Publications by authors named "Simon G Wong"

9 Publications

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Considerations from the Innovation and Quality Induction Working Group in Response to Drug-Drug Interaction Guidance from Regulatory Agencies: Guidelines on Model Fitting and Recommendations on Time Course for In Vitro Cytochrome P450 Induction Studies Including Impact on Drug Interaction Risk Assessment.

Drug Metab Dispos 2021 Jan 2;49(1):94-110. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Genentech, South San Francisco, California (S.G.W.); Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts (D.R.); Janssen R&D, Spring House, Pennsylvania (S.D.); Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Boston, Massachusetts (C.F., N.H.); Novartis, East Hanover, New Jersey (H.J.E.); GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania (L.C.); Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut (T.C.G.); Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, Massachusetts (P.D.Y.); Eisai, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Y.A.S.); Corning Life Sciences, Woburn, Massachusetts (G.Z.); Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey (D.T., J.P.); and AstraZeneca, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom (B.J.).

Translational and ADME Sciences Leadership Group Induction Working Group (IWG) presents an analysis on the time course for cytochrome P450 induction in primary human hepatocytes. Induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 was evaluated by seven IWG laboratories after incubation with prototypical inducers (omeprazole, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or efavirenz) for 6-72 hours. The effect of incubation duration and model-fitting approaches on induction parameters (E and EC) and drug-drug interaction (DDI) risk assessment was determined. Despite variability in induction response across hepatocyte donors, the following recommendations are proposed: 1) 48 hours should be the primary time point for in vitro assessment of induction based on mRNA level or activity, with no further benefit from 72 hours; 2) when using mRNA, 24-hour incubations provide reliable assessment of induction and DDI risk; 3) if validated using prototypical inducers (>10-fold induction), 12-hour incubations may provide an estimate of induction potential, including characterization as negative if <2-fold induction of mRNA and no concentration dependence; 4) atypical dose-response ("bell-shaped") curves can be addressed by removing points outside an established confidence interval and %CV; 5) when maximum fold induction is well defined, the choice of nonlinear regression model has limited impact on estimated induction parameters; 6) when the maximum fold induction is not well defined, conservative DDI risk assessment can be obtained using sigmoidal three-parameter fit or constraining logistic three- or four-parameter fits to the maximum observed fold induction; 7) preliminary data suggest initial slope of the fold induction curve can be used to estimate E/EC and for induction risk assessment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Regulatory agencies provide inconsistent guidance on the optimum length of time to evaluate cytochrome P450 induction in human hepatocytes, with EMA recommending 72 hours and FDA suggesting 48-72 hours. The Induction Working Group analyzed a large data set generated by seven member companies and determined that induction response and drug-drug risk assessment determined after 48-hour incubations were representative of 72-hour incubations. Additional recommendations are provided on model-fitting techniques for induction parameter estimation and addressing atypical concentration-response curves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.120.000055DOI Listing
January 2021

Discovery and in Vivo Evaluation of Macrocyclic Mcl-1 Inhibitors Featuring an α-Hydroxy Phenylacetic Acid Pharmacophore or Bioisostere.

J Med Chem 2019 11 18;62(22):10258-10271. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 provides a survival advantage to some cancer cells, making inhibition of this protein an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of certain types of tumors. Herein, we report our efforts toward the identification of a novel series of macrocyclic Mcl-1 inhibitors featuring an α-hydroxy phenylacetic acid pharmacophore or bioisostere. This work led to the discovery of , a potent Mcl-1 inhibitor (IC = 19 nM in an OPM-2 cell viability assay) with good pharmacokinetic properties and excellent in vivo efficacy in an OPM-2 multiple myeloma xenograft model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01310DOI Listing
November 2019

Development of a mass spectrometry-based tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase assay using liver cytosol from multiple species.

Anal Biochem 2018 09 28;556:85-90. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Genentech, Inc., A Member of the Roche Group, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

A novel and rapid method to determine the potency of inhibitors for tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO2) activities in human and preclinical species was successfully developed and validated utilizing LC-MS/MS. Previously reported TDO2 activity assays are resource intensive, requiring cloning and overexpression of TDO2. Here, we demonstrated that liver cytosol contained sufficient active TDO2 for evaluating the potency of TDO2 inhibitors across multiple species. TDO2 expression in human cytosol was estimated by LC-MS/MS to be 41 pmoL/mg cytosolic protein, with similar levels in dogs and monkeys, whereas mice and rats had 9.6 and 5.0-fold greater expression, respectively. Reaction conditions for TDO2-mediated conversion of l-tryptophan to kynurenine were optimized. Marked differences in kinetic parameters and inhibition potency were observed in TDO2 across species, with different Km values in dog (0.055 mM), monkey (0.070 mM), human (0.19 mM), mouse (0.32 mM) and rat (0.36 mM). Subsequently, IC50 values were determined for a series of TDO2 inhibitors in liver cytosol of five species, and good agreement with the literature values was observed for human enzyme. Taken together, these data indicate that TDO2 inhibition can be rapidly determined in readily available hepatic cytosol to assess potential species differences in potency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2018.06.025DOI Listing
September 2018

Single concentration loss of activity assay provides an improved assessment of drug-drug interaction risk compared to IC50-shift.

Xenobiotica 2016 Nov 9;46(11):953-66. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

a Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism , Amgen , South San Francisco , CA , USA.

1. The utility of two abbreviated, higher-throughput assays [IC50-shift and the loss of activity (LOA) assay] to evaluate time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of 24 structurally related compounds was compared. 2. Good correlation (R(2)  = 0.90) between % inhibition and kinact/KI suggested that the LOA assay has utility as an indicator of TDI potential. Weaker correlation was observed for the shifted IC50 (IC50(T = 30)) (R(2) = 0.61) and the fold-shift in IC50 (R(2) = 0.17). 3. Primary mechanism for poor correlation was depletion of active enzyme at concentrations > 1 μM leading to greater than predicted inhibition in the IC50-shift assay. 4. Previously reported strong correlations between IC50(T = 30) and kinact/KI were found to be dependent on potent TDI compounds with kinact/KI > 30; correlation was reduced for moderate inhibitors (kinact/KI < 30). LOA assay maintained good correlation even when strong TDI compounds were excluded. 5. LOA assay (% Inhibition at 30 min, 10 μM) was a good predictor of in vivo DDI (AUCr), providing a graded response with low potential for false negatives or positives. IC50-shift assay had bias for over-predicting in vivo DDI and was more likely to identify false positives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498254.2016.1143139DOI Listing
November 2016

Solving time-dependent CYP3A4 inhibition for a series of indole-phenylacetic acid dual antagonists of the PGD(2) receptors CRTH2 and DP.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2014 Jul 4;24(13):2877-80. Epub 2014 May 4.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism and Distribution, Amgen, Inc., 1120 Veterans Blvd, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Based on their structural similarity to previously described compound AMG 009, indole-phenyl acetic acids were proposed to be potent dual inhibitors of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2 or DP2) and prostanoid D receptor (DP or DP1). This series was equipotent to AMG 009 in binding assays against both receptors but exhibited decreased serum shift. We discovered early in the optimization of these indole-phenylacetic acid compounds that they demonstrated CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition (TDI). Hypothesizing that the source of TDI was the indole core we modified the 1,2,3-substitution to eventually afford a highly potent modulator of CRTH2 and DP which did not exhibit TDI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.04.092DOI Listing
July 2014

Sequential metabolism of AMG 487, a novel CXCR3 antagonist, results in formation of quinone reactive metabolites that covalently modify CYP3A4 Cys239 and cause time-dependent inhibition of the enzyme.

Drug Metab Dispos 2012 Jul 19;40(7):1429-40. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Amgen, Inc., 1120 Veterans Blvd., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

CYP3A4-mediated biotransformation of (R)-N-(1-(3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl)ethyl)-N-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-2-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)acetamide (AMG 487) was previously shown to generate an inhibitory metabolite linked to dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics in humans. Although in vitro activity loss assays failed to demonstrate CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition (TDI) with AMG 487, its M2 phenol metabolite readily produced TDI when remaining activity was assessed using either midazolam or testosterone (K(I) = 0.73-0.74 μM, k(inact) = 0.088-0.099 min(-1)). TDI investigations using an IC(50) shift method successfully produced inhibition attributable to AMG 487, but only when preincubations were extended from 30 to 90 min. The shift magnitude was ∼3× for midazolam activity, but no shift was observed for testosterone activity. Subsequent partition ratio determinations conducted for M2 using recombinant CYP3A4 showed that inactivation was a relatively inefficient process (r = 36). CYP3A4-mediated biotransformation of [(3)H]M2 in the presence of GSH led to identification of two new metabolites, M4 and M5, which shifted focus away from M2 being directly responsible for TDI. M4 (hydroxylated M2) was further metabolized to form reactive intermediates that, upon reaction with GSH, produced isomeric adducts, collectively designated M5. Incubations conducted in the presence of [(18)O]H(2)O confirmed incorporation of oxygen from O(2) for the majority of M4 and M5 formed (>75%). Further evidence of a primary role for M4 in CYP3A4 TDI was generated by protein labeling and proteolysis experiments, in which M4 was found to be covalently bound to Cys239 of CYP3A4. These investigations confirmed a primarily role for M4 in CYP3A4 inactivation, suggesting that a more complex metabolic pathway was responsible for generation of inhibitory metabolites affecting AMG 487 human pharmacokinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.112.045708DOI Listing
July 2012

Prediction of drug-drug interactions arising from mechanism-based inactivation: key input parameters and impact on risk assessment.

Authors:
Simon G Wong

Curr Drug Metab 2011 Nov;12(9):871-90

Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Amgen, Inc., 1120 Veterans Blvd, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

As the prevalence of polypharmacy increases with our aging population, the propensity for adverse drug-drug interactions arising from the altered metabolism of co-administered medicines remains an important consideration for drug development. Mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system is responsible for many clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) due to the irreversible and long-lasting effects of the enzyme inactivation. Unlike competitive inhibition, MBI persists after the inactivator has been cleared from the system, since de novo enzyme synthesis is required to restore metabolic activity. Recognizing the potential severity of DDIs arising from MBI, there is increasing need for predictive methodologies that can enable prospective risk assessment for the likelihood of a clinical DDI. Steady-state models, which simplify the system to a single inactivator concentration and assume static, equilibrium conditions, are important tools for assessing the potential for DDIs. More sophisticated, physiologically-based models offer advantages over the static models by taking into account changing inactivator concentration over time, in addition to incorporating population variability into the prediction. Despite the differences between the static and dynamic approaches, a key consideration for both is the sensitivity of the models to the input parameters. These inputs include inactivator-specific kinetic parameters describing MBI in terms of potency (K(I)) and inactivation rate (k(inact)), the unbound inactivator concentration (I(u)), and the enzyme degradation rate, (k(deg)). This commentary investigates the impact of the selection of input parameters, and the uncertainty in their assessment, on the prediction for DDIs arising from MBI and the relevance to risk-assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920011797470146DOI Listing
November 2011

Bioactivation of a novel 2-methylindole-containing dual chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper type-2 cells/D-prostanoid receptor antagonist leads to mechanism-based CYP3A inactivation: glutathione adduct characterization and prediction of in vivo drug-drug interaction.

Drug Metab Dispos 2010 May 25;38(5):841-50. Epub 2010 Jan 25.

Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Amgen Inc., 1120 Veterans Blvd., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

The 2-methyl substituted indole, 2MI [2-(4-(4-(2,4-dichlorophenylsulfonamido)-2-methyl-1H-indol-5-yloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid] is a potent dual inhibitor of 1) chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper type-2 cells and 2) d-prostanoid receptor. During evaluation as a potential treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis, 2MI was identified as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4 in vitro. The inactivation was shown to be irreversible by dialysis and accompanied by an NADPH-dependent increase in 2MI covalent binding to a 55- to 60-kDa microsomal protein, consistent with irreversible binding to CYP3A4. Two glutathione (GSH) adducts, G1 and G2, were identified in vitro, and the more abundant adduct (G1) was unambiguously determined via NMR to be GSH adducted to the 3-position of the 2-methylindole moiety. The potential for a clinical drug-drug interaction arising from mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4 by 2MI was predicted using a steady-state model, and a 4.3- to 7.5-fold increase in the exposure of midazolam was predicted at anticipated therapeutic concentrations. To better assess the potential for in vivo drug-drug interactions, the Sprague-Dawley rat was used as an in vivo model. An excellent in vitro-in vivo correlation was observed for the reduction in enzyme steady-state concentration (E'(ss/Ess)) as well as the change in the exposure of a prototypical CYP3A substrate, indinavir (area under the curve (AUC) for indinavir/AUC). In summary, 2MI was identified as a potent mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A and was predicted to elicit a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction in humans at an anticipated therapeutic concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.109.031344DOI Listing
May 2010

An inhibitory metabolite leads to dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics of (R)-N-{1-[3-(4-ethoxy-phenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl]-ethyl}-N-pyridin-3-yl-methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-acetamide (AMG 487) in human subjects after multiple dosing.

Drug Metab Dispos 2009 Mar 16;37(3):502-13. Epub 2008 Dec 16.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

(R)-N-{1-[3-(4-Ethoxy-phenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-2-yl]-ethyl}-N-pyridin-3-yl-methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-acetamide (AMG 487) is a potent and selective orally bioavailable chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) antagonist that displays dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics in human subjects after multiple oral dosing. Although AMG 487 exhibited linear pharmacokinetics on both days 1 and 7 at the 25-mg dose, dose- and time-dependent kinetics were evident at the two higher doses. Nonlinear kinetics were more pronounced after multiple dosing. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC((0-24 h))] increased 96-fold with a 10-fold increase in dose on day 7 compared with a 28-fold increase in AUC((0-24 h)) on day 1. These changes were correlated with time- and dose-dependent decreases in the metabolite to parent plasma concentrations, suggesting that these changes result from a decrease in the oral clearance (CL) of AMG 487 (e.g., intestinal/hepatic first-pass metabolism and systemic CL). The biotransformation of AMG 487 is dependent on CYP3A and results in the formation of two primary metabolites, a pyridyl N-oxide AMG 487 (M1) and an O-deethylated AMG 487 (M2). One of these metabolites, M2, undergoes further metabolism by CYP3A. M2 has also been demonstrated to inhibit CYP3A in a competitive (K(i)=0.75 microM) manner as well as via mechanism-based inhibition (unbound K(I)=1.4 microM, k(inact)=0.041 min(-1)). Data from this study implicate M2-mediated CYP3A mechanism-based inhibition as the proximal cause for the time-dependent pharmacokinetics of AMG 487. However, the sequential metabolism of M2, nonlinear AMG 487 pharmacokinetics, and the inability to accurately determine the role of intestinal AMG 487 metabolism complicates the correlation between M2 plasma concentrations and the time-dependent AMG 487 pharmacokinetic changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.108.021931DOI Listing
March 2009
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