Publications by authors named "Simin Nasseri"

86 Publications

Presence of heavy metals in drinking water resources of Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, PourSina St., QodsSt., Enghelab St, Tehran, 141761315, Iran.

Water quality is one of the most important indices for public health especially for drinking water consumptions. This study was conducted to survey the presence of heavy metals in drinking water resources of Iran using a systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature search was conducted in data bases of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and some Persian databases up to 31 July 2018. Of all the articles reviewed (1151 articles), 61 papers were eligible for systematic review. Results indicated variable heterogeneity between studies for different pollutants (I between 0 and 100). A subgroup analysis was performed for three different types of water resources such as drinking water, groundwater, and surface water to find the possible source of the heterogeneity. The pooled mean concentration level of iron was the highest at 255.8 (95% CI = 79.48-432.13 μg/l) and vanadium the lowest at 3.21 (95% CI = 1.45-4.98 μg/l). The sequence of metal concentration (μg/l) in descending order is as follows: Fe (255.8) > B (159.81) > Al (158.5) > Zn (130.73) > As (85.85) > Mn (51.61) > Cu (47.98) > Se (42.68) > Pb (37.22) > Co (22.76) > Mo (18.92) > Ni (16.79) > Cr (13.47) > Hg (4.49) > Cd (4.19) > V (3.21). The mean pooled concentration level of Al, As, Se, Pb, and Cd was higher than the WHO guideline and Iran Standard, and the rest of the metals had lower mean pooled concentration level. Pb and Cd were the common heavy metals that existed in all subgroups. As a recommendation, the relationship assessment of water parameters and heavy metals could be addressed in future studies of Iran's water resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13293-yDOI Listing
March 2021

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in raw and treated wastewater in 3 cities of Iran: Tehran, Qom and Anzali during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2021 Feb 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to identifying the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw and treated wastewater during the COVID-19 outbreak in Tehran, Qom and Anzali cities (Iran). From three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), 28 treated and untreated wastewater composite samples were collected from April 4 to May 2, 2020. In this study, polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used through one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for identification of RNA viruses. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was elicited from wastewater composite samples in all inlet samples taken from the three above mentioned cities. The results of outlet samples were as follows: 1) Results from Qom and East Anzali outlets showed no trace of SARS-CoV-2 RNA despite the difference in treatment disinfection method used (chlorine vs. ultraviolet (UV) disinfection). 2. In Tehran, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any of the outlet samples taken from the modules disinfected by UV. Out of the four samples taken from the modules disinfected by chlorine, two were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 RNA which could have been caused by deficiencies in operation and maintenance. It can be concluded that meeting the standards of operation and maintenance (O&M) in WWTPs can considerably ensure that wastewater does not act as one of the roots of transmission for the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-021-00629-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903026PMC
February 2021

Optimization of free chlorine, electric and current efficiency in an electrochemical reactor for water disinfection purposes by RSM.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 8;18(2):1343-1350. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study surveys the possibility to optimally produce active chlorine from synthetic saline solutions using electrolysis by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Various operating parameters, such as sodium chloride concentration, electrical potential and electrolysis time were evaluated. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to determine the optimal experimental factors for chlorine production. The experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and optimization were performed using R 3.5.3 software. The results showed that the optimum value of electrical efficiency (42 mg Cl/kj) was obtained at the electrical voltage of 15.73 V during 15.63 min in the presence of 63.42 g/l of sodium chloride. The optimum point for current efficiency was 38.40%, which was obtained at the electrical voltage of 10.76 V during 6.70 min in the presence of 34.65 g/l of sodium chloride. Moreover, generated active chlorine was optimized based on energy consumption, which was 77 mg/l for the energy consumption of 0.2 kWh/l at a current density of 2000 mA/cm. The electrochemical production of the chlorine gas from saline or brine water can be extensively used for water disinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00551-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721780PMC
December 2020

Tehran environmental and neurodevelopmental disorders (TEND) cohort study: Phase I, feasibility assessment.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 9;18(2):733-742. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To advance knowledge about childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and study their environmental determinants, we conducted a study in Tehran, Iran to assess the feasibility of prospective birth cohort study.

Methods: We evaluated participation of pregnant women, feasibility of sampling biological material, and health care services availability in Tehran in four steps: (1) first trimester of pregnancy; (2) third trimester of pregnancy; (3) at delivery; and (4) two to three months after delivery. We collected related data through questionnaires, also various biological samples were obtained from mothers (blood, urine, milk and nails-hands and feet) and newborns (umbilical cord blood, meconium, and urine samples) from February 2016 to October 2017.

Results: overall 838 eligible pregnant women were approached. The participation rate was 206(25%) in our study and about 185(90%) of subjects were recruited in hospitals. Out of 206 participants in the first trimester, blood, urine, hand nail, and foot nail samples were collected from 206(100%),193(93%), 205(99%), and 205(99%), respectively. These values dropped to 65(54%), 83(69%), 84(70%), and 84(70%) for the remaining participants 120(58%) in the third trimester, respectively. Also, we gathered milk samples from 125(60%) of mothers at two to three months after delivery.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hospitals were better places for recruitment of subjects in a birth cohort in Tehran. We further concluded that birth cohort study recruitment can be improved by choosing appropriate gestational ages. Obtaining the newborn's urine, meconium, and umbilical cord blood were challenging procedures and require good collaboration between hospital staff and researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00499-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721759PMC
December 2020

Assessment of hydrogeochemical characteristics and quality of groundwater resources in relation to risk of gastric cancer: comparative analysis of high- and low-risk areas in Iran.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jan 26;43(1):1-21. Epub 2020 May 26.

Avicenna Center for Medicine and Organ Transplant, Avicenna Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

The chemical quality of groundwater supplies in two high-risk area (HRA) and low-risk area (LRA) for gastric cancer in Iran was assessed through hydrogeochemical analysis and water quality indices. For this aim, Piper and Schoeller diagrams and water quality index (WQI) were applied. In addition, exposure to nitrate via drinking water and its corresponding risk were also assessed using Monte Carlo simulation technique. Data on physicochemical properties of groundwater resources were obtained from Iran Water Resources Management Company. Sampling and analysis of tap water for nitrate concentration were conducted in two cities of Shiraz (as a representative of LRA) and Ardabil (as a representative of HRA). According to Piper diagrams, the dominant hydrogeochemical facies of groundwater supplies in HRA and LRA were Na-HCO (43.75%) and Ca-HCO (41.77%), respectively. The predominant cations in groundwater resources of HRA were found to be Na (68.06%) and Ca (31.94%). For LRA, the typical cations were in decreasing trend: Ca (39.64%) > Mg (18.35%) > Na (17.26%). For two areas, HCO, SO and Cl were, respectively, the most frequent anions. Two-sample Wilcoxon test showed that there were statistically significant difference between two areas in terms of anions and cations concentrations (p value < 0.05). The mean of total hardness (Ca + Mg) concentration of water supplies in LRA (528.1 mg/L) was higher than HRA (263.1 mg/L), whereas the mean of Na concentration was found to be lower in LRA (90.6 mg/L) compared with HRA (108.1 mg/L). The sum of nitrate intake and its risk in LRA was higher than HRA. WQI results showed that drinking water quality in HRA and LRA ranged from excellent to poor and most water resources were of a good quality class. Further studies are suggested to investigate the role of drinking water in the etiology of gastric cancer in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00562-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Health-Related Hazardous Events in the Drinking Water Supply System from Source to Tap in Gaza Strip, Palestine.

J Environ Public Health 2020 29;2020:7194780. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The traditional approach in the management of the quality drinking water, and relying on end-product testing, has proven ineffective in protecting public health. Therefore, the transition to a systematic approach in drinking water supply systems management from the source to the consumer tap was taken as a water safety plan (WSP).

Objective: The study aims to investigate the health-related hazardous events in order to decide on the best risk-reduction strategies in the supply of drinking water in the Gaza strip.

Methods: A semiquantitative matrix method for risk assessment was applied. Also, chlorine residual, electrical conductivity, and nitrate concentration further tested in 109 water wells, 109 small-scale water desalination plants, 197 tanker trucks, and 384 households distributed over five governorates of the Gaza strip.

Results: The mean of the measured chlorine residual values was less than the recommended national and international limits (0.2-1 mg/liter). The mean of electrical conductivity at catchment points and household municipal water taps was 2165.1 S·cm and 2000 S·cm, respectively. Furthermore, zero percent of water samples met the recommended criteria, indicating that the groundwater in the Gaza strip is nonpotable. Only 12.8% and 8.8% of water samples met the permissible levels at catchment areas and municipal water at household, respectively, indicating sever health impacts on the public. Moreover, the most hazardous events were related to high levels of groundwater salinity, the low level of disinfection, the effect of electricity outages on the efficiency of the desalination process, and leakage of water from the tanker truck tank reservoirs. Therefore, urgent interventions are required to improve the quality of water and to mitigate the possible health effects.

Conclusion: The prioritization of hazardous events that are proportional to the degree of their attributed risk could help guide in making the right risk-reduction decisions. Urgent interventions are required to improve the quality of water and to mitigate the possible health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7194780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204139PMC
September 2020

The effect of gas versus charcoal open flames on the induction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cooked meat: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Jun 10;18(1):345-354. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Purpose: Open flames of gas and charcoal can induce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cooked meat. The current study aimed to compare the effect of gas and charcoal open flames on the induction of PAHs in cooked meat using a meta-analysis approach.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted electronically based on the PRISMA guidelines. Experimental studies comparing the PAHs content of cooked meat over open flames of gas and charcoal were searched using the appropriate keywords until June 2018.

Results: Of 1137 papers retrieved, 7 with a total sample size of 474 meat samples were used in the meta-analysis. The mean difference (MD) between the gas and charcoal cooking methods in the induction of each PAH was 2.053 μg/Kg. (95%CI: 1.022-3.085 μg/Kg;  < 0.001). The subgroup analysis of 17 trials indicated the difference between the two cooking methods increases when red meat rather than white meat is cooked (MD in red meat: 3.499 μg/Kg; 95%CI: 2.030-4.967;  < 0.0001 vs. MD in white meat: 3.319 μg/Kg; 95% CI: 1.689-4.950; P < 0.0001). Interestingly, studies that analyzed meat samples for fewer PAHs (cut-off ≤7) found a much wider difference between gas and charcoal-cooked meat (MD: 5.106 μg/Kg; (95% CI: 2.162-8.049;  < 0.001 in studies with ≤7 PAHs vs. MD: 1.447 μg/Kg; 95% CI: 0.628-2.266; P < 0.001 in studies with >7 PAHs).

Conclusions: It is necessary to avoid open flames of charcoal as the heat source or change the geometry of charcoal-fired cookstoves to prevent fat dripping on the fire and thus, excessive PAHs induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00457-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203328PMC
June 2020

Prenatal urinary concentrations of environmental phenols and birth outcomes in the mother-infant pairs of Tehran Environment and Neurodevelopmental Disorders (TEND) cohort study.

Environ Res 2020 05 2;184:109331. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Daily exposure to environmental phenols can lead to potential undesirable effects on the health of pregnant women and fetuses. The present study is aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal urinary concentrations of phenols in pregnancy and anthropometric birth outcomes. The studied population comprised of 189 pregnant women participating in the Tehran Environment and Neurodevelopmental Disorders (TEND) prospective cohort study, which had been ongoing since March 2016 in some hospitals and health care delivery centers in Tehran, Iran. Concentrations of bisphenol-A, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, and parabens were determined in spot urine samples of pregnant mothers in the first trimester. Weight, length, and head circumference at birth were also extracted from the mothers' delivery files. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the relationship between log-concentrations of phenols and birth outcomes. When we analyzed all samples regardless of neonates' gender, none of the urinary concentrations of phenols were associated with weight and length at birth. Indeed, in sex-stratified adjusted models, one log-unit increase of butylparaben was related to a 283.6 g (95% CI: 23, 544) increase in boys' birth weight. Prenatal urinary concentration of triclosan and propylparaben was respectively related to a decrease of 4.8 cm (95% C: -8.5, -1.1) in boys' length and 0.9 cm (95%CI: -1.8, -0.04) in girls' length. In the adjusted models for estimating the changes in head circumference, one log-unit increase of triclosan, methylparaben, and butylparaben led to a reduction of 1.6 cm (95% CI: -3.17, 0.03), increase of 0.8 cm (95% CI: -0.01, 1.6) and 0.7 cm (95% CI: 0.08, 1.4) in head circumference at birth respectively. Our results suggested that prenatal triclosan and parabens exposure might be associated with head circumference at birth. Furthermore, we observed a sexually dimorphic pattern between maternal triclosan and parabens exposure during pregnancy and fetal growth. However, these findings must be interpreted while taking into account the limitations of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109331DOI Listing
May 2020

Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of dyes adsorption by carbon-based adsorbent materials: Classification and analysis of last decade studies.

Chemosphere 2020 Jul 17;250:126238. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Carbon-based materials and their modifications have received significant attention over the last decades given the outstanding adsorption behavior toward various dyes from aqueous solutions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the adsorption capability of dyes on carbon-based adsorbent materials (CBAMs) has been compiled. Further, the effects of process variables i.e., pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial concentration), adsorption kinetics, and isotherms were investigated while considering the classification of different groups of dyes and adsorbents. The Metafor package provides functions for conducting meta-analyses in R software. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were systematically searched based on Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) from January 1, 2009 to May 1, 2018. The following parameters were evaluated according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. After detailed screening and analysis, 835 articles were eligible for the review section. Among them, 87 studies met all quantitative criteria for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with a high heterogeneity (I = 99.99%). According to the evidence, basic dyes with n = 661 (∼50%) and powder activated carbon (PAC) sorbent with n = 752 (∼57%) have received the most attention among researchers. The results revealed that the mean of removal efficiency-based dyes classification was between 79.9 and 93.7% and the adsorption capacity was lied within the range of 76.8-303.6 mg/g. Meanwhile, the maximum adsorption capacity belongs to graphene families with Qm > 320 mg/g, while the minimum Qm was related to G and GAC with capacities of 108.5 and 110.7 mg/g, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model with 88.7% and Langmuir isotherm with 74% had the best fitting with the data studied. Baujat plot revealed that two studies (ID: 75 and 12) had the minimum influence on adsorption capacity with the highest dffits and cook's distance. According to the pooled data, the mean adsorption capacity varied between 140.90 and 208.25, with a mean of 174.57 mg/g across all studies. The results of Egger's test (t = 0.1332, p = 0.0844) and Begg's test (z = 0.8458, p = 0.3977) were not statistically significant, suggesting that no potential publication bias existed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126238DOI Listing
July 2020

Evaluation of chlorpyrifos residue in breast milk and its metabolite in urine of mothers and their infants feeding exclusively by breast milk in north of Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 3;17(2):817-825. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

4Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1417993359 Iran.

Background: The most common method of combating insects in low-income communities and developing countries, is the use of insecticides. The use of organophosphate insecticides is increasing due to their low prices and availability on the market. Chlorpyrifos is a medium-risk insecticide for human. The widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides, especially chlorpyrifos, in residential homes has undoubtedly created many health concerns. Babies have a high sensitivity to pesticides and environmental contaminants because of their evolutionary status. On the other hand, the main source of infants' exposure who are breast-fed exclusively to environmental pollutants is through breast milk and oral contact with objects that are covered with dust and particles.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the concentration of chlorpyrifos in breast milk and its metabolite in urine samples of mothers and their under six months infants, feeding exclusively by breast milk in north of Iran have been investigated. The demographic data was collected through interviewing with selected mothers and completion of prepared data collecting forms. The data were statistically analyzed to investigate the relationships between exposure of mothers and their infants to chlorpyrifos.

Results: The mean concentration of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite in mothers' urine and milk samples and infant's urines were 1.3 ± 0.6, 2.1 ± 1.4 and 1.4 ± 0.7 μg/L, respectively. Also, the mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in the dust on the house floors was73.4 ± 49 ng/g. There are good correlations between the mean values of chlorpyrifos concentrations and its metabolite in mother's milk and urine (r = 0.872,  = 0.001), and the mother's milk and infant's urine (r = 0.722, p = 0.001). Also, there was a significant correlation between the concentration of chlorpyrifos in floor dust and its metabolites in the infant's urine (r = 0.554,  = 0.001).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that the infants are the recipient of concentrated forms of chlorpyrifos residues through breast milk and house dust and it is quite well known that OP pesticides are toxic and have different kinds of adverse health effects. However, further research needs to be done to determine what these chemicals are doing to our children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00398-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985376PMC
December 2019

Trihalomethanes in urban drinking water: measuring exposures and assessing carcinogenic risk.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 12;17(2):619-632. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Trihalomethanes (THMs) have been proven to be potentially genotoxic and mutagenic for human. The aim of this study was to characterize the THMs spatiotemporal distribution and its carcinogenic risk potential in Ardabil water distribution system. Water samples were collected over consecutive months from twenty-six points in the city of Ardabil from April 2016 to March 2017. The potential carcinogenic risk assessment of THMs was evaluated quantitatively with uncertainty assessment based on Monte-Carlo simulation technique. The results showed that the mean concentrations of bromodichloromethane, Chloroform, dibromochloromethane and Bromoform in water consumed by residents were 101.97 ± 58.51, 85.18 ± 47.79, 51.67 ± 29.57 and 11.89 ± 6.64 μg/L, respectively, during the sampling period. According to the result of this study, the concentrations of THMs were higher in summer in comparison with other seasons. The mean values of lifetime cancer risks for residents through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact are 2.85×10-4, 6.46×10-7, and 1.26×10-7, respectively. The lifetime cancer risks for residents through ingestion was found to be 285 times more than the minimum or negligible level set by US.EPA (1.0×10-6) and for dermal contact and inhalation lower than the minimum or negligible level set by US.EPA. The results of the present research may contribute to inform the decision makers of drinking water supply system about the role of water quality in the health of consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00374-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985399PMC
December 2019

Sun exposure and health safety practices of high school students in an urban population of Iran.

BMC Public Health 2019 Dec 26;19(1):1736. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Skin cancer attributed to sunlight exposure has an increasing trend worldwide, resulting in increased problems for healthcare services. This study aimed to evaluate the health safety practices of high school students in Saveh, Iran according to a sun protection guideline produced locally for Iran.

Method: This cross-sectional study was done in 31 government and private high schools of Saveh, a central city of Iran. A sun protection questionnaire was designed in accordance with Iran sun protection guideline which has been developed based on the World Health Organization and US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The questionnaire consists of four sections of demographic information, knowledge, attitude, and protection behavior. A total of 504 students were selected by simple random sampling method. Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis were used to assess the correlation between knowledge, attitude and behavior of the participants.

Results: The mean score of the students' knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation was 50.79 ± 14.64, 60.41 ± 15.04, and 45 ± 11.59, respectively. A significant association was observed between attitude and knowledge, behavior and knowledge as well as attitude. There was a significant correlation between sex and protective behaviors, sex and knowledge (p ≤ 0.001), and education level and knowledge (p = 0.002).

Conclusion: students who protected themselves from sunlight less than others believed that their protection level was adequate. Health concerns related to sun exposure suggest the need for increasing the student's awareness in sun protection area. As behavior is influenced by cultural aspects, implementation of the current guideline can be effective in reducing the health effects of sun exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-8100-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933744PMC
December 2019

Photocatalytic degradation of ketoconazole by Z-scheme AgPO/graphene oxide: response surface modeling and optimization.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jan 30;27(1):250-263. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Biomaterials Group, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ketoconazole is an imidazole fungicide which is commonly used as pharmaceutical and healthcare products. Residual amount of this compound can cause adverse ecological health problems. The present study investigated ketoconazole photocatalytic degradation using AgPO/graphene oxide (GO). AgPO/GO and AgPO as visible light-driven photocatalysts was synthesized using the in situ growth method. Degradation of ketoconazole at the concentration of 1-20 mg/L in aqueous solutions was optimized in the presence of AgPO/GO nanocomposite with the dosage of 0.5-2 g/L, contact time of 15-20 min, and pH of 5-9 using response surface methodology. A second-order model was selected as the best fitted model with R value and lack of fit as 0.935 and 0.06, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the AgPO/GO catalyst achieved a photocatalytic efficiency of 96.53% after 93.34 min. The photocatalytic activity, reaction kinetics, and stability were also investigated. The results indicated that the AgPO/GO nanocomposite exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for ketoconazole degradation, which was 2.4 times that of pure AgPO. Finally, a direct Z-scheme mechanism was found to be responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activity in the AgPO/GO nanocomposite. The high photocatalytic activity, acceptable reusability, and good aqueous stability make the AgPO/GO nanocomposite a promising nanophotocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation of azoles contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06812-5DOI Listing
January 2020

Health Risk Assessment of Dermal Exposure to Heavy Metals Content of Chemical Hair Dyes.

Iran J Public Health 2019 May;48(5):902-911

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran.

Background: Contamination of hair dyes to heavy metals can threaten consumer's health. We investigated the concentrations of some important heavy metals in hair dyes and evaluates their non-carcinogenic effects.

Methods: The most commonly used hair dyes were determined through questioners and 32 samples were collected from the market of Tehran in 2014. The concentration of 10 heavy metals (Fe, Ag, Co, Cr, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Al) was determined using ICP-MS. Based on the obtained data from distributed questionnaires and Monte Carlo simulation, the exposure to the evaluated heavy metals was estimated. Besides, using hazard quotient (HQ) and chronic hazard (HI), the risk of non-carcinogenic effects of investigated hair dyes consumption was specified.

Results: Results indicated the average concentrations of Al, Ba, and Fe as 0.54, 0.86, and 1.19 mg kg and those of Cd, Cu, and Pb as 0.45, 61.32, and 185.34 μg kg, respectively. Pb with HQ of 7.46e-4 had the highest risk and Fe with HQ of 3.4e-6 had the lowest level of risk. Among the investigated dyes, the ones made by Iran (HI=2.8e-4) and the dark brown color (HI=1.93e-4) had the highest level of risk among all the studied samples.

Conclusion: Two indices of HI and HQ showed that heavy metal contents in the investigated samples had not probable non-carcinogenic risks for the consumers of these products.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717416PMC
May 2019

Optimizing the performance of conventional water treatment system using quantitative microbial risk assessment, Tehran, Iran.

Water Res 2019 Oct 1;162:394-408. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Water and Wastewater Company, Department of Water and Wastewater Quality Control Laboratory, Tehran, Iran.

The performance of conventional drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) can be improved using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). A QMRA study on Cryptosporidium using actual pathogen density was conducted to examine the performance of Jalaliyeh WTP in Tehran, Iran. The infection risk and the burden of disease attributed to the parasite presence in finished water were estimated incorporating physical and chemical log reduction values (LRVs), using stochastic modeling and disinfection profiling. The risk and burden of disease were compared with health-based targets, i.e. one case of infection per 10,000 people or 10 DALYs per person per year. The parasite's LRVs were 2.31 and 0.034 log provided by physico-chemical treatment and disinfection processes, respectively. The mean of estimated risk (111 cases per 10 people per year) and the burden of disease (11.7 DALYs per 10 people per year) both exceeded the targets. To control the excess risk, three QMRA-based disinfection scenarios were examined including: (1) employing chlorine dioxide (ClO) instead of chlorine (2) ozonation with a concentration of 0.75 mg/L (Ct = 22.5 min mg/L) and (3) UV irradiation with a dose of 10 mJ/cm. The LRV of parasite may be increased to 3.0, 5.1 and 4.9 log by employing ClO, ozonation and UV irradiation, respectively. The use of ozone or UV as alternative disinfectants, could enhance the disinfection efficacy and provide sufficient additional treatment against the excess risk of parasite. QMRA could make it easier applying appropriate improvement to conventional WTPs in order to increase the system performance in terms of health-based measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.06.076DOI Listing
October 2019

Monitoring and exposure assessment of nitrate intake via fruits and vegetables in high and low risk areas for gastric cancer.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 22;17(1):445-456. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

8Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Iran. GC is a multifactorial disease and is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure and risk of nitrate intake through fruits and vegetables (F&V) in high-risk area (HRA) and low-risk area (LRA) of GC in Iran.

Methods: Twenty nine species of F&V were examined for nitrate by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data of 2000 adults participating in Persian cohort were applied to determine consumption patterns of F&V in those areas. A point-estimate daily intake was applied to compare two areas in terms of nitrate intake. Monte-Carlo simulation technique was applied to estimate chronic daily intake (CDI) of nitrate.

Results: The results showed that point-estimate daily intake of nitrate for subjects participated in the study was 2.02 ± 1.02 mg kg day in HRA and 1.98 ± 1.05 mg kg day in LRA. 6.53% of the participants in the HRA, and 5.9% of the participants in the LRA had an unacceptable point-estimate daily intake compared with an acceptable limit of 3.7 mg kg day established by FAO/WHO. CDI of nitrate in HRA was 1.94 ± 0.95 mg kg day and in the LRA was 1.93 ± 1.06 mg kg day.

Conclusion: The results showed that there is no difference between HRA and LRA in terms of nitrate intake through F&V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00363-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582015PMC
June 2019

Prevalence of diarrheal illness and healthcare-seeking behavior by age-group and sex among the population of Gaza strip: a community-based cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jun 7;19(1):704. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Research, Directorate General of Human Resources Development, Ministry of Health, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

Background: In the Gaza strip, diarrhea is one of main reasons for children visiting primary healthcare centers. Hence, we investigate predictors of the diarrheal illness and health care-seeking behavior among different age groups.

Methods: This community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2017 to June 2018 among 1857 households. A pretested structured questionnaire included information about socio-demographic, sanitation, hygiene, source of water, diarrheal illness, and seeking healthcare in households was administered to head of household. To achieve representativeness for the five Gaza's governorates, a cluster random sampling was applied.

Results: Of the 1857 household's heads, 421 (22.7%) reported an episode of diarrhea during the 48 h preceding the interview resulting an overall prevalence rate of 3.8 per 100 individuals. The prevalence of diarrhea was statistical significant greater in males (5.4/100) compared to females (1.3/100) in all age groups (p <  0.05). Socio-demographic, economic, water, sanitation, and hygiene factors were predictors of the diarrheal illness and seeking of non-professional healthcare for diarrhea illness treatment among. A transition behavior from professional to non-professional and vice versa in seeking healthcare in each diarrheal episode was found.

Conclusions: We recommend improving the status of water, sanitation, and hygiene in the Gaza strip's households to reduce diarrhea among the population of Gaza strip. Community sensitization about the importance of seeking care at primary health centers because treatment of children is available for free or in low costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7070-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555956PMC
June 2019

Prenatal exposure to parabens and anthropometric birth outcomes: A systematic review.

Environ Res 2019 06 12;173:419-431. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poorsina St., Tehran, Iran; Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Parabens are ubiquitous substances commonly used as preservatives because of their antibacterial activity. The estrogenic activity of parabens may cause undesirable health effects and adverse birth outcomes. The objective of the present systematic review was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to parabens and anthropometric birth outcomes. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase databases were systematically searched until April 18, 2018. Of 326 records that remained after removing duplicates, 6 original articles were included in the final analysis after excluding irrelevant articles. The included studies indicated that most of the pregnant mothers were exposed to parabens, especially methyl and propyl parabens. However, no definitive association was found between the prenatal urinary concentration of parabens and birth weight or head circumference. In addition, a positive but non-significant association was detected between birth length and maternal exposure to parabens. The present systematic review revealed that assessment of significant associations in current epidemiological studies is impermissible due to methodological limitations and absence of inter-study consistency. Furthermore, because of the complexity of the effect of environmental factors on health, future large-scale studies with proper study design are required to investigate the effect of parabens exposure on birth outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.02.044DOI Listing
June 2019

Environmental etiology of gastric cancer in Iran: a systematic review focusing on drinking water, soil, food, radiation, and geographical conditions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Apr 26;26(11):10487-10495. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Avicenna Hospital, Avicenna Center for Medicine and Organ Transplant, Shiraz, Iran.

The aim of this systematic review study was to investigate the causal relationship between environmental factors and gastric cancer (GC) in Iran. In a narrow definition, the environment includes water, soil, air, and food. This definition was the main criterion for the inclusion of articles in this study. In addition, exposure to radiation and geographical conditions were considered as less investigated environmental factors in the literatures. International (PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Cochran) and national (Scientific Information Database) databases were searched for articles on GC and environmental risk factors in Iran. Twenty-six articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria after title, abstract, and full text review. Risk factors identified for GC include consumption of red meat; high fat, fried, and salted meat; smoked, salted, and fried foods; some dairy products; roasted and fried seeds; strong and hot tea; and un-piped and unchlorinated drinking water, as well as exposure to radiation, loess sediment, soft and grassy soil, soil containing low concentration of molybdenum, and proximity to volcanos. Fresh fruits and vegetable, fresh fish, and honey consumption were recognized as protective agents. Given the risk factors identified, strategies to prevent GC would be educating people to choose a healthy diet and to cook and store food properly, providing access to safe drinking water, taking into account topographical and geographical conditions in choosing a right location to build residential areas, and regulating the use of radiation-emitting devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04493-8DOI Listing
April 2019

Qualitative and health-related evaluation of point-of-use water treatment equipment performance in three cities of Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2018 Dec 19;16(2):265-275. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

6Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Application of the point-of-use water treatment (POU-WT) systems has consistently increased during the last decade in Iran. In this study, the qualitative performances of reverse osmosis-based POU devices in selected cities of Iran were investigated.

Methods: This applied- descriptive study was conducted in three cities of Tehran, Rasht, and Ahvaz in 2016 (selected based on the level of POU devices sale index in three phases). After choosing the most popular five brands of six stages POU devices, 360 water sampling zones and POU consumer households of the selected cities were measured. Also, the awareness of the consumers about POU-WT systems selection and performance was investigated through a designed questionnaire.

Results: The qualitative parameters in the three cities were acceptable ( < 0.05) for tap water (except for EC in Ahvaz), the output water were as follows: pH = 6.05-7.5, EC = 49.8-58.2 μs/cm, TOC = 0.01-0.23 mg/L and Nitrate = 0.52-4.5 mg/LNO (lower or within the range of regulatory limits), Total Hardness = 33-41.5 mg/L and Fluoride = 0.01-0.23 mg/L (which were lower than the admissible limit, with  < 0.05), HPC values were in the range of 543-676 CFU/mL, which exceeded the regulatory level. Results of ANOVA analysis showed significant differences between the selected cities. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that the dissatisfaction of tap water quality and health-related concerns were the two main reasons for household POU-WT systems; awareness levels of 64% of these households about the performances of their POU systems were weak. Also, social media were mostly used by POU-WT users for brand selected.

Conclusion: Based on the results of the tap-water quality application of POU-WT systems are not recommended in Tehran and Rasht, and regarding the outputs of these systems, side effects of softened water, lack of Fluoride and a remarkable increase of the number of bacteria should be considered. In Ahvaz, application of POU-WT systems can decrease the health-related problems and it is necessary to increase the access to read POU-WT efficiency information for the consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-018-0315-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277344PMC
December 2018

Endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions with dimethylamine-functionalized graphene oxide: Modeling study and optimization of adsorption parameters.

J Hazard Mater 2019 04 12;368:163-177. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Biomaterials Group, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials and Medicinal Biomaterials Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Novel graphene oxide (GO)-based adsorbent embedded with epichlorohydrin (ECH) as a coupling agent and dimethylamine (DMA) as a ligand (GO-ECH-DMA) were prepared and employed for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. The physicochemical properties of nanocomposite were fully characterized. The model attributed to batch adsorption process was optimized employing response surface methodology (RSM) via various parameters such as pH, GO-ECH-DMA dosage, and contact time and endotoxin concentration. The p-value with low probability (<0.00001), determination coefficient (R=0.99) and the non-significant lack of fit (p > 0.05) showed a quadratic model with a good fit with experimental terms. The synergistic effects of the linear term of contact time and GO-ECH-DMA dosage on endotoxin removal were significant. The optimum condition for endotoxin removal was obtained at pH of 5.52, GO-ECH-DMA dosage of 21 mgL, contact time of 56 min and endotoxin concentration of 51.3 endotoxin units per milliliter (EUmL). The equilibrium was the better explained by Langmuir isotherm with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 121.47 EUmg-1, while the kinetics of the endotoxin adsorption process was followed by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorbent could be recycled with NaOH. The possible mechanisms of endotoxin adsorption were proposed by hydrogen-bonding, π-π stacking, and electrostatic interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.01.028DOI Listing
April 2019

Porous MnFeO@SiO magnetic glycopolymer: A multivalent nanostructure for efficient removal of bacteria from aqueous solution.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 28;166:277-284. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Cosmetic Products Research Center, Iran Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

The focuses of this research is to prepare an efficient magnetic glycopolymer for bacteria removal from aqueous solution. To perform this idea; porous MnFeO@SiO was functionalized with glucose and or maltose as an anchors to adhere onto bacteria cell surface. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane was employed to link the saccharides on magnetic nanoparticle surface. The hybrid materials were characterized with XRD, VSM, FT-IR, FESEM, TEM, zeta potential measurement and elemental mapping. Microscopic image showed that MnFeO is in cluster form composed from tiny nanoparticles. After saccharide functionalization hybrid composite generate hyper-crosslinked porous structure as a result of polysilicate formation due to hydrolysis of silica source. Escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis were selected as sample pathogens to evaluate the bacteria capturing ability of the magnetic glycopolymer. At the optimum conditions (pH = 6, time of 20 min, dosage of 15 mg) removal efficiency was more than 99% using both saccharide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.086DOI Listing
December 2018

Optimization of the synthesis and operational parameters for NOM removal with response surface methodology during nano-composite membrane filtration.

Water Sci Technol 2018 Mar;77(5-6):1558-1569

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran E-mail: Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran; Center for Solid Waste Research (CSWR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran and National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to investigate membrane synthesis by interfacial polymerization methods, the application of synthesized nano-composite membrane for natural organic matters (NOMs) removal from water, evaluation of fouling mechanism and antifouling properties. Polysulfone (PSf) was selected as a porous ultrafiltration membrane support and interfacial polymerization was done using tannic acid (TA) and Trimesoyl chloride (TMC) with central composite design (CCD). The effects of TA and TMC monomer concentrations, reaction time and post treatment temperature was evaluated. The synthesized membrane was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and water contact angle. Based on the results, the optimum conditions for synthesizing nano-composite were: TA concentration of 0.27 g/L, TMC concentration of 0.22 g/L, reaction time of 68.29 min and temperature of 25.23 °C. The predicted optimum operational conditions were a NOM concentration of 6.429 mg/L; time of 10.931 min and applied pressure of 1.039 bar. The potential applications of the synthesized nano-composite membranes with interfacial polymerization can enhance water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2018.037DOI Listing
March 2018

Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessments of arsenic contamination in drinking water of Ardabil city in the Northwest of Iran.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2018 Apr 26;53(5):421-429. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

a Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR) , Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Based on the environmental health assessment framework of the United State Environmental Protection Agency, a quantitative health risk assessment of arsenic in contaminated drinking water in a city in the northwest of Iran has been carried out. In the exposure assessment step, arsenic concentrations in drinking water were determined during four seasons. In addition, the water ingestion rate for different age groups in this region was determined. The concentration of arsenic in 163 collected samples from different locations during four seasons ranged from 0 to 99 μg L. Furthermore, a high percentage of the samples manifested higher levels than the permissible limit of 10 μg L. The total daily water intake rates of four age groups 1 to <2 (group 1), 2 to <6 (group 2), 6 to <16 (group 3), and ≥16 years (group 4) were estimated as 0.86, 1.49, 2.00, and 2.33 L day, respectively. Calculating the lifetime average daily dose of arsenic indicated that adults (group 4) had the highest and children (group 1) had the lowest daily intake of arsenic in their entire life. The results of risk characteristic showed that the order of excess lifetime cancer risk via arsenic exposure in the four groups was 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. The estimated risks for all age groups were higher than the acceptable range (1E-6 to 1E-4). The hazard quotient values for all of the classified groups were lower than the recommended limit values (<1), but it cannot be concluded that potential non-carcinogenicity risks are non-existent since the possible exposure to arsenic via food and skin may also pose the risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2017.1410421DOI Listing
April 2018

Occurrence and fate of most prescribed antibiotics in different water environments of Tehran, Iran.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Apr 29;619-620:446-459. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The presence of most prescribed antibiotic compounds from four therapeutic classes (β-lactam, cephalosporins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones) were studied at two full-scale WWTPs, two rivers, thirteen groundwater resources, and five water treatment plants in Tehran. Analytical methodology was based on high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. Samples were collected at 33 sample locations on three sampling periods over four months from June to August 2016. None of the target antibiotics were detected in groundwater resources and water treatment plants, while seven out of nine target antibiotics were analyzed in two studied river waters as well as the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants at concentrations ranging from
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.272DOI Listing
April 2018

An optimized SPE-LC-MS/MS method for antibiotics residue analysis in ground, surface and treated water samples by response surface methodology- central composite design.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2017 17;15:21. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 8th floor, Gol Building, North Karegar St., Enghelab Sq, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Antibiotic residues are being constantly identified in environmental waters at low concentration. Growing concern has been expressed over the adverse environmental and human health effects even at low concentration. Hence, it is crucial to develop a multi-residues analytical method for antibiotics to generate a considerable dataset which are necessary in the assessment of aquatic toxicity of environmental waters for aquatic organisms and human health. This work aimed to develop a reliable and sensitive multi-residue method based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS). The method was optimized and validated for simultaneous determination of four classes of antibiotics including, β-lactam, macrolide, fluoroquinolone and nitro-imidazole in treated, ground and surface water matrices.

Methods: In order to optimize the solid phase extraction process, main parameters influencing the extraction process including, pH, the volume of elution solvent and the amount of NaEDTA were evaluated. The optimization of extraction process was carried out by response surface methodology using central composite design. Analysis of variance was performed for nine target antibiotics using response surface methodology.

Results: The extraction recoveries were found to be sensitive to the independent variables of pH, the volume of elution solvent and the amount of NaEDTA. The extraction process was pH-dependent and pH was a significant model term in the extraction process of all target antibiotics. Method validation was performed in optimum operation conditions in which the recoveries were obtained in the range of 50-117% for seven antibiotics in spiked treated and ground water samples and for six antibiotics in spiked river water samples. Method validation parameters in terms of method detection limit were obtained in the range of 1-10 ng/L in treated water, 0.8-10 ng/L in the ground water and 0.8-25 ng/L in river water, linearity varied from 0.95 to 0.99 and repeatability in term of relative standard deviation values was achieved less than 10% with the exception for metronidazole and ceftriaxone. The developed method was applied to the analysis of target antibiotics in treated, ground and surface water samples.

Conclusions: Target antibiotics were analyzed in different water matrices including treated, ground and river water. Seven out of nine antibiotics were detected in Kan River and Firozabad Ditch water samples, although none of them were detected in treated water and ground water samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-017-0282-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5646162PMC
October 2017

Estimating national dioxins and furans emissions, major sources, intake doses, and temporal trends in Iran from 1990-2010.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2017 10;15:20. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which can cause various health outcomes, such as cancer. As a part of the National and Sub-national Burden of Disease Study (NASBOD), we aimed to estimate dioxins and furans national emissions, identify their main sources, estimate daily intake doses, and assess their trend from 1990-2010 in Iran.

Methods: The Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Unintentional POPs, which is developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP 2013), was used to estimate the emissions of PCDD/PCDFs from several sources into the air, water, land, residue, and other products. The daily intake doses were estimated using a linear regression of estimated emissions by UNEP Toolkit and average intake doses in other countries. Finally, the trend of PCDD/PCDFs emissions and daily intake doses were explored from 1990-2010.

Results: The total emissions were estimated as 960 g Toxic Equivalents (g TEQ) for 1990 and 1957 g TEQ for 2010 (18.2 and 26.8 g TEQ per million capita, respectively). The estimations suggest that albeit contribution of open burning to PCDD/PCDFs emissions has been declining from 1990 to 2010, it remained the major source of emissions in Iran contributing to about 45.8% out of total emissions in 1990 to 35.7% in 2010. We further found that PCDD/PCDFs are mostly emitted into the ambient air, followed by residue, land, products, and water. The daily intake doses were estimated to be 3.1 and 5.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day for 1990 and 2010, respectively. We estimated an increasing trend for PCDD/PCDFs emissions and intake doses in Iran from 1990-2010.

Conclusions: The high levels of emissions, intake doses, and their increasing trend in Iran may pose a substantial health risk to the Iranian population. Further studies with more rigorous methods are recommended but this should not circumvent taking appropriate policy actions against these pollutants. Currently, Iran has no standard for dioxins and furans. Adaptation of the World Health Organization recommended guidelines might be an appropriate starting point to control dioxins and furans emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-017-0283-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5633873PMC
October 2017

Synthesis and characterization of polysulfone/graphene oxide nano-composite membranes for removal of bisphenol A from water.

J Environ Manage 2018 Jan 3;205:174-182. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Department of Health Sciences, School of Health, Safety and Environment, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging contaminant of water resources that disrupts endocrine function. Attempts are continuing to develop cost-effective methods to remove BPA from water environments. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize polysulfone/graphene oxide nano-composite membranes for removal of BPA from water. Three membranes were synthetized using phase inversion method: polysulfone membrane as PSF and two polysulfone/graphene oxide nano-composite membranes with graphene oxide (GO) weight ratios of 0.4 and 1.0% as PSF/GO 0.4% and PSF/GO 1.0%, respectively. The membrane characteristics including morphology, surface roughness, pore size, zeta potential and presence of functional groups were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, streaming potential, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Inclusion of GO remarkably increased permeate flux of the membranes, so that pure water flux of PSF, PSF/GO 0.4% and PSF/GO 1.0% at operating pressure of 2 bar was determined 226, 449 and 512 L/m h, respectively. The membrane PSF/GO 0.4% with the most negative zeta potential (-10.46 mV) and the highest BPA removal efficiency was determined as the optimal membrane. The optimum conditions of input pressure, operating time, initial concentration of BPA, and pH for BPA removal efficiency by PSF/GO 0.4% were determined using surface response methodology to be 1.02 bar, 10.6 min, 7.5 mg/L, and 5.5, respectively. By optimizing the conditions of operating parameters, experimental BPA removal efficiency by PSF/GO 0.4% reached to as high as 93%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.09.074DOI Listing
January 2018

Haloacetic acids degradation by an efficient Ferrate/UV process: Byproduct analysis, kinetic study, and application of response surface methodology for modeling and optimization.

J Environ Manage 2017 Dec 4;203(Pt 1):218-228. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) after trihalomethanes are the second main group of chlorination byproducts. In this study, decomposition of the two most common HAAs in drinking water was studied by an advanced oxidation process using a combination of Ferrate [Fe(VI)] and UV irradiation. The decomposition rate was measured, and the byproducts formed during the process and the mass balances were also analyzed. HAAs were quantified by GC-ECD, and the final products including acetate and chloride ions were measured by ion chromatography (IC). A central composite design was used for the experimental design, and the effect of four variables including the initial HAA concentration, pH, Fe(VI) dosage, and contact time were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). Dichloroacetic acid decomposed more easily than TCAA. Results show that when TCAA and DCAA were studied individually, the degradation rates were 0.0179 and 0.0632 min, respectively. When the HAAs were simultaneously placed in the reactor, the decomposition rates of both TCAA and DCAA decreased dramatically. In this case their decomposition rate constants decreased by 67% and 49%, respectively. In the mixture, the decomposition rate of DCAA was 2.5 times higher than that of TCAA. In summary, Fe(VI)/UV process can be used as a promising treatment option for the decomposition of recalcitrant organic pollutants such as HAAs, and RSM can be used for modeling and optimizing the process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.07.072DOI Listing
December 2017

Erratum to: Biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons from acidic sludge produced by re-refinery industries of waste oil using in-vessel composting.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2017 20;15:13. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Center for Solid Waste Research (CSWR), Institute for Environmental Research(IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40201-017-0267-1.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-017-0275-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477681PMC
June 2017