Publications by authors named "Simon Shah"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Audit feasibility for geometric distortion in magnetic resonance imaging for radiotherapy.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2020 Jul;15:80-84

Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.

Background And Purpose: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in radiotherapy (RT). However, geometric distortions are a known challenge of using MRI in RT. The aim of this study was to demonstrate feasibility of a national audit of MRI geometric distortions. This was achieved by assessing large field of view (FOV) MRI distortions on a number of scanners used clinically for RT.

Materials And Methods: MRI scans of a large FOV MRI geometric distortion phantom were acquired on 11 MRI scanners that are used clinically for RT in the UK. The mean and maximum distortions and variance between scanners were reported at different distances from the isocentre.

Results: For a small FOV representing a brain (100-150 mm from isocentre) all distortions were < 2 mm except for the maximum distortion of one scanner. For a large FOV representing a head and neck/pelvis (200-250 mm from isocentre) mean distortions were < 2 mm except for one scanner, maximum distortions were > 10 mm in some cases. The variance between scanners was low and was found to increase with distance from isocentre.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated feasibility of the technique to be repeated in a country wide geometric distortion audit of all MRI scanners used clinically for RT. Recommendations were made for performing such an audit and how to derive acceptable limits of distortion in such an audit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phro.2020.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607582PMC
July 2020

The haemodynamics of the human placenta in utero.

PLoS Biol 2020 05 28;18(5):e3000676. Epub 2020 May 28.

Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

We have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide important new insights into the function of the human placenta in utero. We have measured slow net flow and high net oxygenation in the placenta in vivo, which are consistent with efficient delivery of oxygen from mother to fetus. Our experimental evidence substantiates previous hypotheses on the effects of spiral artery remodelling in utero and also indicates rapid venous drainage from the placenta, which is important because this outflow has been largely neglected in the past. Furthermore, beyond Braxton Hicks contractions, which involve the entire uterus, we have identified a new physiological phenomenon, the 'utero-placental pump', by which the placenta and underlying uterine wall contract independently of the rest of the uterus, expelling maternal blood from the intervillous space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255609PMC
May 2020

The z-spectrum from human blood at 7T.

Neuroimage 2018 02 27;167:31-40. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) has been used to assess healthy and pathological tissue in both animals and humans. However, the CEST signal from blood has not been fully assessed. This paper presents the CEST and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) signals detected in human blood measured via z-spectrum analysis. We assessed the effects of blood oxygenation levels, haematocrit, cell structure and pH upon the z-spectrum in ex vivo human blood for different saturation powers at 7T. The data were analysed using Lorentzian difference (LD) model fitting and AREX (to compensate for changes in T), which have been successfully used to study CEST effects in vivo. Full Bloch-McConnell fitting was also performed to provide an initial estimate of exchange rates and transverse relaxation rates of the various pools. CEST and NOE signals were observed at 3.5 ppm, -1.7 ppm and -3.5 ppm and were found to originate primarily from the red blood cells (RBCs), although the amide proton transfer (APT) CEST effect, and NOEs showed no dependence upon oxygenation levels. Upon lysing, the APT and NOE signals fell significantly. Different pH levels in blood resulted in changes in both the APT and NOE (at -3.5 ppm), which suggests that this NOE signal is in part an exchange relayed process. These results will be important for assessing in vivo z-spectra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.10.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5854271PMC
February 2018

Quantitative analysis of the z-spectrum using a numerically simulated look-up table: Application to the healthy human brain at 7T.

Magn Reson Med 2017 08 17;78(2):645-655. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To develop a method that fits a multipool model to z-spectra acquired from non-steady state sequences, taking into account the effects of variations in T1 or B1 amplitude and the results estimating the parameters for a four-pool model to describe the z-spectrum from the healthy brain.

Methods: We compared measured spectra with a look-up table (LUT) of possible spectra and investigated the potential advantages of simultaneously considering spectra acquired at different saturation powers (coupled spectra) to provide sensitivity to a range of different physicochemical phenomena.

Results: The LUT method provided reproducible results in healthy controls. The average values of the macromolecular pool sizes measured in white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) of 10 healthy volunteers were 8.9% ± 0.3% (intersubject standard deviation) and 4.4% ± 0.4%, respectively, whereas the average nuclear Overhauser effect pool sizes in WM and GM were 5% ± 0.1% and 3% ± 0.1%, respectively, and average amide proton transfer pool sizes in WM and GM were 0.21% ± 0.03% and 0.20% ± 0.02%, respectively.

Conclusions: The proposed method demonstrated increased robustness when compared with existing methods (such as Lorentzian fitting and asymmetry analysis) while yielding fully quantitative results. The method can be adjusted to measure other parameters relevant to the z-spectrum. Magn Reson Med 78:645-655, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26459DOI Listing
August 2017

Quantitative analysis of the z-spectrum using a numerically simulated look-up table: Application to the healthy human brain at 7T.

Magn Reson Med 2017 08 17;78(2):645-655. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To develop a method that fits a multipool model to z-spectra acquired from non-steady state sequences, taking into account the effects of variations in T1 or B1 amplitude and the results estimating the parameters for a four-pool model to describe the z-spectrum from the healthy brain.

Methods: We compared measured spectra with a look-up table (LUT) of possible spectra and investigated the potential advantages of simultaneously considering spectra acquired at different saturation powers (coupled spectra) to provide sensitivity to a range of different physicochemical phenomena.

Results: The LUT method provided reproducible results in healthy controls. The average values of the macromolecular pool sizes measured in white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) of 10 healthy volunteers were 8.9% ± 0.3% (intersubject standard deviation) and 4.4% ± 0.4%, respectively, whereas the average nuclear Overhauser effect pool sizes in WM and GM were 5% ± 0.1% and 3% ± 0.1%, respectively, and average amide proton transfer pool sizes in WM and GM were 0.21% ± 0.03% and 0.20% ± 0.02%, respectively.

Conclusions: The proposed method demonstrated increased robustness when compared with existing methods (such as Lorentzian fitting and asymmetry analysis) while yielding fully quantitative results. The method can be adjusted to measure other parameters relevant to the z-spectrum. Magn Reson Med 78:645-655, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26459DOI Listing
August 2017