over benign conditions, and benign conditions were deferred when feasible and safe. Oncological conditions with the greatest malignant potential were prioritised over less aggressive cancers. Respondents from Europe were least likely to postpone and most likely to prioritise conditions identified by guidelines as being of the highest priority. Respondents' priority scoring of urological procedures closely matched the priorities assigned by guidelines. The main limitation of this study is that respondents were self-selected, and access to the survey was limited by language and technology barriers.

Conclusions: Prioritisation and management of urological procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic are in line with current guidelines. The greatest agreement was reported in Europe. Observed differences may be related to limited resources in some settings.

Patient Summary: When deciding how best to treat patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, urologists are taking into account both expert recommendations and the availability of important local resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2020.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294295PMC
September 2020

Are basic robotic surgical skills transferable from the simulator to the operating room? A randomized, prospective, educational study.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Dec;14(12):416-422

Division of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Introduction: We aimed to assess the transferability of basic robotic skills from the simulator to the operating room (OR) while performing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

Methods: Fourteen urology residents were randomized into two groups: group A was required to practice three sessions (nine tasks each) on the simulator, whereas group B was required to practice (same nine tasks) until they reached competency. Both groups were recorded while practicing on the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator. Both groups were then recorded while performing bladder mobilization during RARP. Senior residents from both groups were also recorded while performing urethro-vesical anastomosis during RARP. Recordings were assessed blindly using the validated Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) tool by C-SATS. Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho) was used to assess correlation between GEARS scores from practice sessions on the da Vinci Simulator and the GEARS scores from bladder mobilization and urethro-vesical anastomosis during RARP.

Results: There was no difference in total GEARS scores between the two groups in the OR. Total GEARS scores for "ring and rail 2" and "suture sponge" tasks correlated with the total GEARS scores during urethro-vesical anastomosis (rho=0.86, p=0.007; rho=0.90, p=0.002, respectively). GEARS' efficiency component during "energy and dissection" task on the da Vinci Simulator correlated with GEARS' efficiency component during bladder mobilization (rho=0.62, p=0.03). GEARS' force sensitivity component during "ring and rail 2" and "dots and needles" tasks on the da Vinci Simulator correlated with GEARS' force sensitivity component during bladder mobilization (rho=0.58, p=0.047; rho =0.65, p=0.02, respectively).

Conclusions: Objective assessments of urology residents on the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator tasks ring and rail 2 and suture sponge correlated with their objective assessments of bladder mobilization and urethro-vesical anastomosis. Therefore, basic robotic skills could be transferred from the simulator to the OR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704095PMC
December 2020

Making a case "against" focal therapy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

World J Urol 2021 Mar 11;39(3):719-728. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Introduction: Focal therapy (FT) for localized prostate cancer (PCa) is a promising treatment strategy. Although, according to guidelines, it should be regarded as an experimental option, its introduction into clinical practice has occurred at an accelerated speed. It is, thus, crucial for Urologists to understand FT limitations and potential drawbacks that may derive from its use.

Methods: We performed a literature search of peer-reviewed English language articles using Pubmed and the words "focal therapy" AND "prostate cancer" to identify relevant articles. Web search was complemented by manual search.

Results: From a biological perspective, in contrast with the index lesion theory, which still needs to be better supported, PCa is a multifocal and multiclonal entity. Also, the effects of FT on PCa microenvironment are unclear. From a clinical perspective, patient selection is still not precisely defined. Even when all variables potentially decreasing mpMRI and biopsy accuracy are optimized, up to one out of two men may be incorrectly selected for FT, leaving a significant proportion of clinically significant PCa (csPCa) untreated. Underestimation of PCa volume and variant histologies are other additional mpMRI potential limitations. No RCTs have been performed against the standard of care to support FT. There is absence of long-term results and FT series reaching medium-term follow-up have non-optimal oncological control with significant re-treatment needs. When PCa recurs/persists after FT, little is known about the appropriate management strategies and their outcomes. Finally, the optimal follow-up scheme post-FT remains unclear.

Conclusions: Several arguments are present against the use of FT for localized PCa. Studies are needed to overcome current limitations and support FT before it can be included as part of the standard management of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03303-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of COVID-19 on Urology Practice: A Global Perspective and Snapshot Analysis.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 3;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Urology, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul 34214, Turkey.

The global impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on urology practice remains unknown. Self-selected urologists worldwide completed an online survey by the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU). A total of 2494 urologists from 76 countries responded, including 1161 (46.6%) urologists in an academic setting, 719 (28.8%) in a private practice, and 614 (24.6%) in the public sector. The largest proportion (1074 (43.1%)) were from Europe, with the remainder from East/Southeast Asia (441 (17.7%)), West/Southwest Asia (386 (15.5%)), Africa (209 (8.4%)), South America (198 (7.9%)), and North America (186 (7.5%)). An analysis of differences in responses was carried out by region and practice setting. The results reveal significant restrictions in outpatient consultation and non-emergency surgery, with nonspecific efforts towards additional precautions for preventing the spread of COVID-19 during emergency surgery. These restrictions were less notable in East/Southeast Asia. Urologists often bear the decision-making responsibility regarding access to elective surgery (40.3%). Restriction of both outpatient clinics and non-emergency surgery is considerable worldwide but is lower in East/Southeast Asia. Measures to control the spread of COVID-19 during emergency surgery are common but not specific. The pandemic has had a profound impact on urology practice. There is an urgent need to provide improved guidance for this and future pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356721PMC
June 2020

Management of complex renal cysts in Canada: results of a survey study.

BMC Urol 2020 Apr 28;20(1):47. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, 3001, 12e avenue N, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4, Canada.

Background: Bosniak III and IV cysts have a high risk of malignancy and have traditionally been managed surgically. However, growing evidence suggests that many can be managed by active surveillance. The main objective of this study was to characterize the use of surveillance in the management of complex renal cysts.

Methods: A web-based survey was sent to all registered, active members of the Canadian Urological Association (N = 583) in October 2018.

Results: The survey response rate was 24.7%. Management of Bosniak III cysts varied considerably. A large proportion of respondents (33.1%) offered active surveillance in > 50% of cases. Only 13.7% of respondents reported never or rarely (< 5% of cases) offering surveillance. In contrast, for Bosniak IV cysts, 60.1% of urologists never or rarely offered surveillance, while only 10.1% offer it in > 50% of cases. A significantly greater proportion of academic urologists, compared to non-academic urologists, viewed surveillance as a management option for patients with a Bosniak III or IV cyst. The most commonly reported barriers to a greater adoption of surveillance were concerns regarding its oncologic safety, the lack of data to support surveillance in this population, and the lack of triggers for discontinuation of active surveillance and intervention.

Conclusions: Despite active surveillance being included as a management option in guidelines, many Canadian urologists are reluctant to offer surveillance to patients with Bosniak III or IV cysts. Practice patterns are heterogeneous among those offering surveillance. High-quality studies are required to better define the benefits and risks of cystic renal mass surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-020-00614-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189683PMC
April 2020

The use of perioperative chemotherapy in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in Quebec, Canada, 2000-2016.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 May 29;14(5):E191-E201. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Introduction: Despite its proven benefit, studies have reported poor use of perioperative chemotherapy (POC) in bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC). We evaluated POC use in Quebec between January 2000 and September 2016.

Methods: Using provincial health administrative databases, data were retrospectively collected from patients from two years before RC until December 2016 or death. Logistic regression was used to identify variables predicting POC use. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox regression. Analyzed covariates were age, sex, comorbidities, year of RC, residence and hospital region, distance to hospital, hospital type and size, and hospital's and surgeon's RC volume.

Results: A total of 790/4656 patients (17.0%) received POC. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) use increased in recent years: 3.5% (2009), 11.2% (2012), and 20.7% (2015). POC use was increased in patients with recent surgery, a younger age, less comorbidities, residing closer to the hospital of surgery, and a high surgeon's RC volume (p<0.05). For patients treated between 2013 and 2016, a younger age (odds ratio [OR] 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.80 per five years), shorter distance to the hospital (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.77-0.99 per 50 km), surgery in an academic hospital (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.06-3.29), and recent surgery (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.14-1.58 per year) independently predicted NAC use. These NAC users had a significantly higher overall survival rate than patients without POC (hazard ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.55-0.97). Limitations include missing data on pathological staging.

Conclusions: NAC/POC use increased in Quebec but was lower compared to most developed countries. Its use was lower in patients residing further from the hospital and in those treated in non-academic hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197966PMC
May 2020

Improving ultrasound-based prostate volume estimation.

BMC Urol 2019 Jul 24;19(1):68. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Urologic Oncology Research Group, Cancer Research Program, Research Institute (RI) of McGill University Health Center (MUHC), Glen Campus, E M2.2210, 1001 Blvd Décarie, Montréal, Qc, H4A 3J1, Canada.

Background: To define a new coefficient to be used in the formula (Volume = L x H x W x Coefficient) that better estimates prostate volume using dimensions of fresh prostates from patients who had transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging prior to prostatectomy.

Methods: The prostate was obtained from 153 patients, weighed and measured to obtain length (L), height (H), and width (W). The density was determined by water displacement to calculate volume. TRUS data were retrieved from patient charts. Linear regression analyses were performed to compare various prostate volume formulas, including the commonly used ellipsoid formula and newly introduced bullet-shaped formula.

Results: By relating measured prostate volumes from fresh prostates to TRUS-estimated prostate volumes, 0.66 was the best fitting coefficient in the (L x H x W x Coefficient) equation. This newfound coefficient combined with outlier removal yielded a linear equation with an R of 0.64, compared to 0.55 and 0.60, for the ellipsoid and bullet, respectively. By comparing each of the measured vs. estimated dimensions, we observed that the mean prostate height and length were overestimated by 11.1 and 10.8% using ultrasound (p < 0.05), respectively, while the mean width was similar (p > 0.05). Overall, the ellipsoid formula underestimates prostate volumes by 18%, compared to an overestimation of 4.6 and 5.7% for the bullet formula and the formula using our coefficient, respectively.

Conclusions: This study defines, for the first time, a coefficient based on freshly resected prostates as a reference to estimate volumes by imaging. Our findings support a bullet rather than an ellipsoid prostate shape. Moreover, substituting the coefficient commonly used in the ellipsoid formula by our calculated coefficient in the equation estimating prostate volume by TRUS, provides a more accurate value of the true prostate volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-019-0492-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6657110PMC
July 2019

Diabetes and kidney cancer survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy: A Canadian multi-center, propensity score analysis.

Urol Oncol 2019 09 5;37(9):576.e11-576.e16. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Division of Urology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Diabetes has been associated with worse survival outcomes in various malignancies; however, there are conflicting data in kidney cancer. Determining whether diabetes is associated with survival in kidney cancer may help guide treatment in a comorbid patient population.

Methods: We used the Canadian Kidney Cancer information system database to identify patients undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy between 1989 and 2017 for localized renal cell carcinoma at 16 institutions across Canada. We derived inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) from a propensity score model based on various clinical, surgical, and pathological characteristics. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between diabetes and cancer-specific and overall survival, in the sample weighted by the IPTW.

Results: 4828 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 948 (19.6%) were diabetic. Median follow-up in those without death was 26.6 months (interquartile range 9.7-53.8). Among the entire cohort, 901 deaths were from any cause, and 299 deaths from kidney cancer. Before propensity score methods, diabetics were older, more likely to have comorbidities and clear cell histopathology. After propensity score adjustment, all characteristics were balanced between groups (standardized difference <0.10). IPTW-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models demonstrated no significant association between diabetes and cancer-specific (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.62), or overall survival (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.94-1.38).

Conclusions: Our multi-centre study found that diabetes and nondiabetics have similar survival following nephrectomy for kidney cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2019.06.006DOI Listing
September 2019

Multimodal Prehabilitation to Enhance Functional Capacity Following Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Jan 8;7(1):132-138. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: In patients with bladder cancer, poor functional status has remarkable deleterious effects on postoperative outcome and prognosis. Conditioning intervention initiated before surgery has the potential to reduce functional decline attributable to surgery. Nonetheless, evidence is lacking in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.

Objective: To determine whether a preoperative multimodal intervention (prehabilitation) is feasible and effective in radical cystectomy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study, conducted at an academic tertiary health care institution, enrolled adult patients scheduled for radical cystectomy. From August 2013 to October 2017, 70 patients were randomized: 35 to multimodal prehabilitation (prehab group) and 35 to standard care (control group).

Intervention: Multimodal prehabilitation was a preoperative conditioning intervention including aerobic and resistance exercise, diet therapy, and relaxation techniques.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Primary outcome was perioperative change in functional capacity, measured with the distance covered during a 6-min walk test (6MWD), assessed at baseline, before surgery, and at 4 and 8 wk after surgery. Data were compared using robust mixed linear models for repeated measures.

Results And Limitations: Preoperative change in 6MWD compared with baseline was not significantly different between groups (prehab group 40.8 [114.0] m vs control group 9.7 (108.4) m, p=0.250). However, at 4 wk after surgery, a significant difference in functional capacity was detected (6MWD, prehab group -15.4 [142.5] m vs control group -97.9 [123.8] m, p=0.014). No intervention-related adverse effects were reported.

Conclusions: Data suggested that multimodal prehabilitation resulted in faster functional recovery after radical cystectomy.

Patient Summary: After major cancer surgery, people usually feel week and tired, and have less energy to perform activities of daily living. In this study, we showed that using the time before surgery to promote exercise and good nutrition could fasten recovery after the surgical removal of the bladder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2019.05.016DOI Listing
January 2021

Morphologic subtyping as a prognostic predictor for survival in papillary renal cell carcinoma: Type 1 vs. type 2.

Urol Oncol 2019 10 5;37(10):721-726. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Hamilton, Ontario. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate outcomes of surgically treated patients with clinically localized papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and determine if papillary RCC subtype is associated with recurrence and survival.

Methods: This is a historical cohort study using the prospectively maintained Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System database between January 2011 and September 2018. All patients underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. Patient, tumor, treatment, and outcomes were compared between papillary RCC type 2 and type 1 cohorts.

Results: During the study period, 509 patients had clinically localized papillary RCC type 2 (n = 172) or type 1 (n = 337) histology. Sex, race, and comorbidities were similar between groups. Pathologic stage (pT3 or pT4), nuclear grade (3 or 4), and tumor diameter were higher in the type 2 papillary RCC cohort (P < 0.0001). A greater proportion of type 2 papillary RCC patients received radical nephrectomy (42.4% vs. 24.6%, P< 0.0001). More type 2 papillary RCC patients underwent lymph node dissection (19.6% vs. 5.5%, P< 0.0001) and had lymph node metastases removed during surgery (6.4% vs. 0.6%, P= 0.103). Overall, adjusting for age, grade, pathologic stage, positive nodes, and tumor size, type 2 papillary RCC had worse outcomes compared to type 1, as demonstrated by elevated all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 7.7 [95% confidence interval: 2.0-28.9]), P=0.0027) and worse recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio = 8.2 [95% confidence interval: 3.6-19.0], P< 0.0001).

Conclusion: Patients with clinically localized type 2 papillary RCC present with higher risk disease and have worse prognosis compared to patients with clinically localized type 1 papillary RCC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest cohort study comparing papillary RCC subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2019.05.009DOI Listing
October 2019

Short- and long-term survival has improved after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in Québec during the years 2000-2015.

J Surg Oncol 2019 Jun 28;119(8):1135-1144. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Background And Objectives: We evaluated the short- and long-term outcome in bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) in Québec (Canada).

Methods: Data were collected from provincial registries on all BC patients who underwent RC in Québec province in 2000-2015. Outcomes were hospitalization rates and survival. Survival analyses were conducted using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: In total, 4450 patients were included in our analysis. RC was increasingly conducted by higher-volume surgeons in larger, higher-volume, academic hospitals. Comparing patients treated in 2010-2015 to 2000-2009, recently treated patients had shorter postoperative hospital stays (absolute difference, 0.9 days, P < 0.001) but also a higher readmission rate (25.0% vs 21.1% in the 30 days following discharge, P = 0.003). Overall (5-year rates 50.9% vs 42.7%, P < 0.001) and BC-specific survival (61.3% vs 55.5%, P < 0.001) had significantly improved. In multivariable analyses, overall survival was significantly better in recently treated patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.73), younger patients (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.14-1.19), patients residing closer to the hospital (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06), and patients treated by high-volume surgeons (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.94).

Conclusions: Survival in BC patients after RC has improved in recent years. Other predictors for survival are younger age, shorter distance between patients' residences and hospitals, and higher surgeon's RC loads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25456DOI Listing
June 2019

Age-related variations in gene expression patterns of renal cell carcinoma.

Urol Oncol 2019 02 23;37(2):166-175. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is known to occur across the adult lifetime traversing the spectrum of age-related organismal changes. Little is known as to how the aging process may affect the course of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the repertoire of genes involved.

Methods: Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 436) and Cancer Genomics of the Kidney (n = 89) datasets, we applied regression analysis to examine associations between patient age and gene expression profiles in ccRCC tumors and normal kidney tissues. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed to identify cellular process that is affected by aging in ccRCC. Moreover, connectivity mapping analysis was used to predict age-dependent response to drug treatments.

Results: Our analysis revealed different age-dependent gene expression spectra in ccRCC and normal kidney tissues. These findings were significant and independently reproducible in both datasets examined. Age up-regulated genes, showing higher expression in older patients, were significantly enriched (false discovery rate <0.05) in normal tissues for pathways associated with immune response and extracellular matrix organization, whereas age up-regulated genes in tumors were enriched for metabolism and oxidation pathways. Strikingly, age down-regulated genes in normal cells were also enriched for metabolism and oxidation, while those in tumors were enriched for extracellular matrix organization. Further in silico analysis of potential drug targets predicted preferential efficacy of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor or immunotherapy in association with age.

Conclusion: We report on previously unrecognized associations between age and molecular underpinnings of RCC, including age-associated expression of genes implicated in RCC development or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2018.11.006DOI Listing
February 2019