Publications by authors named "Simon Rauterberg"

2 Publications

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Myeloid cell-specific Irf5 deficiency stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in Apoe mice.

Mol Metab 2021 May 12;53:101250. Epub 2021 May 12.

University Heart Center, Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, University of Freiburg and Faculty of Medicine, 55 Hugstetter St, 79106, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 5 is a transcription factor known for promoting M1 type macrophage polarization in vitro. Given the central role of inflammatory macrophages in promoting atherosclerotic plaque progression, we hypothesize that myeloid cell-specific deletion of IRF5 is protective against atherosclerosis.

Methods: Female ApoeLysmIrf5 and ApoeIrf5 mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet for three months. Atherosclerotic plaque size and compositions as well as inflammatory gene expression were analyzed. Mechanistically, IRF5-dependent bone marrow-derived macrophage cytokine profiles were tested under M1 and M2 polarizing conditions. Mixed bone marrow chimeras were generated to determine intrinsic IRF5-dependent effects on macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques.

Results: Myeloid cell-specific Irf5 deficiency blunted LPS/IFNγ-induced inflammatory gene expression in vitro and in the atherosclerotic aorta in vivo. While atherosclerotic lesion size was not reduced in myeloid cell-specific Irf5-deficient Apoe mice, plaque composition was favorably altered, resembling a stable plaque phenotype with reduced macrophage and lipid contents, reduced inflammatory gene expression and increased collagen deposition alongside elevated Mertk and Tgfβ expression. Irf5-deficient macrophages, when directly competing with wild type macrophages in the same mouse, were less prone to accumulate in atherosclerotic lesion, independent of monocyte recruitment. Irf5-deficient monocytes, when exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein, were less likely to differentiate into macrophage foam cells, and Irf5-deficient macrophages proliferated less in the plaque.

Conclusion: Our study provides genetic evidence that selectively altering macrophage polarization induces a stable plaque phenotype in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101250DOI Listing
May 2021

Inhibition of macrophage proliferation dominates plaque regression in response to cholesterol lowering.

Basic Res Cardiol 2020 12 9;115(6):78. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, University Heart Center Freiburg-Bad Krozingen and Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 55 Hugstetter St, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.

Statins induce plaque regression characterized by reduced macrophage content in humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain speculative. Studying the translational APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mouse model with a humanized lipoprotein metabolism, we find that systemic cholesterol lowering by oral atorvastatin or dietary restriction inhibits monocyte infiltration, and reverses macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. Contrary to current believes, none of (1) reduced monocyte influx (studied by cell fate mapping in thorax-shielded irradiation bone marrow chimeras), (2) enhanced macrophage egress (studied by fluorescent bead labeling and transfer), or (3) atorvastatin accumulation in murine or human plaque (assessed by mass spectrometry) could adequately account for the observed loss in macrophage content in plaques that undergo phenotypic regression. Instead, suppression of local proliferation of macrophages dominates phenotypic plaque regression in response to cholesterol lowering: the lower the levels of serum LDL-cholesterol and lipid contents in murine aortic and human carotid artery plaques, the lower the rates of in situ macrophage proliferation. Our study identifies macrophage proliferation as the predominant turnover determinant and an attractive target for inducing plaque regression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-020-00838-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725697PMC
December 2020